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directions were called effective, to speak, only the doctrines of the secondary, and principal » They exoteriet school ; there was an estook the title of effective directions, oteric school, into which only the as soon as they were composed of more select conspirators were fadten members.1) Every effective di- mitted, and in which their practirection could establish a secondary cal political schemes for the regeone, which had no relation but neration of Russia were discussed, with it. But if the secondary almost every conceivable plan of direction established, in its' turn, reform being proposed, and no another composed of ten members, distinct course ever resolved upon it became independent of its found- or adopted. Some wished to es er. The title of principal direction tablish a government, in which the was given to those which had esta- supreme authority should be con-blished three free societies. The centrated in a triumvirate, urof principal direction had the prero which they flattered themselves gative of receiving the second part they would make a part a 1 others of the regulations. In every di- intended to divide Russia itinto rection there was elected a council, several independent administracomposed of an overseer or two tions, united by a federal bond, to chiefs, according as the direction be called states, of which they consisted of ten or twenty mem- hoped they would be constituted -bers. All affairs, both in the di- the heads : others dreamed of derections and central union, were taching different provinces of the decided by a plurality of votes. 'empire, either to give them com

The names of the members who plete independence, or to cede had merited well of the union were them to neighbouring powers:

inseribed in a book of honour, and and others still were willing to those who had been expelled, in a retain monarchy, transferring the book of ignominy. They had the crown from Alexander, to his -right of leaving the union, but wife the empress Elizabeth. There were bound to secresy on every was no unity of sentiment or dething which they had learned sign, no steadiness of purpose : while in it. There was no parti- what had been unanimously agreed scular ceremony of admission. The to was. frequently unanimously new member put in a written de- altered a few hours afterwards.

claration, which was afterwards The assassination of the emperor burnt without his knowledge. Was again spoken of, and steps Every member was bound to give towards its perpetration were acto *the treasury the twenty-fifth tually taken; but whether by the part of his annual income; but this imad zeal of individuals, or in exregulation was so little observed, ecution of resolutions of the whole that only five thousand roubles body, was very doubtful. In 1823, were collected in all, and these two members went for that purwere spent for purposes uncon- pose to Bobronisk, through which nected with the objects of the the emperor was to pass, but the society.

Voodo, non-appearance of their accoman Such was the character, and -plices discouraged them from such were the ostensible objects of making the attempt. . In 1825, it the first part of the regulations of was once more resolved upon : a the society. But these were so man who had been loaded with

of the troops , fac

favours by the emperor, strenu- oath of fidelity to a new sovereign, ously manifested an eager desire to and to iiew laws; but that all be the assassin, objecting to all was irreparably lost." The indelay, and it was decided that the telligence, however, that the grand regicides should proceed to Tagan- duke Constantine persisted in his rog, where his imperial majesty refusal of the crown, gave fresh resided: but, upon further des life to the hopes of the conspiraliberation, it was agreed to delay tors': ' they flattered themselves May, 1826, when the conspirators and the people, by persuading them supposed he would review the that the grand duke never had troops in the neighbourhood of renounced the crown, and, under Bela Tserkoff. In the autumn, this pretext, excite them to overarrived at Petersburgh, from the tion was then to take advantage extremities of Russia, and, having of the confusion, to establish a been affiliated in the northern as provisional government, which sociation, offered his arm to assas should order chambers to be forme sinate the emperor

ed throughout the provinces for It is impossible to conjecture the election of deputies. Two what might have happened, if legislative chambers were to be Alexander had lived to review his instituted, the highest to be comtroops at Taganrog, where such posed of permanent members. discoveries had already been made They were next to proceed to to the emperor of the machina- form provincial chambers, which tions that were going on, as led to were to have a local legislation ; the immediate adoption of mea to convert the military colonies sures of precaution, and gave the into a national guard and place first information of the plot to the the citadel of St. Petersburg in government at St. Petersburg. the hands of the municipality . His mexpected death, however, According to another plan, de took them altogether unprepared, veloped by Batenkov, the conspiand, joined to the knowledge that rators were to separate, some propart of the plot had been already claiming the grand duke Constandetected, ,' induced them to act tine, and others Nicholaszi and if tashly, in the hope that the con- the majority should be in favour fusion of the moment might sup- of the foriner, the latter was either ply the want of means and fore- to have consented to the re-modelsight. The submission of Con- ling of the public institutions, and stantine deprived them of one to the establishment of a provigreat hold

upon the army. Baten sional government, or to have kov, who, when the attempt was postponed his accession to the actually made, was one of the first throne; and then the conspirators, to desert his party, exclaimede declaring such postponement to be " That the opportunity which they an abilication, were to have prohad suffered to escape would not claimed the grand duke Alexanrecur in fifty years; that if there der, his son, as emperor. Batenhad been any wise heads in the kov 'assumed that, at the moment council of state, 'Russia would, at of this revolutionary explosion, an that moment, have been taking an attempt would be made against

the life of Nicholas, and Rieliev It was decided that their chief embracing Kahovsky, said to him, should go the following day to the "My dear friend, you are alone senate-house, and head the troops in the world; you ought to sacri- who refused to take the oath, but fice yourself for the sake of so- the two captains, who were to ciety: assassinate the emperor.” command under his orders, conAt the same instant the other con trived to be absent; the one, bespirators embraced him, and he cause, having been but newly promised to do it. He was to initiated into the conspiracy, he have gained access to the palace, did not thoroughly understand its disguised as an officer of grenaobject; the other, because he sugdiers, or to have waited on one of pected the majority of the leaders. the steps which his majesty was Of the principal conspirators who to have passed ; but he discovered were to have appeared at the rensubsequently that the project was dezvous to take the command of not feasible, and the conspirators the troops, Bulatov presented concurred in his opinion.

himself merely as a spectator; -. It was known that the manifesto Yakubovitch did not remain an of the emperor Nicholas on his instant; and prince Trubetsky accession to the throne would ap+ hastened to take the oath to pear on the 26th of December, Nicholas, thus hoping to efface a and that day was fixed upon by part of his crime, and then fled the conspirators for the out-break to the Austrian minister, his wife's ing of the revolt; trusting, not- brother-in-law, where count Neswithstanding their want of conselrode claimed him by order of cert, that their own military in- the emperor. Batenkoff followed fuence, and the name of Constan- his example. The inferior traitors tine, the legitimate heir of the behaved with greater courage, and, throne, whose refusal of the crown at least, did not betray their cause, was to be represented as a false- wicked and impracticable as it was, hood, or as the effect of compul- in the moment of danger. Riesion, would seduce the soldiery in liev had succeeded in seducing the the critical moment when they officers in the marine barracks, were about to take the oath to who, after a long resistance, deNicholas. Even on the 25th they termined to take part in the inwere sanguine as to their success. surrection; and the sailors, led Baron Steinbell had already be- away by them, refused to take the gun a manifesto, announcing that oath. General Schipo, who had the two grand-dukes had given up been commissioned to administer it, to a noble band of patriots the placed the officers under arrest; nomination of a sovereign; that but they were speedily liberated the senate had ordered a general by the conspirators, exclaiming, convocation of the deputies of the “ Do you hear those yollies? your empire ; and that in the interval comrades are being massacred !" there was to be a provisional go- At these words, the battalion vernment. As the moment ap- darted from the barracks, and met proached, the greater number of with a lieutenant of the regiment the conspirators exhibited impa- of Finland, who cried out to them, tience, and their leaders betrayed “Form against the cavalry." irresolution, remorse, and fear, Prince Stehapine, after having

favours by the emperor, strenut oath of fidelity to a new sovereign, ously manifested an eager desire to and to new laws; but that all be the assassin, objecting to all was irreparably lost.” The indelay; and it was decided that the telligence, however, that the grand regicides should proceed to Tagar- duke Constantine persisted in his rog, where his imperial majesty refusal of the crown, gave fresh resided : but, upon further de- life to the hopes of the conspiraliberation, it was agreed to delay tors: they flattered themselves the enterprise till the month of that they could deceive the troops May, 1826, when the conspirators and the people, by persuading them supposed he would review the that the grand duke never had troops in the neighbourhood of renounced the crown, and, under Bela Tserkoff. In the autumn, this pretext, excité them to overtoo, of 1825, another conspirator turn the government.

The facarrived at Petersburgh, from the tion was then to take advantage extremities of Russia, and, having of the confusion, to establish a been affiliated in the northern ase provisional government, which sociation, offered his arm to assas- should order chambers to be formsinate the emperor.

ed throughout the provinces for It is impossible to conjecture the election of deputies. Two what might have happened, if legislative chambers were to be Alexander had lived to review his instituted, the highest to be comtroops at Taganrog, where such posed of permanent members. discoveries had already been made They were next to proceed to to the emperor of the machina- form provincial chambers, which tions that were going on, as led to were to have a local legislation ; the immediate adoption of mea to convert the military colonies sures of precaution, and gave the into a national guard, and place first information of the plot to the the citadel of St. Petersburg in government at St. Petersburg. the hands of the municipality. His expected death, however, According to another plan, detook them altogether unprepared, veloped by Batenkov, the conspiand, joined to the knowledge that rators were to separate, some propart of the plot had been already claiming the grand duke Constandetected, induced them to act tine, and others Nicholas ;' and if rashly, in the hope that the con the majority should be in favour fusion of the moment might sup- of the foriner, the latter was either ply the 'want of means and fore- to have consented to the re-modelsight. The submission of Con- ling of the public institutions, and stantine' deprived them of one to the establishment of a provigreat hold upon the army.' Baten- sional government, or to have kov, who, when the attempt was postponed his accession to the actually made, was one of the first throne; and then the conspirators, to desert his party, exclaimed declaring such postponement to be “ That the opportunity which they an abdication, were to have prohad suffered to escape would not claimed the grand duke Alexanrecur in fifty years; that if there der, his son, as emperor. Batenhad been any 'wise heads in the kov assumed that, at the moment council of state, Russia would, at of this revolutionary explosion, an that moment, have been taking an attempt would be made against

were about to take the oath to who, after a long resistance, de

the life of Nicholas, and Rieliev It was decided that their chief embracing Kahovsky, said to him, should go the following day to the “My dear friend, you are alone senate-house, and head the troops in the world; you ought to sacri- who refused to take the oath, but fice yourself for the sake of so- the two captains, who were to ciety: assassinate the emperor." command under his orders, conAt the same instant the other con trived to be absent; the one, bespirators embraced him, and he cause, having been but newly promised to do it. He was to initiated into the conspiracy, he have gained aceess to the palace, did not thoroughly understand its disguised as an officer of grena. object; the other, because he susdiers, or to have waited on one of pected the majority of the leaders. the steps which his majesty was of the principal conspirators who to have passed ; but he discovered were to have appeared at the rensubsequently that the project was dezvous to take the command of not feasible, and the conspirators the troops, Bulatov presented concurred in his opinion.

himself merely as a spectator; It was known that the manifesto Yakubovitch did not remain an of the emperor Nicholas on his instant; and prince Trubetsky accession to the throne would ap- hastened to take the oath to pear on the 26th of December, Nicholas, thus hoping to efface a and that day was fixed upon by part of his crime, and then fled the conspirators for the out-break to the Austrian minister, his wife's ing of the revolt ; trusting, not- brother-in-law, where count Neswithstanding their want of con- selrode claimed him by order of cert, that their own military in the emperor. Batenkoff followed finence, and the name of Constan- his example. The inferior traitors tine, the legitimate heir of the behaved with greater courage, and, throne, whose refusal of the crown at least, did not betray their cause, was to be represented as a false- wicked and impracticable as it was, hood, or as the effect of compul- in the moment of danger. Riesion, would seduce the soldiery in liev had succeeded in seducing the the critical moment when they officers in the marine barracks,

Nicholas. Even on the 25th they termined to take part in the inwere sanguine as to their success. surrection; and the sailors, led Baron Steinbell had already be- away by them, refused to take the gun a manifesto, announcing that oath. General Schipo, who had the two grand-dukes had given up been commissioned to administer it, to a noble band of patriots the placed the officers under arrest; nomination of a sovereign ; that but they were speedily liberated the senate had ordered a general by the conspirators, exclaiming, convocation of the deputies of the “Do you hear those yollies ? your empire ; and that in the interval comrades are being massacred !” there was to be a provisional go- At these words, the battalion vernment. As the moment ap- darted from the barracks, and met proached, the greater number of with a lieutenant of the regiment the conspirators exhibited impa- of Finland, who cried out to them, tience, and their leaders betrayed “Form against the cavalry." irresolution, remorse, and fear. . Prince Stchapine, after having

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