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lance of his own police was dis- States, many reductions should agreeable to him: and assuredly have been made, but it was proper there can be no greater degra- to respect the will of my father. dation of a government than that in the next session our budget it should sink down into a mere will be very different from what superintendance of bailiffs and it was; and if things had remained police officers. The Director-gem on their former footing we should neral having brought him the have been bankrupts." usual police report, “ In future” He introduced reform into his said he, “I will dispense with council of state, his court, the deyour presenting me such reports; partments of his ministry, the Í don't wish to know scandalous administration of his hereditary anecdotes, or to penetrate into domains, the number and pay of family privacy. All I require of his troops, and, in short, into you is, carefully to watch over the every part of the national charges. maintenance of good order, and By these reforms, no less a sum the safety of the citizens." Pro- than a million of florins annually digality, arising from facility of was saved to the public. On the disposition, had been the greatest other hand, positive improvements defect, of the late king; he had were effected in the system of multiplied useless places for his public education and the managefriends at the expense of his sub- ment of ecclesiastical affairs, while jects. Louis, on the other hand, the rights of individuals were coninstituted a severe scrutiny into sulted, and the laws of the constievery branch of expenditure, and tution maintained and consolidated. carried into effect every possible reduction. This system of econo

In the dominions of AUSTRIA, my naturally injured many private the Hungarian diet, which had interests; but it was rendered im- been convoked in the autumn of perious by the state of the finances: the preceding year, still continued and his only detractors were those to sit in Presburgh. They had not who suffered because the nation yet agreed upon the final repregained. In replying to an address sentation to be made to the emprésented by the deputies of the peror regarding the observance of town of Anspach he said ; . In the Hungarian constitution, and order to make savings, I have the losses which had been sustainbeen obliged to make retrench- ed from the authorized depreciaments; many branches of ex

tion of the imperial paper-curpenditure have been diminished rency; they manifested a strong half. Doubtless these measures desire to enforce practically, what have displeased many persons; but certainly is a rule of their constiI could not do otherwise. People tution, that the important matters make an outcry, yet I have done of recruiting and taxation should only what is just. Many other be regulated by themselves; they changes would be necessary, but still shewed that the bad humours humanity restrains me. As for produced by the rather haughty the persons in office, who are af- tone of the emperor's answer to fected by these measures, they their first petition of grievances, shall have sufficient to live upon. had not yet dispersed; and the Even in the last assembly of the archduke Palatine still found it



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called tween them and his brother. into question, but black thoughts Those who could see in the con- are attributed to our nature, from duct of the diet only the plain which minds recoil with symptoms of incipient rebellion, horror.” ;,. visited them with unmeaning abuse | The emperor, in his answer, as asserters of insurgent doctrines, assured them that he knew pere! and inveighed against the consti- fectly well what value was to be tution which permitted such doings set upon the opinions of such ca. among any part of the subjects of lumniators, and that from him they hist imperial majesty. These at- received the contempt they deserve tacks may have been directed by ed. But, remembering at the same a secret hand, to excite dislike for time, that legislative bodies are the constitution as a prelude to convoked for doing business, that suppressing it, for the proceedings this Hungarian diet had been sitof the diet had been too serious to ting four months, and done not make it assailable by ridicule; thing, and, above all, that it had but this was the only side on done nothing for the doing of which the Hungarian constitution which he had convoked it, “he. possessed any strength. It is only was induced,” he said, "by his as a powerful oligarchy, perfectly confidence in the sincerity of the able, and legitimately entitled, to wishes of the diet for the public control the crown, that it can ever weal, to add a .. few words” of be of any use to Hungary : in no advice. “The public good," said other way can it be advantageous the emperor, "requires at all times, torithe great mass of the popula- but particularly in our days, noti tion, for they have no share in its only that the most perfect union and constitution or deliberations, and reciprocal confidence should exist it has its full quota of oligarchi- between nations and their princes, cab vices. The diet, however, is but also that they should be openly proud of its constitution, and evinced in the most unequivocal waxed highly wrath that it should manner. With a heart full of joy beri abrised and undervalued. In we assembled, last autumn, the an address of congratulation which estates of the kingdom around our they presented to the emperor upon royal throne; every word uttered his birth-day, they said, “Your by us on the presentation of the majesty cannot be ignorant in royal propositions, sufficiently : what unworthy colours the Hun- shews, with what confidence we garian nation, which is so faithful opened this diet.

We justly to you, has been represented by hoped that the estates of the kinga the calumniators of our name and dom would profit by this long our institutions. These enemies desired opportunity to dedicate, of all legitimate rule, of order, of under the protection of our thirtytranquillity, and of all power es- four years experience, their activity tablished by God, dare to circulate and ardent zeal to the objects in their journals, assertions, in judged necessary to the real good which our ancient constitution, of the kingdom. Have their consecrated by so many centuries, labours, their deliberations, and is treated with infamous derision; the result of them up to this time, not only is our fidelity to your attained the end of our wishes and


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our hopes? We leave it to the of the public peace, and be punished estates themselves to decide ; la with close imprisonment, from one father has a right to put this ques- to five years. If a captain of a tion to his children.'

Austrian vessel, or any other Aus. “We hope that these words, trian subject, should engage in any proceeding from the bottom of our continued commerce of slaves, or heart, will attain; where they any thing relating thereto, the peought to have their full force, thel nalty was to be augmented to im.. object which our benevolent in prisonment for ten years, and where tentions proposed.t1 We have spol the circumstances were aggravated, ken thus, because we wish to have for twenty years. -


of a no i reproach to make either to lighter character was to be punished ourself or our kingdom.”:,111 art with a fine, and an imprisonment

Austria could not have much varying from three days to three upon her conscience in relation to months, to which, in cases of rex the Slave-trade. She had neither peated offences, were to be super. colonies in which slaves might be added fastingandrigorous seclusion employed, nor a commercial navy These measures proved the existud to seek gain by shipping them as ence of good dispositions, indulged

profitable cargo. Her flag was without the sacrifice of any insearcely known out of the Medi- terest, or the conquering of any terránean, her slavery was con- resistance. They were b chiefly. fined to the vcivilized nations of directed to the war in the Levant) Europe, and in no country could between Greece and Turkey ; they the slave-trade be more safely de- were expressly extended to prisoners nounced with a certainty of injur- of war who had fallen into the ing no one existing interest. In hands of an enemy that treated its i August, an imperial decree was prisoners as slaves; and going diissued, which, after proudly pro- rectly, therefore, to prevent Ausclaiming that." every slave becomes trian vessels from being employed free from the moment he touches to transport prisoners of war, they the soil of Austria, or even the were the first symptoms which deck of an Austrian ship, and the Austria had displayed of looking slave of a foreigner recovers his with one eye, at least, of mercy, liberty the instant he is given up," upon the Greek cause. In the on whatsoever account, to an Aus- dispute between Spain and Porsí trian subject," provided, that every tugal, likewise, she shewed a wise Austrian subject, who should oppose and pacific disposition. France any obstacle to the personal liberty was unwilling to move in defence of any slave conveyed to him, or! of rebellion against legitimacy :: alienate anew any slave so con-· Austria herself, Russia, and Prussia, veyed, whether in the territories were too distant from the scene to of Austria, or elsewhere also : act with any effect : Don Pedro): every captain of any Austrian i whose authority was attacked, was vessel, who should charge himself the emperor's son-in-law, and the with the transporting of slavés, or young queen, who was to be des directly or indirectly, interpose any throned, was the emperor's grandobstacle to the enjoyment of per daughter. The Austrian cabinet, sonal freedom, acquired by such as therefore, very wisely kept Don might come on board his vessel- Miguel quiet at Vienna, while the should be held guilty of a breach insurgents were running wild in

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his name on the frontiers of Por- fications of these' confederacies, tugal, and persuaded him to insure any longer impossible, and freed the crown by accepting it with a the governments from much of the wife, rather than risk its loss, and odium which had been cast upon his own destruction, in attempting them, except, perhaps, the odium to grasp it by rebellion against his of having contributed to the conbrother and his niece.

tinuance and the growth of this

dangerous spirit by their pertiIn PRUSSIA, part of the inquiries nacious refusal to admit into their which it had been found necessary political institutions, any sprinkto institute into the practices and ling of public opinion, or popular constitution of certain secret asso


In the month of May, the ciations of fanatical friends of inquiries regarding a society named liberty, were brought to a conclu- “ The Association of the Youths,” sion, Almost from the very con- were terminated ; and, of twentyclusion of the war, the notice of eight members of it who had been the German courts had been die seized, eleven were condemned to rected to these mischievous so« imprisonment and hard labour for cieties, composed of men, or rather fifteen years, two to the same of raw youths, whose only striking punishment for thirteen years, two qualities were hot-headedness, an for twelve years, and twelve for utter ignorance of the world and various terms, from eleven down its affairs, an unconquerable attach- to two years; all of them were ment to chimerical schemes for deprived of the national cockade, establishing what they called and honorary distinctions; and liberty, and deemed an ameliora- those, who held any office, were tion of the condition of mankind, cashiered, and declared incapable and no small disregard for the of being employed in future. At ordinary rules of morality in the the head of these intrigues, so far pursuit of their projects. For a as could be known from authentic long time, the more liberal, but

was the Association of still rational thinkers of Europe, Men, whose ramifications were had believed these plots to be said to extend beyond Germany, imaginary, or that they were at and to be connected with factions most merely the pranks of a set of in other countries. Immediately madcaps, exaggerated into formid- subject to it, and bound by an oath able conspiracies by the fears of de- of unlimited obedience, even to the spotic governments who felt public assassination of enemies of the Asopinion tottering beneath them, or sociation, was the Association of wilfully misrepresented, to furnish the Youths, the members of which a pretext for crushing every spark were scattered throughout Gerof manly freedom; but the dis- many. This Association divided coveries effected by the police, year Germany into twelve circles, and after year, the investigations now appointed a chief in each. There instituted in Prussia, and still more was a supreme chief, by whom, those of the commission appointed and some others, the general affairs to inquire into the conspiracy which were directed, and the connexion broke out in St. Petersburgh on with the Association of the Men the death of the emperor of Russia, was conducted. Its object was, rendered scepticism either as to the to overthrow existing institutions, existence, the objects, or the ramis and excite discontent and rebel


·lion. The members were trained issued, directing, that every one of to arms, and were subject to the them who should make himself control of unknown superiors. liable to punishment, should be Immediately under this were the expelled ; that a list of them should Secret Associations, over which be returned every six months, to members of the Association of the royal commissioner over the Youth presided ; but the mass of University, to be by him commutheir members were ignorant of nicated to the Consistories, prothe existence of the Association. vincial colleges, and other public These met several times in a year, bodies, with orders to admit no and Germany was divided by them person contained in it to any public into three main divisions. Under employment, or to the examinations them was the Burschenschaft, and which it might be necessary to under that, the reading societies undergo, before commencing the and clubs. It is surprising that practice of a profession. The dethe young men who entered into partments of justice and finance these criminal associations, should, were likewise to be shut against after all they had seen, have been so them. deaf to experience. The precautions which had so long saved their The unexpected events which had university-clubs from discovery and occurred at St. Petersburgh in the destruction, seemed to lose their end of 1825, left behind them, withvirtue when applied to these more in a few days, scarcely any trace of dangerous unions. It was plain their existence, except what was from their history, either that they to be found in the trials and puncould not so contrive their arrange- ishment of the conspirators. “Alments as to exclude spies from their though it was the army, the most very bosom, or that amongst their formidable foe when disaffected, members some were always to be and when faithful the only trustfound, willing, when imprisoned on worthy support of absolute power, suspicion, to make their peace with which had excited the revolt, and government by revealing whatever dipped its hands in loyal blood, was known to them. This was no the rebellious movement did not doubt perfectly natural in associa- extend beyond the daring attempt tions so widely extended, and in- made at St. Petersburgh in the cluding so many varieties of head north, and the more abortive one and heart, especially when the vo- at Kiev in the southern part of * latility and rashness of youth and the empire. The rest of the troops enthusiasm combined are taken into submitted peacefully and willingly account; but the almost absolute to the new emperor; the resignacertainty of detection was unable tion of Constantine, from whatto crush the flame; and the young ever cause it might have originally men still continued to train them- proceeded, whether from an imselves, by unruly and seditious con- probable disinclination to the cares duct at the universities, for found- of imperial power, or a reluctant ing new confederacies, and planning assent to the will of another, was new rebellions. At Halle the bea now certain and final; and, if he haviour of the students was so bad, possessed the power, he shewed that, at the end of the first session by the frankness and sincerity of of the year, an ordonnance was his conduct, that he had not the

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