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СНАР. Х. THE GERMANIC DIET.HOLLAND-Disputes concerning the Naviga

tion of the Rhine-Arrangements regarding the Catholics--Epidemic Disease in North Holland Finances Militia Law--Expedition to Java--BAVARIA-AUSTRIA-Proceedings of the Hungarian DietDecree against the Slave Trade-PRUSSIA-RUSSIAA Commission appointed to investigate the Insurrection of 1825-Reforms in the Administration Discontents among the Peasants-Death of the Empress - Report of the Commission of Inquiry Sentence and Punishment of the Conspirators-Coronation of the Emperor-War with Persia - Military Operations in Georgia - The Persians

defeated. TI THE Diet of the Germanic Con- commercial intercourse among the

federation assembled at Frank« states, were still to be determined; fort in January; but, although the former involving the interests several questions of very general im- of every corner of Germany, and portance occupied its attention, as the latter touching the destruction they had done for years, no one of of a jealous prohibitory system, by them was brought to a conclusion; so which even the most petty states tedious are the forms of proceeding attempted to defend their manuin that body, requiring constant factures against their neighbours. correspondence between the mem On none of these matters did the bers and their constituents; and Diet come to any decision; and the so multiplied and contradictory only measure which they carried are the interests which it vainly through was the final occupation of attempts to combine in a har- the Belgic fortress of Luxembourg monious whole. The organization by commissioners and a garrison in of the military force of the Diet the name of the Confederation. was still to be finally fixed, the The king of the Netherlands re« smaller states remonstrating against sisted this change as far as he the numerical amount of their decently could resist a fundamental contingents, and resisting with rule of the Confederation, of which, great good sense, the oppression of as sovereign of the Duchy of Luximposing upon their insignificant emburgh, he formed a partterritories the burthen of main- for no monarch can willingly see taining cavalry and artillery, which his fortresses in the hands of domia they said, ought to be maintained neering powers, of which he has at the

expense of the great powers, always occasion to be jealous as to whom alone these muniments of dangerous rivals, though united war couldever be of any real service with them in name as confederThe questions, too, of the tolls ates. upon the navigation of the Rhine, The differences which existed

and France were thus united to dark and dreary reign of despotism preserve

the

peace of Europe in so and superstition, amid whose palfar as it was menaced by Spain. pable obscurity they prowled for Such an union deprived the cabinet their own prey, or, when sated and Camarilla of Madrid of their with victims, slumbered on in brulast hope of being able to extend tish indolence. over a neighbouring country the

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CHAP. X.

THE GERMANIC DIETHOLLAND-Disputes concerning the Naviga

tion of the Rhine-Arrangements regarding the Catholics--Epidemic Disease in North Holland-Finances---Militia Lav--Expedition to Java--BAVARIA-AUSTRIA--Proceedings of the Hungarian DietDecree against the Slave Trade-PRUSSIA-RUSSIAA Commission appointed to investigate the Insurrection of 1825--Reforms in the Administration-Discontents among the Peasants_Death of the Empress - Report of the Commission of Inquiry - Sentence and Punishment of the Conspirators-Coronation of the Emperor-War with Persia - Military Operations in Georgia - The Persians defeated.

TH

JHE Diet of the Germanic Cona commercial intercourse among the

federation assembled at Frank- states, were still to be determined; fort in January ; but, although the former involving the interests several questions of very general im- of every corner of Germany, and portance occupied its attention, as the latter touching the destruction they had done for years, no one of of a jealous prohibitory system, by them was brought to a conclusion; so which even the most petty states tedious are the forms of proceeding attempted to defend their manuin that body, requiring constant factures against their neighbours. correspondence between the mem On none of these matters did the bers and their constituents; and Diet come to any decision ; and the so multiplied and contradictory only measure which they carried are the interests which it vainly through was the final occupation of attempts to combine in a har- the Belgic fortress of Luxembourg monious whole. The organization by commissioners and a garrison in of the military force of the Diet the name of the Confederation. was still to be finally fixed, the The king of the Netherlands resmaller states remonstrating against sisted this change as far as he the numerical amount of their decently could resist a fundamental contingents, and resisting with rule of the Confederation, of which, great good sense, the oppression of as sovereign of the Duchy of Luximposing upon their insignificant emburgh, he formed a partterritories the burthen of main- for no monarch can willingly see taining cavalry and artillery, which his fortresses in the hands of domia they said, ought to be maintained neering powers, of which he has at the expense of the great powers, always occasion to be jealous as to whom alone these muniments of dangerous rivals, though united war could ever be of any real service. with them in name as confederThe questions, too, of the tolls ates. upon the navigation of the Rhine, The differences which existed and the establishment of a free regarding the navigation of the

proper Rhine

Rhine, formed a dispute between expression from“into the sea;" and, Germany and the king of Holland, moreover, if the upper states were rather than among the members of to insist so strictly upon words, the diet. From the moment that then they must be contented with the Rhine entered Holland, it be- the course of the came subject to the government of itself. The mass of water which that country alone, who' was sove. forms the Rhine, dividing itself a reign of both its banks. Whatever little way above Nimeguen, is duties Holland might think proper carried to the sea through three to impose on the traffic of the river principal channels, the Waal, the during the remainder of its course Leck, and the Yssel ; the first de to the shores of the North Sea, scending by Gorcum, where it were strictly matters of internal changes its name for that of the arrangement, regulating the inter- Meuse; the second, farther to the course of foreigners with her own north, approaching the sea at exclusive dominions, and were im- Rotterdam; and the third, taking a posts with which the diet had no northerly course by Zutphen, and authority to interfere. She was Deventer, to disgorge itself into thus enabled by high duties, to the Zuyderzee. None of these render the Rhine useless as a channels, however, is called or means of transport to the sea ; by reckoned the Rhine; that name is discriminating duties she could preserved to a small stream which secure the whole trade from leaves the Leck 'at Wyck, takes Nimeguen to the sea, to her own its course by the learned retreats subjects, and a preference to her of Utrecht and Leyden, gradually own manufactures as articles of ex- dispersing and losing its waters, port. The states higher up the river till the magnificent river dwindles could gain little by establishing down into a muddy ditch, and, unequitable regulations regarding the able by its expiring strength to force duties to be levied by the powers its way into the ocean, disappears who possessed its opposite banks, among the downs in the neigh

long as they were absolutely bourhood of Kulwyck. The Rhine excluded from proceeding on it to itself, strictly speaking, being thus the ocean by an authority over useless for the purposes of seawhich they had no control. In the navigation, it had been agreed bem treaty of Paris, in 1814, by which tween Holland and her neighbours the kingdom of the Netherlands, as to consider the Leck as the con-. it at present exists, was created, tinuation of the Rhine; and the and subsequently at the Congress government of the Netherlands of Vienna, provisions had been afterwards consented' that the agreed on which certainly were Waal, as being deeper and better intended, and, it was thought, adapted to navigation, should be would be sufficient, to limit the substituted for the Leck. Now power of Holland, and open the the Waal, said the government of navigation of the Rhine to all Holland, terminates at Gorcum, Germany, to and from the sea. to which the tide ascends; there But an ambiguous expression gave consequently ends the Rhine ; all Holland a pretext for maintaining that remains of that branch from her exclusive rights. She said, that Gorcum to Gravelingen, Hel. "to the sea” was a very different voetsluys, and the mouth of the

SO

Meuse, is an arm of the sea, in- France, agreed that the sovereignty closed within our own territories, of the House of Orange should and therefore to be subjected to receive an accession of territory, any imposts and regulations which and that the navigation of the we may think fit to establish. Rhine, from the point where it is

In this interpretation, Holland navigable to the sea (jusqu'à la was supported by France and mer), and vice versa, should be Baden, but strenuously resisted by free. This last point was further all the other powers of Germany, confirmed in the separate article, who inveighed against it as a which provides that the freedom quibbling attempt to evade the of navigation in the Scheldt shall plain" meaning of the treaty of be established on the same princiParis. Prussia, whose Rhenish ples as those on which the navigaprovinces form the wealthiest and tion of the Rhine is regulated by most manufacturing portion of her Article 5 of the present treaty. monarchy, addressed a memorial The allied powers farther reserved to the great powers who had been to themselves to determine, at the parties to the treaty of Paris, and next Congress, the countries which the 'congress of Vienna, calling should be united with Holland, upon them to state what had been and declared that then the princi-r the real meaning of that treaty in ples should be discussed, upon regard to the navigation of the which the tolls to be levied by Rhine ; and, in the mean time, on the States on the banks might be the ground of the delays of Hol- regulated in the most uniform land, she retained in her hands a manner and most advantageously sum of fourteen millions of florins, to the commerce of all nations.'c raised by duties levied on the river It appeared, from the simultaneous į where it passes through her territo- issuing of these two resolutions, ries, which ought, of right, to have that, among other conditions which been shared with Nassau, Baden, the allies annexed to the incorporaDarmstadt, and other small states. tion of Belgium, this increase of The allied powers put upon the territory was combined on their side, treaty the same interpretation as even before the establishment of the German states; but the go- the kingdom of the Netherlands, vernment of the Netherlands have with the above obligation to rem?? ing returned an unfavourable an store the freedom of the navigation. swer to their joint remonstrance, There could certainly be no more i the Austrian envoy at Brussels express and positive obligation than presented a note to that court, in that which is united with the February of the present year, in foundation of a state, and which, which he not only enforced what in the present case, had been fully Austria held to be the true mean- sanctioned by the accession of the ing of the diplomatic provisions of king of the Netherlands to the 1814 and 1815, but spoke in a treaty of Paris, and the act of style which much resembled re. Congress at Vienna. It was in« proach, of the ingratitude of the conceivable how the government king of the Netherlands towards of the Netherlands could flatter his political creators. “By the itself with the hope of making a treaty of Paris,” he argued, “ the right obscure and doubtful, by allied powers, in conjunction with prolix observations, on the main

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