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they said, as the trade was legal, the other parts of the question, he there were regulations preseribing said that government had gone to the number of slaves to be carried the full length of their powers. on board of a vessel of particular Even slave-ships and their com. dimensions ; but now, when the manders that had withdrawn inta trade and the regulations for con foreign countries, had been producting it were equally abolished, ceeded against ; and, at that mothree or four hundred slaves were ment, the question of the legality crowded into a space in which of such prosecutions, which had formerly not one-fourth part of the been ordered by government, was number would have been immured. pending before the court of appeal. The committee appointed to re- To increase the severity of the law port upon this petition, found might be injurious to the very themselves compelled to admit the persons whom it was wished to facts: they declared that they protect; for if, as the petitioners found it impossible to doubt of the alleged, the traffic was now carried existence of the trade, in spite of on with precautions against detecthe laws, and of the measures tion which exposed its miserable taken by government to insure vietims to greater sufferings than their execution. They agreed with before, would not the effect of the petitioners, “that it was neces- making the punishment capital be, sary to seek the means of rendering that those who followed the trade, the existing laws more efficacious, would, to escape from the gibbet, and removing the obstacles which adopt precautions still more instood in the way of a complete human than those they now praesuppression of a traffic, the impu- tised to escape from confiscation ? rity of which was a blot on the « The real cause of the evil” said French name;" and they therefore he, “ lies in the difficulty of applya proposed, that the petition should ing the law. Therefore it is, that be referred to the president of the the ministry redoubles its efforts council of ministers. General Se- and its precautions, and it is thus bastiani and Benjamin Constant that it will arrive at the end which argued, that the whole blame lay it proposes, much better than by a with the ministers; for either they more severe penalty. We must did not faithfully execute a suffici arrive insensibly at the point ; and ently efficacious law, or they we have already made a great betrayed their duty in not pro- advance, since there is no hesitaposing measures which would be tion to apply the law. Do not so; and they declaimed loudly on doubt but that we shall immedithe inhuman practice of slave-ships, ately have fewer complaints. While when chased, throwing the negroes this is our conviction, it would be over-board, to conceal the nature on our part an act of weakness to of the cargo which they had carried give way to declamation, and to To this, M. de Villèle answered adopt measures, which, instead of very sensibly, that no new law was reaching the object, would carry required to punish such atrocities. us away from it." A M. Dudon Throwing negroes into the sea, is aetually spoke feelingly of the murder, and punishable accorde misery of the captains of slaveingly. Insisting on such things is ships: “ torn from their country, merely empty declamation.' On and their families, and reduced to

on the



serve as common sailors, for having to the Morea in a French ship broken the law which prohibits the of war; and carried their wishes trade;", and he seriously thought, so far as

even to call that no member who had seen a Chambers to compromise the goslave-captain thus reduced, would vernment, by voting money for the ever propose to aggravate, the use of the Greeks. In the debate enormity or the punishment of his on the king's speech, Benjamin offence. Probably M.Dudon neant, Constant, who, with general Sethat a detected slave-captain was bastiani was the great leader of the afraid to come home to enjoy the Philhellenes in the Chamber of fruits of his infamous traffic. The Deputies, moved the following same member asserted that the paragraph as an addition, $lave-trade was carried on by Eng- address : - "Finally, Sire, your land to a greater extent than by faithful subjects, deputies of the France; that British vessels took in departments, dare to supplicate their cargoes on the coast of Africa as

your majesty to consult, in your usual, carried them to Madagascar, wisdom, what methods are to be y and evaded their law, by intro- taken to save these unhappy Chris,,ducing them into the British colo- tians, who fall in thousands beneathi - nies as old slaves imported from the sword of the infidels; and, 1 that settlement ! Such were the above all, to prevent Frenchmen, statements gravely made in the whom their country and Europe French legislature.

disavow, from seconding the feroThe proposal of the committee cious enemies of the Christian on the petition was not adopted, name; for,

with indifferand the Chamber got rid of the our eastern brethren' massubject by passing to the order of sacred, all protestations of respect

the day, but the petition, itself, as and love for that holy religion 4 well as the admissions and opinion which they profess as well as we,

of the committee, were unequivo- will seem, in our mouths, a cruel cal proofs of the progress which the and bitter derision." It

was public mind in France was making true, in point of fact, that thouupon this interesting question. sands of Christians were perishing og er The French politicians, at least beneath the sword of the infidels the opposition politicians, always military success had as yet been contrived to mix up with the slave- pretty fairly, and savage massacre trade the assistance said to be given in cold blood had as yet been by their government to Turkey equally, divided between Turks and against Greece, and which they Greeks; and what sort of policy denominated the white slave-trade. would it be to lay it down as a

They did not confine themselves rule, that whenever fortune favours to the propriety of government Turkey in a war against Russia maintaining a strict neutrality, but or Austria, every other nation must complained of its not preventing hasten to protect them, for the individuals from lending their pri- sake of Christianity, against the vate aid to the Turks ; abused it for power of their enemy? Both good | allowing ships to be built in French policy, and the real justice of the ja ports for the Turkish command- cause, may often compel every good 1, ers, and transporting the treasures statesman to wish success to the y of Ibrahim Pacha from Egypt sworů of the infidel.”. No wise

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vernment would' act on the ideas bate the eloquent expression of the which inspired M. Duhamel when, sentiments which the misfortunes in a debate on the navy 'estimates, of Greece inspire, proves that it is he described the war in Greece as unanimous upon this point."" They one of which the politician canare, in fact, unfortunate meri, weigh the events in his bražen Christians, who combat with coubalance, but all those behold' with ragé, 'not to defend a political indignation and enthusiasm, who opinion, but to save their property, prefer liberty to slavery,' the Cross their lives, their religion. On of Jesus Christ to the Crescent of seeing them fall by thousands Mahomet.

under the sword of the Turks, In the Chamber of Peers, the who could refuse his pity to so duke de Choiseul declared, with much suffering-his admiration to the usual mixture 'of bad taste and so much courage ? But the cause egregious vanity so ordinary in of Greece has served as a pretence French rhetoricians, that

for some men 'to attack the goemas' were pronounced against vernment, and the Chamber has the 'enemies and oppressors of thought, with reason, that it would Greece, against all who furnished not become the government to arms, or afforded military instruc- meddle with these attacks." It has tion, to unbelievers in the cross; thought that the silence of all that Europe, led by the example of other nations would be sufficient France, was pouring forth" gifts to justify the conduct of governand offerings for their brethren in ment. How, in fact, could France the East, and opening a new Cru- take upon herself to light the torch Sade of benefits and generosity: of discord, and throw, perhaps, all that, next to the honour of being Europe into a general war ? French

peer, was the honour of “ These considerations have'debeing a member of the Greek com- termined us to propose to you, not mittee; that however the barbarous to receive a proposition, which is policy of cabinets might crush the not the mere expression of a senglorious cause, his name, and those timent of pity, but which would of other Greek committee-men be, if taken into consideration, would be consecrated by posterity the approval of a political system for their attachment to liberty, re- which presents the greatest danligion, and humanity; and that ger." the greatest fault of the budget Specific charges of direct interwas, that it did not contain a vote ference on the part of the French in favour of Greece.” The more

government to give assistance to sober, rational, and practical views Turkey, and thus violate the neuof the ministers, as opposed to these trality which she professed, were crude ebullitions of superficiality capable of more direct and specific and sentimentalism, were to be

It was alleged that the learned from the report of

ministers had supplied officers to mittee, to whom a petition con-" Ibrahim ; that, under their eyes, nected with the Greek cause had his vessels had been built at been referred. The report of the Marseilles, and the cannon made Committee was


following: that were used in the siege of “ The interest with which the Missolonghi; that they allowed Chamber has heard in a recent de agents to recruit for himu openly

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in France, and permitted the offi- the legislature of the success which cers whom he enlisted to retain attended their exertions. Sevè, a their military rank; and that, after renegade; over whom France had the expedition of Ibrahim into the no longer any power, was the only Morea, his treasures had been officer in the Turkish army who transported from Alexandria to had borne a French commission; Navarino, in a French ship of war. but several of them were to be In so far, however, as any of these found in the ranks of the Greek accusations were founded in fact, forces. Government, if it wished it did not appear that they could to preserve an impartial neutrality, fairly be imputed as matters of could only grant to both parties, blame to the French ministry, al- the liberty of doing such things though it might well be, that the

or grant it to neither. The ad ministers took no warm interest, herents of the Greek cause accused and could have no direct interest, the French squadron in the Levant in the success of the Greeks. It of various acts of hostility towards was true that the treasures of the the Greek maritime forces; but Egyptian army had been trans- the reports of admiral de Rigny, ported to Greece in French vessels; who commanded on that station, but every officer concerned in that refuted the charge. According to act had been recalled, as well as these reports, of the transports the commander on the station, and forming part of Ibrahim's fleet, had been punished. Vessels had which reached the Morea in Nobeen built at Marseilles for other vember, 1825, some were Austrian, potentates equally unchristian as some English, some were Spanish, the pacha of Egypt, without objec- Tuscan, Sardinian, or American, tion; they had been built for the but not one was French : on the dey of Algiers, although his object request of the admiral, Ibrahim and interest were, to employ them had delivered up to him all the against every Christian power in female slaves within: his reach, Europe. The pacha had been purchased from his own soldiers, allowed to build a frigate and a and they were sent to Napoli di corvette ; but he had been allowed Romania. An account of the only to build them, not to arm French having fired upon a vessel them. If there were agents in of the Greek admiral Canaris was France recruiting for him, it was contradicted by a declaration under difficult to see how government the hand of Canaris himself: from could restrain them, when their the commencement of the troubles, proceedings were justified by the the French fleet had served as an conduct of their very opponents; asylum to upwards of seven thoufor surely it would be no observ- sand Greeks, men, women, and ance of the national neutrality, if children ; it had never carried the government prohibited the either troops or money to the agents of Turkey from begging or Turks in the Morea, and had never bribing for their master, while the fired on a Greek (vessel, except Greek-committee men, and their on pirates for the defence of French agents, were not only collecting merchantmen. The cannon used men, arms, and money, in every in the siege of Missolonghi were "part of the kingdom for the service not French cannon; the cofficers of Greece, but boasted publicly in who directed the siege were not French, but Piedmontese and Near mises in the name of the king of politans. The renegade Sevè was France, a name which still retains the only Frenchman in Ibrahim's all its grandeur in the recollecarmy, and he, whatever might be tion of the mass of the population, his reason for keeping aloof from and the island is yours. That," active operations, had always rem exclaimed the orator, “that, gen. mained, during the last campaign, tlemen, is the way in which I in the rear, in the vicinity of would have conceived the conquest Modon. 3,81,"??!!!)

of San Domingo.' The illegality, It was not without much resist again, of the recognition was in ance by the ultra-royalist party, ferred from the parliament of Paris that the indemnity stipulated for having refused to ratify the cession the French colonists of San Domin. of Guienne to England after the go, when the independence of the Battle of Poictiers. M. de la BourHaytian republic' was recognized, donnaye asked the Chamber, if they was carried. The opposition was, would not have spilled the last drop not to the principle or the amount of blood, rather than ratify the trear of the indemnity, but to the re- ties of Pavia or Bretigny: and there cognition itself, which was des might have been something in the nounced as a concession made to question, if the spilling of French republican principles, a new sacri- blood would necessarily have led to fice to the interests and policy of the recovery of San Domingo, and. Britain, and an unconstitutional is the recovery itself would have alienation of part of the inalienable counterbalanced to France the territory of France. Count Ber- money and the troops which she thier held the re-conquest of the must have squandered in effecting island to be the easiest exploit ima- it. To these topics of declamation ginable, an enterprise that would were opposed the simple facts, incontestably be successful. San that the island had been independDomingo, he said, had only about ent, beyond all question, for thirty 10,000 men for its defence, and its years; that its separation from population did not exceed 400,000; France had become complete ; that but, on the same ratio, France, ideas of re-conquest werechimerical, with a population of thirty millions, for the climate would make it the could supply an army of 750,000 grave of every French army that men for its attack. Besides, the entered it; and that, devastated as black population would form them- it had been, and all the sources of selves into regiments on the side its commerce blighted, by, a civil of the invaders, and fight as the war of long duration and atrocious vanguard of the French army, like character, its possession would not the sepoys in British India. Nay, be a gain, but a burthen. The la few active and loyal subjects, liberals blamed the way of making supported by a few regiments and the recognition, rather than the a few ships of war, would have recognition itself. It was an act, been sufficient to bring back the they said, beyond the royal precolony under French domination. rogative, and an arbitrary as*Only promise the black popula- sumption of power pregnant with tion its liberty, and to each fa. danger to the country. Only the mily a piece of ground in absolute legislature could dispose of any part property; only make these pro of the property of the state. If such

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