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from the mere abuse of the liberty great indulgence for the errors of of the press itself. This would the “chartered libertine," that the certainly seem to be the more reporter to the journal should, in rational and fair interpretation. A future, be excluded from the sitseditious mob in every large town, tings of the Chamber: but it came with seditious publications issuing to no practical result. from an hundred presses to excite In the internal state of France and justify their excesses, such as there was scarcely any thing to have been witnessed in England occupy public attention, except ocmore than once, would form a crisis currences arising from the conflictrequiring and excusing much ing efforts of different sects of restronger measures than an unusual ligionists. Some ecclesiasticalorders, quantity of abuse, or an universal particularly the Jesuits, had been expression of dislike, against the gradually courting favour, and inJesuits, or the ministry: yet, to the creasing in influence, and enking's confessor, or to a tottering deavouring to recover a portion of minister, the latter might appear that authority which was equally alarming with the former, theirs. Ecclesiastics of a different and the law permits the applica- description were devoting themtion of the power of imposing selves to the task of awakening silence in the one as in the other. among the people a spirit of fanatiThe law, however, was allowed to cal piety; and men of considerable remain as it was, the minister of authority in the church availed the interior assuring the Chamber themselves of their station, to try that no cabinet had ever borne the lo enforce a more rigorous disattacks of the press with more cipline, and to restore to superstipatience and forbearance than that tious rites the credit which they of which he was a member, and had long since lost. The party that, when they used the power calling itself liberal, again, was opwhich they possessed, it would not posed to these religionists: they be to defend themselves, but to dreaded the approaches of the prevent, instead of punishing, Jesuits to power, because expericrimes which might endanger pub ence had taught too clearly how lic order. The editor of the Jour- exclusive and despotic that power nal du Commerce was called to the would be; and they disliked the bar, for a libel on the Chamber; rigorous austerity and debarring and, after he had been heard by superstition of the others, because his counsel, was punished with a its direct tendency, and its great month's imprisonment, and a fine object, was, to enthrone ecclesiastiof an hundred francs--the mini- cal authority by absorbing the mum of penalty allowed by the mind in theological dogmas and delaw. Another member complained votional rites. The religionists to the Chamber, of the editor of the were the enemies of all popular Drapeau Blanc, on account of a rights; and the imprudence of mis-report, not of his own speech, some individuals among but of that of the minister of war, mitted doctrines to be seen which who was represented to have said appeared to be equally hostile to something insulting to him.' An the Crown. At the end of the angry discussion followed, the preceding year, the editors of two liberal party insisting, with no liberal journals had been tried for

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the writer composes, leaves him to but as he could not anticipate what say every thing that can be said, that other was to say, his reply and creep deliberately into every never touches on what has gone nook and cranny of his subject; before. If a ready command of the debater seizes only what im the stores collected by reading and presses itself upon him as impor- thinking, rapidity of invention, tant. Accordingly, more real busi- quickness of thought, accuracy of ness is done in the House of Com- memory, and facility of expression, mons in a month, than in the be valuable mental qualities, the Chamber of Deputies in a session. French mode of parliamentary disIt may be true that the French cussion is equally unfavourable to system enables a man to cull his them all. phrases with greater care, and turn By a law passed in 1822, for his periods with greater elegance; the regulation of the press, it was to give every member of a sentence enacted that “if, in the interval of its proper length, stick every in the sessions, serious circumstances terjection in its proper place, and (circonstances graves) should introduce every metaphor with a render the measures of guarantee due flourish of rhetorical prepara- and repression for a moment in tion. But it is inconsistent with effectual, the censorship may be im. energy and boldness; it leads irre-mediately established by a Royal sistibly to a vitiated taste; it ends Ordinance.” Such a provision is in that puerile, declamatory, style utterly destructive of the liberty of of oratory (if so it must be called), the press, because it leaves the de which has fixed its abode in the termination of what circumstances French tribune The French may require the introduction of a cens possibly attain the smooth enamel, sorship dependent on the execu and the nice finishing, of the minia- tive alone. A very mischievous ture, but they can never reach the measure may be carried through power and magnificence of the in a very short interval; and it fresco. If Cicero had been a may be extremely desirable for the French deputy, he would have executive to prevent the public press, unfolded his manuscript in the tri- during that interval, from soundbune, and, holding it to his eyes, ing the alarm. Provisions founded would have read out, Quousque on an anticipated necessity for distandem abutere, Catilina, patientia pensing with the regular and estab nostra," with tones and gestures of lished law cannot wisely be made most extemporaneous preparation. standing parts of a form of govern Moreover, it is ridiculous to call ment: they are prospective bills of that mode of discussion a debate, indemnity. M. Royer Collard, therein which every body reads his own fore, had reason on his side, when he sentiments, but nobody discusses wished to modify this law, or at them ; in which every one gives least to fix the meaning of the his opinion, but no one disputes circonstances graves," which were it; in which all open, but nobody to justify the crown in imposing answers or replies. No one ad- temporary fetters on the press. He vantage of debate is gained; there wished it to be restricted to “ great is no mutual sifting of opinions events, great troubles, extraordinary and reasons. A member mounts cases, which could not be foreseen, the tribune to reply to another; -in short, to something different

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from the mere abuse of the liberty great indulgence for the errors o of the press itself. This would the “ chartered libertine," that the certainly seem to be the more reporter to the journal should, in rational and fair interpretation. A future, be excluded from the sitseditious mob in every large town, tings of the Chamber: but it came with seditious publications issuing to no practical result. from an hundred presses to excite In the internal state of France and justify their excesses, such as there was scarcely any thing to have been witnessed in England occupy public attention, except ocmore than once, would form a crisis currences arising from the conflictrequiring and excusing much ing efforts of different sects of réa stronger measures than an unusual ligionists. Some ecclesiastical orders, quantity of abuse, or an universal particularly the Jesuits, had been expression of dislike, against the gradually courting favour, and inJesuits, or the ministry: yet, to the creasing in influence, and enking's confessor, or to a tottering deavouring to recover a portion of minister, the latter might appear that authority which was equally alarming with the former, theirs. Ecclesiastics of a different and the law permits the applica- description were devoting themtion of the power of imposing selves to the task of awakening silence in the one as in the other. among the people a spirit of fanatiThe law, however, was allowed to cal piety; and men of considerable remain as it was, the minister of authority in the church availed the interior assuring the Chamber themselves of their station, to try that no cabinet had ever borne the lo enforce a more rigorous disattacks of the press with more cipline, and to restore to superstipatience and forbearance than that tious rites the credit which they of which he was a member, and had long since lost. The party that, when they used the power calling itself liberal, again, was opwhich they possessed, it would not posed to these religionists: they be to defend themselves, but to dreaded the approaches of the prevent, instead of punishing, Jesuits to power, because expericrimes which might endanger pub ence had taught too clearly how lic order. The editor of the Joure exclusive and despotic that power nal du Commerce was called to the would be; and they disliked the bar, for a libel on the Chamber; rigorous austerity and debarring and, after he had been heard by superstition of the others, because his counsel, was punished with a its direct tendency, and its great month's imprisonment, and a fine object, was, to enthrone ecclesiastiof an hundred francs---the mini- cal authority by absorbing the mum of penalty allowed by the mind in theological dogmas and delaw. Another member complained votional rites. The religionists to the Chamber, of the editor of the were the enemies of all popular Drapeau Blanc, on account of a rights; and the imprudence of mis-report, not of his own speech, some individuals

among

them perbut of that of the minister of war, mitted doctrines to be seen which who was represented to have said appeared to be equally hostile to something insulting to him. An the Crown. At the end of the angry discussion followed, the preceding year, the editors of two liberal party insisting, with no liberal journals had been tried for

or the order of

tutes the record of the liberties of first count, 252) ANNUAL REGISTER, 1826. political libels, and acquitted. The the king, arising from his birth, acquittal was very displeasing to and assailed the order of succession the Jesuits and their coadjutors; to the throne. Of this latter and the Abbé de la Mennais, in a charge he was acquitted; the court pamphlet which he published upon holding that the passages of his the occasion indulged himself in publications on which it was foundopinions which went to subvert the ed, were rather a discussion of the fundamental rights of all govern- first proposition of the Declaration, ments except that of the Pope, and than a direct and positive attack to raise the altar above the throne. against the dignity and birth-right A Declaration of the French clergy of the monarch, or made and registered in the par- succession, and that the known reliament of Paris, in 1682 forms ligious and monarchical opinions of the basis of the law of France re the Abbé were against any pregarding the power of the pope sumption of his having intended to within the kingdom, and consti- commit such an offence. On the

int, however, he was found the Gallican church. The first guilty of having written several proposition of this Declaration chapters directly and formally imstates, that St. Peter, his successors, pugning the declaration of 1682, and the church itself, have received and violating the edict which had no authority from God, except made that Declaration part of the over things spiritual, and not over constitutional law of the land. He things temporal and civil ; that was condemned to pay a fine of kings are not subject, in things thirty francs, and his work “On which concern temporal matters, Religion, considered in its Relations to any ecclesiastical power; that with Political and Civil Order," was they cannot be deposed directly or ordered to be seized and destroyed indirectly by the authority of the wherever it might be found. The head of the church; and that their court justified the smallness of the subjects cannot by him be exempted sine on the ground that the blameafrom the submission and obedience ble passages formed only a small which they owe them, or dispensed part of the work--that the refrom their oath of allegiance : and mainder consisted of theological by a subsequent royal edict all the discussion with which they could king's subjects are prohibited from not interfere—that the book was maintaining, writing, or printing, one which would be read and

apany thing contrary to the principles preciated only by the well-inof this Declaration, or tending to formed--and that the abbé himrenew disputes, or give rise to a self was a person of most respectadifference of opinion on the subject. ble character. It is worthy of reMennais' was brought to trial for mark, as a historical coincidence, having, in the plenitude of his zeal that while, in the discussions of the on behalf of his order, attacked the British parliament on the Catholic doctrines of the Declaration, and question, the friends of Emancipaviolated the edict, by asserting the tion maintained that the older subjection of the kingly power to doctrines of the Romish church rethe supreme" authority of the garding her supremacy over kings church. A second count accused had been fully and finally rehim of having denied the rights of nounced, there was in Paris a

of the so

member of that church, and an 1760, the edict of Louis XV, in adherent of its most learned, most 1764, the edict of Louis XVI. in politic, and once most powerful, 1777, the law of May 1792, and the order, convicted and punished for republican decree of the 3rd Messidor openly maintaining from the press in the year 12, the legislature of the very doctrines, which it was France had formally opposed itself said to have abandoned.

to the re-establishment of the Another measure directed against ciety called "The Society of Jesus," the ecclesiastical orders was the under whatever denomination it publication, by a count Montlosier might present itself; that these of a work entitled " A Denuncia- edicts and decrees were founded on ' tion" of the Jesuits, and their con- the acknowledged incompatibility gregations, and addreșsed to the between the principles professed Cour Royale in which he declaimed by that Society and the indepenagainst these religionists as enemies dence of civil governments-prinof the state and abusers of religion, ciples still more incompatible with and formally called upon the Court the constitutional charter which to perforin its duty, by putting in was itself a public right. But they force the existing laws against likewise held that to suppress or them. This example of a popular dissolve congregations or associaright of action, by which an unin- tions formed in contempt of these terested individual demanded the laws and decrees, belonged to the interference of a court provided department of the high police alone; with its own officers to put its that any facts of a different kind powers into action, was not favour- mentioned in the denunciation, dią able either to public tranquillity not constitute any crime, misde

the regular administration of meanour, or contravention, which the law: but the partiality of could be judged of in that Court; party spirit exalted Montlosier and therefore, upon the whole

an idol ; and a written opinion matter, the Court declared itself was published, signed by nearly to be incompetent, In all the fifty of the most respectable counsel judicial contests between the of the French bar, bearing that the Jesuits and their opponents, their

Denunciation," as demanding ancient spirit of Jansenism was the execution of the laws against distinctly manifested in the bar. the Jesuits, and the congregations, France had not as yet formally

an immense service rendered recognized any of the to the king and to the country. American republics; but, in the

The Court admitted the indict- course of the present year, she apment, so to speak: but the Attorney- pointed commercial agents to reside general appeared, and insisted that in several of them, possessing no grounds were laid even for de- nearly, the same character which liberation, and that the Court was belonged to those sent out by this incompetent to hear such a case. country in 1819. In the month All the members of the Court in of January, she concluded a treaty Paris, to the number of fifty-four, with the emperor of Brazil. By attended the discussion, and the this treaty, France expressly reCourt came to the following de cognized the independence of the cision. They held that by the de- Brazilian empire, and the imperial cree of the parliament of Paris in dignity in the person of don Pedro

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