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the combinations being such as to thatí price, dar permanent and in make it inevitable that the majority variable duty upon the foreign of the players must be losers; but grain which might enter, excepting he asserted that it had been less that the duty, should be higher injurious during the last year than upon grain imported in foreign ships at any former period, and added than in French vessels. trocitisa that it was in the year 1825; that buck His majesty shall be 1

humbly the riches and prosperity of the requested to cause to be presented country had reached their greatest to the Chambers a projet of a slaw height. The fact is, that the containing the following provi: lottery was too productive a source sions : in huis Runot so of revenue to be dispensed with; bus 1. In future, there shall be and the passions of the Exchange, for the whole realm but one single and the Palais Royal, were too limit for every kind of grain, under powerful for la France morale. which foreign corn cannot besim:

Among the politicians of France ported for internal consumption. there existed the same difference of "2. The limit of importation opinion regarding the value of pro- shall be ;** j 'truction siliosq tecting and prohibitory duties on

fr, per hectolitro

126

For Wheat, A. Cao frio the importation of foreign products,

to

Rye and Indian Corn, 17 which reigned in Britain ; and the

Barley, agriculturists of Essex or Sussex

Oats, were scarcely more eager to be shielded by legislative enactments « 3. The average pricey of all than were those of France. The the regulating markets designated hdistressed state of agriculture by the law of the 4th July, 1821, 3 was frequently alluded to during shall be officially published every the session ; and, after the budget month, without distinction of the had been voted, the chamber of above four classes.", trgobu'sa 26 Deputies took the state of the Corn “4. There . shall be received, laws into consideration, in secret upon the importation of foreign committee. A committee which had corn, a permanent duty, by metrical

been appointed to inquire into the quintal, of twenty-five centimes by tieffect of the importation of foreign French ships, and of two francs by b corn presented a report, in which foreign ships. This duty shall be

they expressed a formal wish that raised to fifty cents for flours in il the government would make use the first case, and to four francs in 11 of the power vested in it by the the second case.li! L'ulip 1 existing law of 1819, immediately 119 * 5. The exportation shall be

to secure a more extended protec- prohibited when the average price ition to native-grown corn against of corn shall have attained; the importation from babroad to the limit fixed for the importation.it committee then proposed the fol- y - In discussing the law imposing lowing resolutions, embodying a the duties of the customs, many plan for the future regulation dof opinions were expressed, and many

the corn trade, adopting the system propositions made, approaching to -- of monthly averages, fixing a price a more liberal system of commercial

at which importation should be s intercourse, and others againbofi a baltogether prohibitedzandimposing, $very opposite character. The high when corn should have risen above duties op wood, won, and foreign

1

of

wool, were severely attacked, as house dues, and other similar exchecking the exchange of commodi- actions, than should be paid by ties, and provoking other countries vessels belonging to that other to make reprisals. An unsuccessful country itself. Goods imported attempt was made to reduce the into Britain in French vessels, or duty on iron one half. The re into France in British vessels, were strictive measures, which prevented to pay the same duties as if they the exportation of wines into Bel- had been imported in vessels of gium and other northern countries, the country to which they were and by laying on articles to be im brought, with this exception, that ported in return a duty which ex the produce of Africa, Asia, and cluded them altogether, were par- America, should not be imported ticularly inveighed against; and M, from these countries into Britain Riboul said, that if this prohibitory in French ships, nor from France system were persevered in, the inha- in British ships, for the

purpose bitants of some departments would home consumption in Britain, but soon be obliged to renounce every only to be warehoused, or exported; kind of exchange, and consume the France reserving a power to make whole of their own produce. On a similar declaration European the other hand it was wished to productions, again, were not to be augment the duty on foreign linens; imported into France in British and an amendment was moved con bottoms for home consumption, taining an impost which would unless they had been loaded in have been equivalent to a prohibi- some port of the United Kingdom, tion, but the more moderate views Britain reserving the right to make of the minister of finance prevailed. a similar declaration against the He maintained, in point of fact, importation of such goods in French that the French linens required no vessels. It was further declared, protection, because even in foreign that all goods which might be markets they were preferred to legally exported from either counthose of every other nation; and try, should pay the same duties, and several members allowed that the be entitled to the same drawbacks cotton manufacture stood much and bounties, on exportation, whemore in need of being guarded ther exported in the vessels of that against competition.

country or of the other; provided In her commercial regulations, that they sailed directly from the likewise, France followed the ex ports of the one to the ports of the ample of Britain, in departing from other; that no fishing boat, driven the jealous system of discriminating into a port by stress of weather, duties, and trading upon principles should pay any dues, unless a of reciprocity. In the month of cargo, or part of a cargo, was January a commercial treaty was there taken on board ; and that concluded between her government neither country should grant to any and that of England, by which the third party greater privileges than vēssels of both countries were put by this treaty they granted to each upon the same footing. The ships other. of either country, departing from The principles and provisions of or entering into, the harbours of this treaty were received with the other, were to pay no higher much approbation by the Chamber rate of tonnage, pilotage, light of Deputies, where they seemed,

however, to be so much misunder the law of primogeniture agitated stood, that although they were Paris much more deeply than any undoubtedly a relaxation of the other measure of policy foreign or ancient system of British maritime domestic. No question raised since policy, and had-mány and power- the Resolution had excited so much ful enemies in this country as popular and adverse feeling; the being injurious to its commercial re-establishment of the censorship prosperity and its naval power, would not have been resisted with M. de St. Chemans hailed them a clamour and ardour so nearly " as a first step towards a Navi« approaching to what might have gation act similar to that which been expected in defending at once had so powerfully favoured the a personal possession and a national development of the commercial right. The elevation of an eldest riches of England.” They were a son above his brethren seemed to first step towards the adoption of be connected, in the minds of the principles of reciprocal freedom in Parisian public, with the horrors commercial intercourse; the Navin of the darkest times of feudalism, gation acts were founded upon and the insulting tyranny of an principles of exclusion and restric- exclusive oligarchy; politics and tion. M. Casimir Perrier wished economics were equally unable to to improve upon the measure, by convince them that those who are imposing upon French vessels born to have power ought to be coming from Britain into French able to exercise it in a spirit of ports, a duty not exceeding that independence, and that it is no imposed upon foreign vessels ; for advantage to a nation that every by paying less in England, and man should be his own farmer. more in France, than they had The journalists and the pamphletdone before, the owners would still eers both raised and repeated the be gainers, and a large sum would voice of Paris and Paris is France flow into the Treasury. “Suppose, --that primogeniture was not said he, “to take round numbers, merely a violation of the charter, that before the treaty our ships which said not a word upon the paid 3000 francs in England, and matter, but the invasion of the nothing on their return to France; ordinary rights of humanity; and a thousand ships, then, paid three an attempt to resume the national million francs in England, and domains would scarcely have come nothing at home. By the treaty, more home

every man's supposed the English have reduced their interest, or have covered the minisduty, I will suppose, to 1000 francs, ters with more unpopularity. The and the French government lays a opposition to it, out of the cabiduty on our own vessels to the net, was nearly universal : for it same amount. The thousand ships, was far from finding unconditional then, will pay only two millions favour in the eyes even of the instead of three, one million to peerage, whose influence and reEngland, and one million to our- spectability it was intended to supselves. The owners will gain a port. million; and our Treasury will The language, in which the receive a million which it did not measure had been mentioned in receive previous to the treaty.” the Speech from the Throne, was

The proposed introduction of moderate and sensible, and had

essen

nothing about it calculated toexcite and, as it were, identified, with its alarm in sober-minded men. “ The power, and separate them from the progressive subdivision of landed sympathies, and modes of thinking, property," said the king,

of those who are below them. tially contrary to the principle of The monarch, again, finds that the monarchical government, would political powers vested in them by weaken the securities which the the state, instead of being troublecharter has given to my throne some and efficient restraints upon and to my subjects. Means will his prerogative, are admirable in be proposed to restore the agree struments for the execution of his ment which should exist between plans, and the extension of his authe political law and the civil law, thority': under the form of a cona and to preserve the patrimony of stitutional legislature, they are the families, without, however, affect- express image of the executive, reing the liberty of disposing of pro- flecting from their glittering, but perty. The preservation of fami dead, surface, its every feature and lies leads to, and guarantees politi- motion. Gratuities are bestowed, cal stability, which is the first want and offices are created, to supply of a state, and especially of France, their wants; the people pay their after so many vicissitudes.". This own enemies; and the constitution was a sufficiently correct enuncia gradually breathes its last in that tion of the political virtues of the state of political lethargy in which right of primogeniture. An in the lineaments of public liberty finite divisibility of property 'né remain, when the spirit is benumbcessarily leads to poverty, poverty ed and expiring. France had only in each member of a family in to look at the condition of her own creasing with the number of gene- nobility before the Revolution, to rations which pass away.

The know what a poor and hereditary inevitable consequence is, that a aristocracy must come to. !!!" !!! hereditary nobility becomes, under The economical effects, too, of such via system, a race of titled such a progressive subdivision" of paupers, and of all kinds of men, property have nothing iro class can be at once more use mend it. If it be true that land less, and more dangerous, both to cannot be cultivated to its utmost king and to people, than a poor productive capacity without a large and privileged aristocracy. Their capital, it must always be receding real wants, and much more the from that limit in the hands of artificial 1. wants incident to their men whose capital is diminishing, station, render them dependents generation by generation, in a upon court favour, making them geometrical progression. · "If it be pensioners of the hand that feeds true that it is an advantage to a them, and hired servants of that country to raise the greatest possivery power, which, in a mixed ble quantity of food by the smallest monarchy, they are created to re- possible quantity of labour, that strain... This is the natural course country cannot be in a prosperous of things'; in every struggle beds course, where the number of those tween the Crown and the subjects,' who raise food only for themselves they will ineline to the former, for or their families is perpetually mtheir rank, their habits of life, creasing It was not a blessed their very vapitjesareall conneeted, time, either in England, or in any

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other country, when every rood deceased has not disposed of the of ground maintained its man.". part which he may devise accordIn every great country there must ing to law, this portion shall be be large properties to supply the given under the title of preciput sources of any thing like permanent legal to the eldest male child of wealth or competency to the peo the deceased proprietor. i. If the ple. Where the labour of the deceased has disposed of (a part of whole population is í required to the portion which he may devise, raise the food of that population, the legal preciput shall be coma national wealth can never accu- posed of the part which he has not mulate, and, in proportion to the disposed of. The preciput shall number so employed is the distance be taken out of the real property at which the country, is removed of the inheritance, and, in case of from national affluence. Hence insufficiency, out, of the personal France, notwithstanding her soil property. - ppt strand vliyai and climate, has never been a rich 2. The enactments of the two country, her agriculturists becom- first paragraphs of the preceding ing weakery, and weaker, poorer article shall cease to have effect, and poorer, by every successive when the deceased has formally death of the head of a family. expressed his will bydeedy inter Not above one third part of the po- vivos, or testamenti

suril2 $261 pulation of England, a less fertile 3. The property which may be land, -beneath a more inclement disposed of according to the 913th, sky, is employed in raising the 915th, and 916th articles of the food of themselves, and eight mil- Civil Code, may be given by ideed, lions of their countrymen, and yet inter vivos, or by testament, charge the national wealth and resources ed with the condition of transmit of England are something which, ting them to one of several children till our own day, the world had of the donee, born or to be born toi never seen. Ireland, by following the second degree inclusively. in regard

d to her tenants, the system The articles 1051 to 1074 inclu« pursued by France in regard to sively of the Civil Code, shall be her proprietors, has covered her observed in the execution of this surface, with penury and misery; disposition. ,,kos todella om baie .220 and, as a state, has become so sex Thus, the proposed law fell far! hausted, as, to be scarcely able to short of the rules e

* established in bear the touch of taxation. ; Yet, this country; for it gave to the in the debates in the French eldest son of a person dying intes chambers, the French legislators tate, not the whole real estate, but gravely lamented that England only a limited portion of it. The should have adopted so pernicious: third article, which gave a power a course, and that we were not of substituting a second heir, was blessed with the same law of of the nature of an entail, and yet descent which prevailed among was so limited as to be absolute themselves. : i! 1611116., ties freedom of disposal compared with

The project of law presented to the entails of Scotland, by which the Chambers was the following the property is tied up in a parti

1. In every inheritance accruing cular "-line iso long as there are te the direct descending line, and heirs of that line Tini posses. This paying 300 francs land tax, if the clause, however, though evidentie

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