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al power be given to the Crown,' a petition to the Chamber of De. fortresses may be sold or pledged puties, praying to be allowed some for: the basest purposes, and the remuneration 1. The committee to country daid defenceless at the feet whom his petition was referred, of foreigners. These apprehen- admitted his services; they acsions were equally inconsistent and knowledged that he had not only chimericał. 3. It may, or may not, saved a great number of the French be proper; in a mixed monarchy, to colonists, but had done so at a great give the Crown the power of pecuniary sacrifice. They recommaking wars and concluding peace; mended to the Chamber, however, but when, as in France, it has not to recognize the claim; because been invested with this power, it is the government had not given a contradictory to refuse it a right pecuniary guarantee on behalf of which may often be indispensable the colonists of San Domingo, and to peace. How frequently has the therefore was not a debtor to the cession of fortresses been the very petitioner ; and because the moral object of a war, and the condition obligation had been already disa of a treaty P Who imagines that, charged by the government grant in 1814 or 1815, the allied powers ing Mr. Kingston an advantageous would have desired the sanction of maritime commission. This favour, a French legislature to the cession which was held to have discharged of the left bank of the Rhine to the obligation, had consisted i in the Netherlands ? Nor is there giving him the benefit of a flag of any danger of kings ever becoming truce, which, in time of war, was fond of the exercise of such a pre- no doubt an advantage ; but, hava rogative. Necessity is the only ing been driven by stress of weather thing that will compel a monarch into one of the English West-India to part with his territories or his Islands, on his voyage from France fortresses; and cases of such neces- to the United States, he was taken sity can never be met by any strict by a French privateer, and his and invariable rule. Where ne- protection declared void, and his cessity does not interfere, public vessel and cargo confiscated, by opinion will prevent, or will reme- the sentence of a French colonial dy the operation of other motives; prize-court. This was the whole and where no public opinion ex- remuneration now set up against işts, no formal want of prerogative a debt incurred thirty-four years would be efficient.

before. But the motion for disti One measure connected with San missing the petition, by passing to Domingo placed the French gothe order of the day, was success. vernment in a less favourable light. fully resisted by M. Alexis de A Mr. Kingston, an Englishman, Noailles, and M. Hyde de Neuhad rendered great services in ville, who protested against the 1792 to refugees from the island, government: being content with and afterwards to the exiles of St. merely doing what might be called Pierre and Miguelen, whom he strict legal justice, in a case in had transported, the former from which it was admitted that the Bermuda to Charlestown, and the petitioner had saved the lives of se latter from Halifax to London, at many. French colonists, at the a pecuniary expense to himself of expense of his own fortunes, and about 1,1001. He now presented a motion for sending back the peti

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tion to the minister for foreign bition against thinking at all, and affairs, was carried by a large man collecting the materials for thinkjority. The Chamber , here i rap ing. 14. It is wished," - said the real peared in a more : 1 advantageous porter,ití to avoid long speeches 5 point of view than the ministerscha but it is much more easy to be

A French member of parliament brief in writing, than in speaking reads his speeches, instead of speak extemporaneously. The writer reb ing them; he does not come to the jeets with care all repetitions ofi House with ideas in his head, pre- ideas or phrases ; he compresses at pared to meet the ever-varying and will his reasonings and his style ; unexpected necessities of debate, he 'chooses at leisure his thoughts but he comes with a pamphlet in his and i his words. The extemporan! pockets to read an essay on a given nebus speaker, on the contrary, subject, prepared by himself or cannot choose either the one or somebody else, in the solitude of the the otherWhat proves that the closet: An attempt was made to interdiction of written speeches get rid of this anomaly of reading would not abridge rour delibera. speeches byika motion of M. Du- tions is, the length of the sittings hamel, “That no written discourse of the English House of Commonsi shall be allowed to be read to the A single orator, Mr. Hume, in the Chambers on the chapters, titles, sitting of the 17th March, spoke and articles of laws, or propositions twenty-eight times, after having submitted for its consideration, but spoken forty-one times on the 6th, that only notes may be consulted.” It was probably ignorance which The proposals was sent to a com- gave the name of speeches to the mittee, and the report of the come remarks which pass in the British mittee was fatal to an innovation House of Commons, when the which wasi ito give France some House is in a committee on estiu chance of possessing parliamentary mates-although, even in that oratory. The change, said the re- sense, the allegation regarding Mr. porter, i would do much harm, and Hume was inaccurate, but so far no goods. - Extemporaneous speak- was the view taken by the comu) ing is not always, or necessarily, mittee from being a correct one, the best speaking; and, even if it that it is of the very nature of were, the proposed prohibition of written discussion to spin out written discourses would not secure " the thread of its verbosity finer itork: 46 May there not be some than the staple of its argument." among the oratorg most admired To allow written discourses, 'inas extemporaneous speakers, whose stead of diminishing the number inspirations have been only pre- of members who burn to pour forth tended ?! Have not their dise their ideas on the assembly, "cond courses been too elegant for un- fessedly goes to extend their line studied speeches? If they had to the utmost limit of the patience wished to deceive us into this beur of that assembly , for it adds to lief, would they not have intro those who can speak what they duced some occasionał" negligen think, all those who can read ces ??? --This might be very true. what has been written? The india but the committee forgot, that a vidual essays, too, naturally be prohibition against reading what a come more prolixt than speeches. man has thought, is not a prohi. The very leisure” with whick

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the writer composes, leaves him to but as he could not anticipate what say every thing that can be said, that other was to say, his reply and creep deliberately into every never touches on what has gone nook and cranny of his subject; before. If a ready command of the debater seizes only what im- the stores collected by reading and presses itself upon him as impor- thinking, rapidity of invention, tant, Accordingly, more real busi- quickness of thought, accuracy of ness is done in the House of Com- memory, and facility of expression, mons in a month, than in the be valuable mental qualities, the Chamber of Deputies in a session. French mode of parliamentary disIt

may be true that the French cussion is equally unfavourable to system enables a man to cull his them all. phrases with greater care, and turn By a law passed in 1822, for his periods with greater elegance; the regulation of the press, it was to give every member of a sentence enacted that “if, in the interval of its proper length, stick every in the sessions, serious circumstances terjection in its proper place, and (circonstances graves) should introduce every metaphor with a render the measures of guarantee due flourish of rhetorical prepara- and repression for a moment intion. But it is inconsistent with effectual, the censorship may be im. energy and boldness; it leads irre-mediately established by a Royal sistibly to a vitiated taste; it ends Ordinance.” Such a provision is in that puerile, declamatory, style utterly destructive of the liberty of of oratory (if so it must be called), the press, because it leaves the de which has fixed its abode in the termination of what circumstances French tribune. The French may require the introduction of a cens possibly attain the smooth enamel, sorship dependent on the execuţ and the nice finishing, of the minia- tive alone. A very mischievous ture, but they can never reach the measure may be carried through power and magnificence of the in a very short interval; and it fresco. If Cicero had been a may be extremely desirable for the French deputy, he would have executive to prevent the public press, unfolded his manuscript in the tri- during that interval, from soundbune, and, holding it to his eyes, ing the alarm. Provisions founded would have read out, “ Quousque on an anticipated necessity for distandem abutere, Catilina, patientia pensing with the regular and estabnostra,” with tones and gestures of lished law cannot wisely be made most extemporaneous preparation. standing parts of a form of govern Moreover, it is ridiculous to callment: they are prospective bills of that mode of discussion a debate, indemnity. M. Royer Collard, therein which every body reads his own fore, had reason on his side, when he sentiments, but nobody discusses wished to modify this law, or at them ; in which every one gives least to fix the meaning of the his opinion, but no one disputes “circonstances graves,” which were it; in which all open, but nobody to justify the crown in imposing answers or replies. No one ad- temporary fetters on the press. He vantage of debate is gained; there wished it to be restricted to “ great is no mutual sifting of opinions events, great troubles, extraordinary and reasons. A member mounts cases, which could not be foreseen, the tribune to reply to another; -in short, to something different

from the mere abuse of the liberty great indulgence for the errors of of the press itself. This would the “chartered libertine," that the certainly seem to be the more reporter to the journal should, in rational and fair interpretation. A future, be excluded from the sitseditious mob in every large town, tings of the Chamber: but it came with seditious publications issuing to no practical result. from an hundred presses to excite In the internal state of France and justify their excesses, such as there was scarcely any thing to have been witnessed in England occupy public attention, except ocmore than once, would form a crisis currences arising from the conflictrequiring and excusing much ing efforts of different sects of rea stronger measures than an unusual ligionists. Some ecclesiasticalorders, quantity of abuse, or an universal particularly the Jesuits, had been expression of dislike, against the gradually courting favour, and inJesuits, or the ministry: yet, to the creasing in influence, and enking's confessor, or to a tottering deavouring to recover a portion of minister, the latter might appear that authority which was once equally alarming with the former, theirs. Ecclesiastics of a different and the law permits the applica- description were devoting themtion of the power of imposing selves to the task of awakening silence in the one as in the other. among the people a spirit of fanatiThe law, however, was allowed to cal piety; and men of considerable remain as it was, the minister of authority in the church availed the interior assuring the Chamber themselves of their station, to try that no cabinet had ever borne the to enforce a more rigorous disattacks of the press with more cipline, and to restore to superstipatience and forbearance than that tious rites the credit which they of which he was a member, and had long since lost. The party that, when they used the power calling itself liberal, again, was opwhich they possessed, it would not posed to these religionists: they be to defend themselves, but to dreaded the approaches of the prevent, instead of punishing, Jesuits to power, because expericrimes which might endanger pub- ence had taught too clearly how lic order. The editor of the Jour- exclusive and despotic that power nal du Commerce was called to the would be; and they disliked the bár, for a libel on the Chamber; rigorous austerity and debarring and, after he had been heard by superstition of the others, because his counsel, was punished with à its direct tendency, and its great month's imprisonment, and a fine object, was, to enthrone ecclesiastiof an hundred francs---the mini- cal authority by absorbing the mum of penalty allowed by the mind in theological dogmas and delaw. Another member complained votional rites. The religionists to the Chamber, of the editor of the were the enemies of all popular Drapeau Blanc, on account of a rights ; and the imprudence of mis-report, not of his own speech, some individuals among

them but of that of the minister of war, mitted doctrines to be seen which who was represented to have said appeared to be equally hostile to something insulting to him.". An the Crown. At the end of the angry discussion followed, the preceding year, the editors of two liberal party insisting, with no liberal journals had been tried for

perthe writer composes, leaves him to but as he could not anticipate what say every thing that can be said, that other was to say, his reply and creep deliberately into every never touches on what has gone nook and cranny of his subject; before. If a ready command of the debater seizes only what im- the stores collected by reading and presses itself upon him as impor- thinking, rapidity of invention, tant. Accordingly, more real busi- quickness of thought, accuracy of ness is done in the House of Com- memory, and facility of expression, mons in a month, than in the be valuable mental qualities, the Chamber of Deputies in a session. French mode of parliamentary disIt may be true that the French cussion is equally unfavourable to system enables a man to cull his them all. phrases with greater care, and turn By a law passed in 1822, for his periods with greater elegance; the regulation of the press, it was to give every member of a sentence enacted that “if, in the interval of its proper length, stick every in the sessions, serious circumstances terjection in its proper place, and (circonstances graves) should introduce every metaphor with a render the measures of guarantee due flourish of rhetorical prepara- and repression for a moment in tion. But it is inconsistent with effectual, the censorship may be ini. energy and boldness; it leads irre-mediately established by a Royal sistibly to a vitiated taste; it ends Ordinance.” Such a provision is in that puerile, declamatory, style utterly destructive of the liberty of of oratory (if so it must be called), the press, because it leaves the de which has fixed its abode in the termination of what circumstances French tribune. The French may require the introduction of a cens possibly attain the smooth enamel, sorship dependent on the execuç and the nice finishing, of the minia- tive alone. A very

mischievous ture, but they can never reach the measure may be carried through power and magnificence of the in a very short interval; and it fresco. If Cicero had been a may be extremely desirable for the French deputy, he would have executive to prevent the public press, unfolded his manuscript in the tri- during that interval, from sounds bune, and, holding it to his eyes, ing the alarm. Provisions founded would have read out, “Quousque on an anticipated necessity for disa tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia pensing with the regular and estab nostra," with tones and gestures of lished law cannot wisely be made most extemporaneous preparation. standing parts of a form of Moreoyer, it is ridiculous to call ment: they are prospective bills of that mode of discussion a debate, indemnity. M. Royer Collard, therein which every body reads his own fore, had reason on his side, when he sentiments, but nobody discusses wished to modify this law, or at them ; in which every one gives least to fix the meaning of the his opinion, but no one disputes circonstances graves," which were it; in which all open, but nobody to justify the crown in imposing answers or replies. No one ad temporary fetters on the press. He vantage of debate is gained; there wished it to be restricted to “

great is no mutual sifting of opinions events, great troubles, extraordinary and reasons. A member mounts cases, which could not be foreseen, the tribune to reply to another; -in short, to something different

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