Sivut kuvina

resolution, and to do away with never have accepted the sovethe principle of the free naviga- reignty of the United Provinces, if tion of the Rhine, which was pro- the origin of it was to be ascribed claimed in the face of the world in to a foreign co-operation, however the first document of the political powerful it might be, and however restoration of Europe, and on the magnanimous the monarchs comsame day when Holland was given posing it; and he would have up to the House of Orange." utterly rejected any increase of

In its answer, the cabinet of territory, if it had been necessary Brussels repeated the geographical to purchase it at the expense of argument, that the Rhine termi- the dignity of the country in which nates long before reaching the the remains of his ancestors re« sea: and to the reasoning of the pose. Austrian minister drawn from the There was something wanting to conditions of the incorporation of this argument. Although it were the Netherlands with Holland, it granted that the king of the was replied, that the republic of Netherlands had regained the soHolland had never ceased to exist vereignty of the United Provinces de jure, and had resumed its exist in virtue of the ancient and wellence under a monarch de facto, won rights of the House of before the treaties which incor- Orange, it by no means followed porated with it the Catholic Ne- that he held the new sovereignty therlands, and before the acts of of the Catholic Netherlands by the congress

of Vienna. That his the same tenure. These formed a majesty, owed the sovereignty of possession, to which Holland and his family, to the blood shed by his her monarch had no claim; which ancestors for the country, to the the allied powers, if possessing glory which it had acquired, and any right to dispose of the Netherthe prosperity it had enjoyed, under lands at all, could give, or refuse, at their auspices, to the intimate con- pleasure ; and which, they alleged, niexion formed in the course of they had ceded to his majesty only centuries between them and the on condition of his performing nation, to the ancient rights of his certain stipulations. They could house, and to the confidence, as affix to their gift, and his majesty well as to the spontaneous choice, could reject, any conditions they of a free people. It by no means might think proper; although the dated from the act of Union, ac-' outlets of the Rhine were more cepted the 21st July, 1814, which peculiarly streams of Holland, and concerned only Belgium ; but from therefore subject only to his anthe arrival of the king in Holland, cient sovereignty, it was as compethe 30th November, 1813; from tent to the allies to stipulate for a the 2nd December, 1813, when relaxation of the rights of that his majesty was proclaimed sové- ancient sovereignty as a condition reign at Amsterdam; and from the of their boon, as for the reservation 29th March, 1814, when the fun of any franchise to the citizens of damental law was sanctioned and the newly-acquired provinces thempromulgated, an event which gave selves. He might reject the occasion to congratulatory letters, proffered gift when coupled with a addressed by the allies to the sove sacrifice of some of the privileges reign prince. His majesty would of his ancient dominions; but if he did accept of it (and this was may be allowed to the inquisitive what the allied courts alleged) on geographer ; but in the serious the understanding that certain ex- business of real life, it does appear clusive rights of the latter were to strange, that the name of the be limited, the argument drawn mighty Rhine should be continued from the history of his family, to a petty brook, while two thirds was both bad faith, and bad logic. of its mass of waters are gliding on

All that argument and remon- through the windings of the Waal, strance could as yet gain from the and receiving in their course the Netherlands was, that the Leck Meuse as a tributary. should be considered as the Rhine; During the year most of the that the vessels of the German differences, which had been so long states should be allowed to navi- existing between the Netherlands gate it unmolested, under no higher and the Papal see, regarding the duties than might be imposed on powers of the Catholic bishops, other parts of the river; and that and the rights and maintenance of the prohibitions against the transit the Catholic religion, were finally of goods in other vessels than those adjusted ; and the former power of Holland, should be abolished. sent an envoy to Rome to open a This still left in uncertainty the new negotiation in regard to the great question - through what remainder. By a decree of 1822, channel is the navigation of the no private chapel, or oratory, could Rhine as far as the sea to be carried be erected or consecrated without on? - for the Leck terminates the permission of the king, granted where it joins the Meuse, a river upon an application by the bishop purely Belgic and Dutch, before of the diocese. This regulation was reaching Rotterdam. The aboli- now relaxed; and the power was tion of the prohibition against given to the bishops of authorizing transit was, it was further said, a the erection of chapels and oratories point gained, in so far as it re- exclusively for the use of the indimoved the exclusive provisions in viduals, corporations, or congregafavour of the Dutch trade, and tions, who might build them, on permitted the free trade of Ger- condition that such authority should man shippers with each other on never be granted except to persons the Rhine of Holland ; but that who from age or infirmity were still, so soon as they approached the unable to attend church, that the sea, there they were stopped until chapels themselves should be erected they should pay the export duties with all possible economy, and that fixed by Holland, which, in favour only aged and infirm priests, having of its own trade, might be so high no other duty to perform, should as to amount to à prohibition. be appointed' to officiate in them. This was one of the many instances The Catholics were likewise rein which disputes and errors have lieved of part of the burthen of arisen from the arbitrariness with supporting their own hierarchy, which the original name of a rami- a sum of five hundred thousand fying river is bestowed on one of florins being voted by the Statesits branches. One would think general towards the expenses of the that the larger arm ought always, Catholic Worship in the northern . like a first born, to bear the family provinces. But a proper jealousy title:

nice investigations was still manifested of the encroach

ing disposition of that dangerous jesty intended to abide by the exa church. A few years before, a reli- isting system, and was therefore gious association, denominated the most

seriously warned not to make Brethren of the Christian Schools," any use of the said letter, or of any professing their object to be the others relative to the same subject, education of youth, and bearing a lest he should expose himself to jesuitical character, had been al serious consequences. lowed to settle themselves in the During the autumn of the year, kingdom, and each of its members the province of Groningen was had been required to sign, and had afficted with an epidemical disease, signed, a declaration that it was which spread itself likewise into independent of any foreign supe- Friezland, operating most fatally in rior. It was now discovered that the districts far removed from the these declarations had been intend. sea. It appeared in the endof July: ed to deceive ; and that, notwith- in the first week of August, the standing them, the relations former- deaths of Groningen amounted to ly existing between the Superior- one hundred and six ; and by the general of the body out of the middle of September, their number kingdom, and the members of the had increased to one hundred and association within the kingdom forty two. The sick amounted to had never been discontinued ; and upwards of five thousand, scarcely a therefore, in the month of Fen single house escaping the malady; bruary, the association was sup and, although the country suffered pressed by a royal decree. The less than the cities, yet, in one

vil, archbishop of Mechlin, likewise, was lage, out of a population of a thou. severely censured in the name of sand souls, not an hundred escaped the king, by the Director-general the disease. It raged chiefly among of the affairs of the Roman Catho- the labouring poor: dread of conJie church, for having received tagion deprived them almost enthrough an unusual channel, and tirely of attendance and assistance, not communicating to government, and even of medical advice. The a papal reseript, tending to excite magistrates of Groningen applied disobedience and opposition to his to the government for medical majesty's measures regarding the officers, and invited, by a public Catholic church. The letter was address, the services of the profesfarther denounced as being an en- sion generally ; but all the remunecroachment on the rights of the ration they could

ffer was, a bishops of the kingdom, who alone hundred guilders per month. The are i authorized to govern their epidemic was supposed to have churches, the Pope having no originated from the violent and power to interfere without vio- long-continued heats, and it gralating the liberties of the church dually disappeared as the winter of the Netherlands, as had always returned. been understood, and especially. In the Dutch budget for the since (1767, when a certain de- year there was an increase of more claration from Rome, relative to'a than 2,000,000 forins in the exmarriage of the marquess of Chas- penses of its first division, partly teler with a widow of Anisterdam, occasioned by the half million was declared null, and void. The voted to the Catholics, and a milarchbishop) was told that his mas lion and a half which had been expended in works on the rivers and qualification from serving in this sea coast. Holland could not spend corps.. "1010d 21517 191 binului money more usefully either for her u The darkest hspot in the prosindustry or her safety s and a spe- perity of the Netherlands was the cial commission had been appointed intestine war which still raged in to examine into the means for im- their Indian colonies, and threatproving the course of the nivers, ened the downfal of their supreand preventing those inundations, macys 2 The Javanese were in which, in a single night, couldwork almost a general state of insurrecs wide-spreads misery and devasta- tion, particularly in the southern tion. Some of its suggestions had and middle districts of the island; already, i been adopted, and the the insurgents shewed themselves channels of internal communica- incessantly upon different points, tion were constantly inereasing and always in great force, thus On the expenditure forming the dividing and harassing the Dutch other branches of the budget there troops, whose numbers were too was vá considerable diminution; small to admit of strong detachand, from the preceding year, ments being sent against them. there was a surplus revenue, which The numbers of the rebels ind enabled the government to reduce creased with their success. One some of the taxes, and make an body of them had anticipated addition of 10 per cent to the general Van Gaen in a projected sinking-fund. The duties received attack to be made upon them from on exports and imports amounted Samarang, drove back his advanced to 6,200,000 florins. ?

divisions from their position at b>A law was framed for the fora Damack, and took possession of mation of an internal military that town. Djocjocarta and its force, a militia, called Communal environs, though not regularly bea Guards, to be employed in main- sieged by them, was kept in pertaining the public tranquillity, petual alarm by their guerilla sort and in time of war, in tepelling an of predatory warfare; the natives enemy. « If a commune, however, being able to keep the field even did not contain a population of two during the rainy season, t, while thousand five hundred souls, its active operations would have de communal guards were not to be stroyed the European troops by called out in time of peace, and, sickness and fatigue. On the 18th during war, they were to form of February, they attacked an unwith those of other communes, finished fort, and were repulsed; the levy en masse of the country. but the Netherlanders, having purThe law extended to all male in- sued them too far, were, in their habitants having attained their turn, attacked by an ambuscade, twenty-fifth, and not completed and forced to retreat with the loss their thirty-fourth, year, on each of part of their artillery. In the successive first of January. The month of June, fortune seemed to force to be embodied was to be two incline in favour of the Dutch;

two hundred per- they successfully stormed the prinsons, and the period of service five cipal fortress of the insurgents, and years. To have been condemned dispersed the army which covered

punishment which the law it. But this success was more held infamous, was made a dise than chunterbalanced by a defeat


for every


which they suffered in a battle Wassenaer, after having lost her fought a few weeks afterwards be- main-mast, and endeavoured in tween Solo and Samarang. The vain to come to an anchor, while insurgents were led by Djupo not a cable would stand, drifted Magoro, a man of some enterprise towards the shore, struck on the and talent, who had raised himself banks to the north of Egmont, and to the command amongst them. instantly filled with water. As The Dutch were completely de- she had struck so near the shore, a feated, losing a great number of number of vessels were sent to her men, among whom were several relief ; and, the weather becoming officers, with great part of their more favourable, she held together, artillery and ammunition. The in- till all on board were brought surgents immediately spread them- safely on shore, except about forty selves over the country; all com

persons, almost all of whom had munication between Samarang and been drowned when she first filled Batavia was cut off by them. The upon striking. Her consort, the government was compelled to Waterloo, stood out the tempest summon to its assistance the gar- with better success, and came to risons of Sumatra, Banca, Macas- an anchor under the island of sar, and Borneo. Palembang Borkum, after having been entirely again reverted to the possession of dismasted. the natives; and the queen of Boni, taking advantage of the In WIRTEMBERG and BAVARIA great part of the Dutch forces everything was tranquil and being withdrawn from Celebes, contented. In succeeding his · took the field with an army to father, Louis of Bavaria succeedexpel the remainder. Nothing ed the most popular prince in but the arrival of troops from Europe ; for to no monarch were Europe seemed likely to enable à people ever united by a more the Netherlands to retain its hearty regard and good will, than Eastern dependencies in subjec- were the Bavarians to Maximilian tion: the most urgent applications Joseph. But Louis was far from were made at Brussels and the being a loser by being compared Hague from the governor of Java, with his predecessor. He was and were not unheeded by the go- equally liberal in disposition, vernment at home; but fortune but had more foresight, severer seemed to have sworn to thwart habits of thinking, and greater all their projects.

firmness of character. As crown An expedition, consisting of the prince, he had been distinguished Waterloo and Wassenaer men of by his love of the arts, and the war, was fitted out in the end of collecting of their productions the year for Java, where the was the only luxury of power in power of the insurgents was most which he was fond of indulging. alarming, and sailed from the He resisted steadily the officious Helder in the beginning of Janu- attempts of the jealous cabinet of ary, having on board a reinforce- Vienna to interfere with the poment of two thousand

men. pular forms of government which Scarcely had they left the shores had been established by his father, of Holland, when they were over- and refused to lend himself to its taken by a violent storm. The prying policy. Even the vigi

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