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quite as aristocratic as the others, there need of proofs for such a and tending more directly to the fact? Is it not the Chamber itself perpetuation of hereditary wealth, which has pointed out its dangers because it deprived the first heir, in to the attention of government ? so far, of the right of disposal, was The deliberations of councils generegarded with less abhorrence than ral every year cry out for the simple provision regarding the prompt remedy for an evil, the preciput in an intestate succession. progress of which is immense. The discussion was long, and in What proprietor is there who does the Chamber of Deputies, violent. not see country houses taken down, There the debate lasted three and lands divided into pieces all days, and was finished on the third about them? In whatever direconly in consequence of several tion you traverse France, the inmembers who had inscribed their fluence of this indefinite division names, declining, from the impa- must be remarked, and the traveltience of the Chamber, to exercise ler must observe it even in the their right. The opponents of the abandonment of the means of project, when they quitted rhe transport suitable to the wealth of torical and sentimental declama- great proprietors alone. Nevertion, had little to say against it, theless, precise details are lookexcept that it was contrary to the ed for :--but the minister would manners and feelings of the people, not have waited till they were and that the existing system had asked for, if, in producing those not produced, and would not pro- which he could collect, he was duce, any mischievous subdivision not afraid of committing, in some of property. To the argument sort, an act of Charlatanism, indrawn from the example of Eng- worthy of the good faith of the land they answered: The English king's government. In such a are an emigrating people; they matter, however exact may be the have their East and West Indies, returns and the tables of figures, their Australasia, their Canadas; they cannot furnish a proof inca their possessions are scattered ali pable of being disputed. The over the globe, and in these they documents collected to day cannot quarter their younger sons. But give information, unless we could we have no such resources : our compare them with returns made cadets must either starve, or be at a former period. It is, therequartered upon the public; and the fore, without the hope of any church and army, as before the re- great advantage, that government volution, become the exclusive has ordered researches to be made ; property of the sons of great fami- and it is also without the hope of lies. The speech of M. Villèle founding any argument on them, contained almost all the sound but merely to satisfy the desire sense that was spoken on the sub- of several speakers, that it has ject, and his statistical details fur- produced that information which nished irrefragable proof of the it was able to procure.

The repractical consequences of the sys- turns have been made from the tem. “We are asked,” said he, registers of several departments, " for proof of that excessive par- presenting altogether an average celling out of lands which this population of 363,580 individuals. project is to remedy? But is Out of this number the registers

of 1815 present 149,311 taxable contained dispositions advantageof them, 116,433 pay less than ous to the children; the others 20 francs (16 shillings) impost--- were bequests to strangers. By 9,616 pay from 20 to 30 francs. this it may be judged what has (16s. to 24s.)-9,243 pay from been the operation of equal par30 to 50 francs. (24s. to 40s.) tition, and whether it is neces7,519 pay from 50 to 100 francs

sary to prevent its effects. Eng(21. to 41.) -5,623 pay from 100 land is spoken of- but what other to 500 francs (4l. to 201.)578 country offers an example of equal pay from 500 to 1,000 francs industry, co-existing with the (201. to 401.) -- and 302 pay 1,000 greatest accumulation of landed francs (402.) and over.

property? The resources which In 1826, the results are as fol- she offers to her cadets are talked low, from the same registers :- of--but is France less fertile in 161,739 are taxable, of whom resources of the same kind ? has 183,903 pay less than 20 francs- she not even this additional ad8,983 from 20 to 30—7,915 from vantage, that all the outlets opened 30 to 50-6,083 from 50 to 100- to her industry are her own; that 3,649 from 100 to 300-(this new the products of her manufactures class has been formed on account are consumed in her own interior, of the electoral census, to which while England is obliged to look the old tables paid no attention for consumers from abroad? France 580 from 300 to 500-411 from then, in this point of view, has 500 to 1,000-and 206, 1,000 no reason to envy England, and francs and upwards. It may be nothing hinders her, after the extrue that the registers do not give ample of her neighbours, from ata the exact number of proprietors; tempting to introduce within wise but, if it be taken for granted that limits, a little fixedness in properthe comparison of the two returns ties and families. · Of what conmay give an exact idea of the

pro- sequence, it is said, is this fixed gressive division of lands, it will ness to their fortunes, which debe found that, in ten years, the crease and perish, and are replaced number of persons paying under by others which spring up and twenty francs has increased about augment without there being any a ninth-while those who pay necessity that society should disabove one hundred francs has di- quiet itself about the change? If minished a third, which is far from fortunes in money are spoken of, offering a satisfactory result. the minister agrees that the losses

“To appreciate the definite of one are compensated to a cereffect of the law of equality of tain point by the gains of another ; divisions, it may perhaps be suffi- but if fortunes interfere one with cient to recollect in what spirit, another, it is very different with and in the midst of what circum- landed properties. Lands may stances, this law was made ; but, very easily divided, but, after they if figures be called for, let an ex- have been divided, it is not easy ample be taken, and it will be to reunite them. The greatest seen that, in Paris, out of 7,649 sacrifices will sometimes be insuccessions opened in 1825, 6,568 effectual to obtain success in such were opened at intervals. Of the

an undertaking. A man becomes 1,081 remaining, fifty-nine only naturally attached to the soil which


916,608,734 francs. The report been set at liberty by the order of of the committee of the Chamber the minister of justice, with an inof Peers on the budget, was “By junction to pass into a foreign counthe attentive examination which try. The minister admitted the we have made of the expenditure, fact, and justified it on the ground we have seen, that, if there are that from the effervescent nature several heads under which a re- of Corsican passions, it was imposduetion may be justly hoped in sible to maintain absolute order in future, and some which might re- the island, and it was necessary to ceive a more useful application, eountenance the expatriation of they are collectively useful and some persons condemned for homijudicious."

cide committed from revenge. But In the Chamber of Deputies surely it is a new doctrine both great diversity of opinion prevailed in polities and morals, that in proregarding the purpose to which portion to the aptitude of dangerthe excess of revenue over the ex- ous passions to break forth, the penditure should be applied. Some means intended to weaken them members proposed that the duty should be diminished, and that on strong beer, others that the punishments ought to be more duty on cider, should be reduced, mild and rare, precisely where and others that, in the rural com- crimes are most frequent and atromunes, houses of only one story, cious. The Papal government has and the rent of which did not ex- sometimes bribed bandits from their ceed fifty francs, should be ex- calling by pensioning them off ; empted from the door and window and they have thus, at least, one tax. All these propositions were motive to good conduct, and the rejected in favour of the motion means of living without rapine ; of the minister of finance to em- but it is very doubtful whether ploy the surplus in reducing the even such a system has ever preland-tax. Twenty-five millions vented a robbery or a murder. were voted for the civil list, and Relegation from Corsica can scarceseven millions for the Royal family. ly be an evil, and supplies no moOn the vote for the expenses of the tive for controlling the angry minister of justice being proposed, passions whose indulgence have M. de Labourdonnaye accused that produced it. department of protecting and re- To improve and maintain the warding criminals, and declared internal communications of the that he would never consent to country, 422,000 francs were voted, vote the publie money to a minis, in addition to 28,000 francs for ter “in whose hand the sword of new works, and certainly, considerjustice was wielded for the protec. ing that thus only about 17,0001. tion of assassination." This charge were to be expended upon all the excited much confusion in the roads in France, it is easy to beChamber, till the member ex- lieve in the justice of the complained himself by saying, that he plaints, made by some of the memhad documents in his possession bers, of the state in which the which proved, that, in Corsica, roads were kept. The annual exseveral assassins, under sentence of penditure, however, upon canals, death, and others against whom and other publie works, had been proceedings were commenced, had gradually increasing.

The minister of the interior stat- ever the steam-boat system was ed in a report (made to the king), adopted, as adopted it must be. that this expenditure amounted in The military establishments were 1823 to something under four mile still more roundly taxed with inlions ; in 1824 it was nearly ten efficiency. The two royal manumillions; in 1825, nearly fifteen factories of muskets, made about millions; and the estimate for 1826, two hundred thousand annually, exceeded twenty millions. But but made them so badly, that it these canals and roads, instead was necessary to subject them to an of being the fruits of a spirit of additional, and expensive process, private enterprise, were the under- to render them fit for use. The takings of a public board ; and pri- army, instead of being 240,000 vate individuals, instead of sharing men, which was the peace estabin them, impeded them. The mi- lishment, consisted of only 281,000; nister complained that, although and, for the last ten years, instead the compensation proffered to the of sixteen millions being annually proprietors of lands through which devoted to the repair of the fora road or cànal was to pass, unitresses, the sum so bestowed, it formly exceeded the market value was admitted by ministers, was of the ground or buildings which only four millions. The situation it was necessary to purchase, the of the frontier, since the restoraboard, with all its precautions, was tion, had rather rendered increase met by perpetual delays, disputes, imperious, than justified reduction : law-suits, and losses ; and, instead Swiss neutrality had vanished ; of the assistance which it might Landau belonged to Bavaria , reasonably expect from individuals, Prussia, a first-rate military power, it was often hampered by vexatious was on the banks of the Mozelle, opposition, however clear might and could manoeuvre her troops be the advantage to be reaped from within twenty leagues of Paris ; the proposed measure.

Belgium was no longer simply an In the British parliament, the Austrian province, with a distant opposition had endeavoured to force government, but had become a a reduction of the army: in the kingdom united to Holland, armed French Chamber of Deputies, the with a triple line of fortresses, and opposition to the army and navy these fortresses commanded and inestimates was, that they were too spected by Wellington.

« Ren low. Ministers wete accused of collect, gentlemen,” exclaimed. M. acting so as to reduce France to Casimir Perrier, in that theatrical the rank of only a third-rate naval style of rhetoric which characterizes power, and of adopting a false and French eloquence, and amid shouts pernicious economy. General Se- of “ Order," and violent and tubastiani reproached them multuous interruptions from the especially with having paid no ato mortified national pride of the tention to the construction of steam- Chamber, “ Recollect the tears of boats, which were rapidly bringing despair which we shed on seeing about a maritime revolution ; and the Prussians, the laurels of viche assured the chamber that all tors in their caps, guarding your the money now expended in build- barriers, and parading your squares! ing ships of war was wasted, for Do you wish to see the matches the vessels would be useless when again lighted, ready to blow up


your bridges, your public edifices, a wretched abortion, sprung from and that immortal column raised the immoral union of stock-jobbing to the glory of your armies." The and delusions. On the other side minister of war admitted that the it was contended, that the prefer present i military means were in- ende given to the three per cents sufficient; but they might be exã was no injustice to the holders of pected to improve annually, and the five per cents, as the law did could not be insuficient merely not specify any particular stock to from being 9,000 men below the be the subject of the operations of fixed peace establishmeniAs to the sinking fund, but left the comthe fortresses, Lisle had been nege missioners at liberty to make their lected during the whole period purchases wherever they could make from-1794 to the restoration, but them to the best advantage. The since the restoration, 1,500,000 motion for the committee was lost franos had been expended on ito! + by a large majority. A similar

Although s tlieri finances were display of virtuous indignation flourishing, and only required a against stock-jobbing was manipacific ministry to keep them so, fested by M. Hyde de Neuville the variations in the prices of some and M. Perrier, on a petition for of the public funds had produced the prohibition of time bargains. a great deal of individual misfor- M. Villèle checked the career of tune and disappointment. They the latter gentleman by quoting a liad been most observable in the paper to which M. Perrier had three per cent stock, which, within affixed his signature in favour of a short time, had been up at 78, those very concerns which were and down ati 59, and had fallen in now denounced as polluting and the confidence of that portion of corrupting what was termed France the public who invested their money morale. When lotteries were aboas prudent men for security, not as lished in England, not a voice was gamblers for stoek-jobbing gains. raised in defence of their principle, Ministers were accused of lending and the practical evil of their rethemselves to produce these fluctua- sults was inonstrously exaggerated. Ytions by shewing an undue prefer- The stake in this country, was ence to the three per

cents in ap- always too high to create a spirit plying the sinking fund, and M. of gambling in those who would Casimir Perrier moved for the ap- have been injured by indulging it: pointment of a committee to in the lottery was beyond the reach quire, whether the laws respecting of the lower ranks ; and, even in the sinking fund had not been the middling classes, it was never

violated with regard to the holders a general or a ruinous passione In of the five per cents. He contended 1-France, as in the other continental

that the purchases made with that countries, and particularly in Italy, fund ought to be made exclusively it was much more easily accessible,

in the five per cents, and he com- }. and therefore much more general ; plained that, in violation of the t but the morality of the Chambers

Alaw, the conimissioners gave a pre- could not be brought to suppress it. Irference to the three per cents which M, Villèle admitted that such gam& he designated, with as much warmth ding was improper, and that governs and virulence as if he had speculated ment, in the game, had a great adin them, and had come off a Joser, vantage over the buyers of tickets,


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