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in France, and permitted the offi- the legislature of the success which cers whom he enlisted to retain attended their exertions. Seve, a their military rank; and that, after renegade, over whom France had the expedition of Ibrahim into the no longer any power, was the only Morea, his treasures had been officer in the Turkish army who transported from 'Alexandria' to had borne a French commission ; Navarino, in a French ship of wari but several of them were to be In so far, however, as any of these found in the ranks of the Greek accusations were founded in fact, forces. Government, if it wished it did not appear that they could to preserve an impartial neutrality, fairly be imputed as matters of could only grant to both parties, blame to the French ministry, al- the liberty of doing such things though it might well be, that the or grant it to neither. Thel ado, ministers took no warm interest, herents of the Greek cause accused and could have no direct interest, the French squadron in the Levant in the success of the Greeks. It of various acts of hostility towards was true that the treasures of the the Greek maritime forces; but Egyptian army had been trans- the reports of admiral de Rigny, ported to Greece in French vessels; who commanded on that station, but every officer concerned in that refuted the charge. According to act had been recalled, as well as these reports, of the transports the commander on the station, and forming part of Ibrahim's fleet, had been punished. Vessels had which reached the. Morea in Nobeen built at Marseilles for other vember, 1825, some were Austrian, potentates equally unchristian as some English, some were Spanish, the pacha of Egypt, without objecu Tuscan, Sardinian, or American, tion; they had been built for the but not one was French : on the dey of Algiers, although his object request of the admiral, Ibrahim and interest were, to employ them had delivered up to him all the against every Christian power in female slaves within: his reach, Europe. The pacha had been purchased from his own soldiers, allowed to build a frigate and a and they were sent to Napoli di corvette; but he had been allowed Romania. An account of the only to build them, not to arm French having fired upon a vessel them. If there were agents in of the Greek admiral Canaris was France recruiting for him, it was contradicted by a declaration under difficult to see how government the hand of Canaris himself : from could restrain them, when their the commencement of the troubles, proceedings were justified by the the French fleet had served as an conduct of their very opponents; asylum to upwards of seven thoufor surely it would be no observ- sand Greeks, men, women, and ance of the national neutrality, if children ; it had never carried the government prohibited the either troops or money to the agents of Turkey from begging or Turks in the Morea, and had never bribing for their master, while the fired on a Greek vessel, except Greek-committee men, and their on pirates for the defence of French agents, were not only collecting merchantmen. The cannon (used men, arms, and money, in every in the siege of Missolonghi were part of the kingdom for the service not French cannon ; the officers of Greece, but boasted publicly in who directed the siege were not

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وي در از 94

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French, but Piedmontese and Neam mises in the name of the king of politans. The renegade Seyè was France, a name which still retains, the only Frenchman in Ibrahim's all its grandeur in the recollect army, and he, whatever might be tion of the mass of the population, his reason for keeping aloof from and the island is yours. That," active operations, had always re- exclaimed the orator, mained, during the last campaign, tlemen, is the way in which I in the rear, in the vicinity of would have conceived the conquest Modon.

of San Domingo." The illegality, It was not without much resist again, of the recognition was in ance by the ultra-royalist party, ferred from the parliament of Paris that the indemnity stipulated for having refused to ratify the cession the French colonists of San Domin. of Guienne to England after the go, when the independence of the Battle of Poictiers. M. de la BourHaytian republic was recognized, donnaye asked the Chamber, if they was carried. The opposition was, would not have spilled the last drop not to the principle or the amount of blood, rather than ratify the trean of the indemnity, but -to the re, ties of Pavia or Bretigny: and there cognition itself, which was de might have been something in the nounced as a concession made to question, if the spilling of French republican principles, a new sacri- blood would necessarily have led to fice to the interests and policy of the recovery of San Domingo, and Britain, and an unconstitutional if the recovery itself would have alienation of part of the inalienable counterbalanced to France the territory of France. Count Ber- money and the troops which she thier held the re-conquest of the must have squandered in effecting island to be the easiest exploit ima- it. To these topics of declamation ginable, an enterprise that would were opposed the simple facts, incontestably be successful. San that the island had been independDomingo, he said, had only about ent, beyond all question, for thirty 10,000 men for its defence, and its years; that its separation from population did not exceed 400,000; France had become complete, that but, on the same ratio, France, ideas of re-conquest werechimerical, with a population of thirty millions, for the climate would make it the could supply an army of 750,000 grave

French army

that men for its attack. Besides, the entered it ; and that, devastated as black population would form then it had been, and all the sources of selves into regiments on the side its commerce blighted, by, a civil of the invaders, and fight as the war of long duration and atrocious vanguard of the French army, like character, its possession would not the

sepoys in British India. Nay, be a gain, but a burthen. The a few active and loyal subjects, liberals blamed the way of making supported by a few regiments and the recognition, rather than the a few ships of wår, would have recognition itself. It was an act, been sufficient to bring back the they said, beyond the royal precolony under French domination. rogative, and, an arbitrary as4 Only promise the black popula- sumption of power pregnant with tion its liberty, and to each fa danger to the country. Only the mily a piece of ground in absolute legislature could dispose of any part property ; only make these pro- of the property of the state. If such

of every


af power. be given to the Crown; a petition to the Chamber of Dem fottresses may be sold or pledged puties, praying to be allowed some for the basest purposes, and the remuneration. I «The committee to country daid defenceless at the feet whom his petition was referred, of foreigners.toThesen apprehen! admitted his siservices; they acsions were equally inconsistent and knowledged that he had not only chimeričal. It

may, or may not, saved a great number of the French be

proper; in a mixed monarchy, to colonists, but had done so at a great give the i Crown the power of pecuniary sacrifice. They recoma making war, and concluding peacey mended to the Chamber, however, but when, as in France, it has not to recognize the claim; been invested with this power, it is the government had not given a contradictory to refuse it a right pecuniary guarantee on behalf of which may often be indispensable the colonists of San Domingo, and te peace. How frequently has the therefore was not a debtor to the cession of fortresses been the very petitioner ; and because the moral object of a war, and the condition obligation had been already disa of a treaty Who imagines that, charged by the government grantin 1814 or 1815, the allied powers ing Mr. Kingston an advantageous would have desired the sanction of maritime commission. This favoury a French legislature to the cession which was held to have discharged of the left bank of the Rhine to the obligation, had consisted in the Netherlands ? Nor is there giving him the benefit of a flag of any danger of kings ever becoming truce, which, in time of war, was fond of the exercise of such a pre- no doubt an advantage ; but, hava rogative.Necessity is the only ing been driven by stress of weather thing that will compel a monarch into one of the English West-India to part with his territories or his Islands, on his voyage from France fortresses; and cases of such neces to the United States, he was taken sity can never be met by any strict by a French privateer) and his and invariable rule. Where ne- protection declared void, and his cessity does not interfere, public vessel and cargo i confiscated, by opinion will prevent, or will reme- the sentence of a French colonial dy the operation of other motives; prize-court. :) This was the whole and where no public opinion ex- remuneration now set up against işts, no formal want of prerogative a debt incurred thirty-four years would be efficient.

before. But the motion for disti Onemeasure connected with San missing the petition, by passing to Domingo placed the French got the order of the day, was success vernment in a less favourable lights fully resisted by M. Alexis de A Mr. Kingston, an Englishman, Noailles, and M. Hyde de Neuhad rendered great services in ville, who protested against the 1792 to refugees from the island, government being content with and afterwards to the exiles of St. merely doing what might be called Pierre and Miguelen, whom he strict legal i justice, in a case in hrad transported, the former from which it was admitted that the Bermuda to Charlestown) and the petitioner had saved the lives of se latter from Halifax; to London, at many: French colonists, at the a pecuniary expense to himself of expense of his own fortunes and about 1,1001. He now presented a motion for sending back the peti

tion to the minister for foreign bition against thinking at all, and affairs, was carried by a large ma- collecting the materials for thinkjority. The Chamber here tap ing. “It is wished," said the real peared in a more advantageous porter, to avoid long speeches point of view than the ministerste but it is much more easy to be

A French member of parliament brief in writing, than in speaking reads his speeches, instead of speak extemporaneously. The writer ret ing them; he does not come to the jeets with care all

: repetitions of House with ideas in his head, pre- ideas or phrases; he compresses at pared to meet the ever-varying and will his reasonings and his style ; unexpected necessities of debates he chooses at leisure his thoughts but he comes with a pamphlet in his and his words. The extemporan! pockets to read an essay on a given neous speaker, on the contrary, subject, prepared by himself or cannot choose either the one or somebody else, in the solitude of the the other, What proves that the closet. An attempt was made to interdiction of written speeches get rid of this anomaly of reading would not abridge rour deliberam speeches by a motion of M. Du- tions is, the length of the sittings hamel, " That no written discourse of the English House of Commonsi shall be allowed to be read to the A single orator, Mr. Hume, in the Chamber, on the chapters, titles, sitting of the 17th March, spoke and articles of laws, or propositions twenty-eight times after having submitted for its consideration, but spoken forty-one times on the 6th that only notes may be consulted." It was probably ignorance which The proposal was sent to a com. gave the name of speeches to thei mittee, and the report of the com« remarks which pass in the British mittee was fatal to an innovation House of Commons, when the which iwasr to give France some House is in a committee on estichance of possessing parliamentary mates- although; even in that oratory. The change, said the re- sense, the allegation regarding Mr. porter, i would do much harm, and Hume was inaccurate, but so far no good:r: »Extemporaneous speak- was the view taken by the coming is not always, or necessarily, mittee from being a correct one, the best speaking; and, even if it that it is of the very nature of were, the proposed prohibition of written discussion to spin: out written discourses would not secure " the thread of its verbosity finer itor 4 May there not be some than the staple of its argumenti”: among the oratorg i most admired To allow written discourses, inas extemporaneous speakers, whose stead of diminishing the number inspirations have been only pre- of members who burn to pour forth tended ?.! Have not their dise their ideas on the assembly, con courses been too elegant for un- fessedly goes to extend their line studied speeches? * If they had to the utmost limit of the patience wished to deceive us into this best of that assembly; for it adds tto lief, would they not have introk those who can speak what they duced some occasional" negligenu think, all those who can read ces ?" -This might be very true; what has been written. The indi: but the committee forgot, that ai vidual essays, ' too, naturally beal prohibition against reading what a' come more prolix than speeches. man has thought, is not a prohi. The very ki leisure” with which


the writer composes, leaves him to but as he could not anticipate what say every thing that can be said, that other was to say, his reply and creep deliberately into every never touches on what has gone nook and cranny of his subject; before. If a ready command of the debater seizes only what im- the stores collected by reading and presses itself upon him as impor- thinking, rapidity of invention, tant. Accordingly, more real busi- quickness of thought, accuracy of ness is done in the House of Com- memory, and facility of expression, mons in a month, than in the be valuable mental qualities, the Chamber of Deputies in a session. French mode of parliamentary disIt may be true that the French cussion is equally unfavourable to system enables a man to cull his them all. phrases with greater care, and turn By a law passed in 1822, for his periods with greater elegance; the regulation of the press, it was to give every member of a sentence enacted that “if, in the interval of its proper length, stick every in the sessions, serious circumstances terjection in its proper place, and (circonstances graves) should introduce every metaphor with a render the measures of guarantee due flourish of rhetorical prepara and repression for a moment in tion. But it is inconsistent with effectual, the censorship may be imi+ energy and boldness; it leads irre- mediately established by a Royal sistibly to a vitiated taste; it ends Ordinance.” Such a provision is in that puerile, declamatory, style utterly destructive of the liberty of of oratory (if so it must be called), the press, because it leaves the des which has fixed its abode in the termination of what circumstances French tribune, The French may require the introduction of a cenpossibly attain the smooth enamel, sorship dependent on the execu: and the nice finishing, of the minia- tive alone. A very mischievous ture, but they can never reach the measure may be carried through power and magnificence of the in a very short interval; and it fresco. If Cicero had been a


be extremely desirable for the French deputy, he would have executive to prevent the public press, unfolded his manuscript in the tri- during that interval, from sound bune, and, holding it to his eyes, ing the alarm. Provisions founded would have read out, “Quousque on an anticipated necessity for distandem abutere, Catilina, patientia pensing with the regular and estaba nostra," with tones and gestures of lished law cannot wisely be made most extemporaneous preparation. standing parts of a form of governMoreover, it is ridiculous to call ment: they are prospective bills of that mode of discussion a debate, indemnity. M. Royer Collard, therein which every body reads his own fore, had reason on his side, when he sentiments, but nobody discusses wished to modify this law, or at them ; in which every one gives least to fix the meaning of the his opinion, but no one disputes circonstances graves," which were it; in which all open, but nobody to justify the crown in imposing answers or replies. No one ad- temporary fetters on the press. He vantage of debate is gained; there wished it to be restricted to “great is no mutual sifting of opinions events, great troubles, extraordinary and reasons. A member mounts cases, which could not be foreseen, the tribune to reply to another; --in short, to something different


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