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proceed upon vague and tyrannical lenity with which the emperor maxims concerning the motives and interfered to soften down the tendency of acts. On the contrary, rigour of the law, proved that they the government manifested a strong were confident in the hold which determination to avoid the conjur- they had upon such public opinion ing up of imaginary plots and as existed. Nicholas found himself dangers, and to deal only with sufficiently secure to be able to be what was substantial and certain, merciful ; Ferdinand felt his power and a humane anxiety to lessen to be so feeble and tottering, that rather than to exaggerate, the he could not even afford to be just. number of the guilty ; to separate

The interests of so many families their varying degrees of criminality of rank and respectability were infrom each other, and point out volved in the result of this inquiry, every circumstance of moral pallia- that St. Petersburg, during its tion, the irresolution of the leaders continuance, wore no air of gaiety. themselves, the weakness of their The Emperor had denied himself dupes, even their subsequent ré- every kind of diversion, and public pentance and remorse. The report shew: even the birth-day of the was the candid charge of a judge, empress had not been observed not the partial statement of a pub- with the customary ceremonies, lic accuser.

Hence, too, the go- and the coronation of their mavernment was able to give the ut- jesties had been postponed. But most publicity not merely to the justice and mercy having equally general results of the inquiry, for done their duty, the coronation whose truth and justice their own took place at Moscow, on the 3rd assertion was to be the only guaran- of September, with all the pomp tee, but all its details and evidence, which the rites of the Greek church from which every man could pass could bestow, and amid all the judgment for himself upon the magnificence which the congregated government and its opponents. representatives of all the crowned Nicholas acted as if he wished to heads of Europe could display. convince, not to revenge: and his The most striking occurrence was proceedings thus gained the con- the unexpected presence of the fidence of the nation, the most grand-duke Constantine, who gave essential of all results to the use- a very satisfactory confirmation ou ful prosecution of political crimes. the good faith with which he acHow different was this deliberate quiesced in his exclusion from the and discriminating inquiry, from throne, by repairing voluntarily to the despotic and sanguinary mea- Moscow, and bearing a principal sures, the precipitate punishments, share in the ceremony of placing the general proscriptions, the un- upon the head of his

younger relenting love of penal vengeance, brother, the imperial crown, which, by which Ferdinand of Spain was by right of birth, ought to have glitmaking his kingdom recede from tered on hisown brow. Animperial the comforts and securities of social manifesto immediately followed, by life? The very publicity which which, in the event of the emthe Russian government gave to peror's death, leaving a minor son, the inquiry, the discrimination the grand duke Michael was declared with which it apportioned punish- regent till the majority of the heir ; ment among the criminals, and the or if the empress should be left

a few cases into hard labour for Soloviev, and twò lieutenants, twenty years with a similar degra- being condemned to death, their dation, and exile for life to Siberia, sentence was commuted into hard after these twenty-years shouldhave labour; one officer was sent to expired. Pestel and his accomplices Siberia, and four were degraded were executed on the 26th of July; to serve as common soldiers in and, on the sanie day, in front of their distant garrisons. As those of gibbet, the ceremony of degrada- Muravier's band, who had fallen tion was performed on the pri- in the conflict with the troops who soners of whose sentence that pun- dispersed them, were beyond the ishment formed a part, except the reach of the executioner, gibbets, naval officers, who were sent to with their names, were ordered to Cronstadt, to be degraded on board be placed upon their graves instead a man of war. The fate of the of crosses. Of the officers not enofficers condemned for life to labour gaged in the conspiracy, prince in the mines, or drag out existence Meschtchaki

, and several others, in Siberia, was scarcely to be envied were punished with imprisonment in comparison with the lot of on account of their cowardice. those who suffered on the scaffold. The whole progress of this juAny man may nerve himself to dicial inquiry, as well as its termeet the mere extinction of life, mination, was most honourable to and every man does it at last, when the character of the Russian gother he meet it on his couch, or on vernment, and the new emperor. the scaffold ; but protracted death, It was begun in no passionate or the lingering torture of hopeless vindictive humour; it was prosebanishment, the privation of all cuted steadily and calmly, without that can render life itself accept- those tedious delays which in some able, permission to breathe, when countries prevent the infliction of every moment brings with it the punishment till the impression wish to die, is an accumulation of made on the public mind by the misery at which the heart sickens. guilt of the accused has been almost Yet this was the destiny to which effaced by lapse of time. The many staff and superior officers of sources of evidence, too, on which Russia were doomed, had not the the commission seems to have rewell-judged policy of the emperor lied, were trust-worthy. An alleintervened. After a careful in- gation of political crime, under a quiry into the extent to which despotic government, generally supthey had approved, or actively for- plies the place of proof; fear and warded, the treasonable viewsof the suspicion serve the purposes of conspirators with whom they were conviction: but here there was disinvolved, he ordered them to be played no disposition to condemn discharged from any sentence pro- at random; no inclination to exnounced by criminal courts, and to aggerate imputed guilt, no atbe liable only to correctional pun- tempt to force an improbable meanishments. The same merciful dis- ing upon actions and words, to position, not more humane than combine artificially circumstances wise, was manifested in the pun- which had no connexion with each ishment of the conspirators impli- other, and, in the absence of that cated in the insurrection excited precision and particularity, without by Muraviev at Kiev. Baron which there can be no evidence, to

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proceed upon vague and tyrannical lenity with which the emperor maxims concerning the motives and interfered to soften down the tendency of acts. On the contrary, rigour of the law, proved that they the government manifested a strong were confident in the hold which determination to avoid the conjur- they had upon such public opinion ing up of imaginary plots and as existed. Nicholas found himself dangers, and to deal only with sufficiently secure to be able to be what was substantial and certain, merciful ; Ferdinand felt his power and a humane anxiety to lessen to be so feeble and tottering, that rather than to exaggerate, the he could not even afford to be just. number of the guilty ; to separate

The interests of so many families their varying degrees of criminality of rank and respectability were infrom each other, and point out volved in the result of this inquiry, every circumstance of moral pallia- that St. Petersburg, during its tion, the irresolution of the leaders continuance, wore no air of gaiety. themselves, the weakness of their The Emperor had denied himself dupes, even their subsequent l'é- every kind of diversion, and public pentance and remorse. The report shew: even the birth-day of the was the candid charge of a judge, empress had not been observed not the partial statement of a pub- with the customary ceremonies, lic accuser.

Hence, too, the go- and the coronation of their mavernment was able to give the ut- jesties had been postponed. But most publicity not merely to the justice and mercy having equally general results of the inquiry, for done their duty, the coronation whose truth and justice their own took place at Moscow, on the 3rd assertion was to be the only guaran- of September, with all the pomp tee, but all its details and evidence, which the rites of the Greek church from which every man could pass could bestow, and amid all the judgment for himself upon the magnificence which the congregated government and its opponents. representatives of all the crowned Nicholas acted as if he wished to heads of Europe could display. convince, not to revenge: and his The most striking occurrence was proceedings thus gained the con- the unexpected presence of the fidence of the nation, the most grand-duke Constantine, who gave essential of all results to the use- a very satisfactory confirmation du ful prosecution of political crimes. the good faith with which he acHow different was this deliberate quiesced in his exclusion from the and discriminating inquiry, from throne, by repairing voluntarily to the despotic and sanguinary mea- Moscow, and bearing a principal sures, the precipitate punishments, share in the ceremony of placing the general proscriptions, the un- upon

the head of his

younger relenting love of penal vengeance, brother, the imperial crown, which, by which Ferdinand of Spain was by right of birth, ought to have glitmaking his kingdom recede from tered on his own brow. Animperial the comforts and securities of social manifesto immediately followed, by life? The very publicity which which, in the event of the emthe Russian government gave to peror's death, leaving a minor son, the inquiry, the discrimination the grand duke Michael was declared with which it apportioned punish- regent till the majority of the heir ; ment among the criminals, and the or if the empress should be left

a few cases into hard labour for Soloviev, and two lieutenants, twenty years with a similar degra- being condemned to death, their dation, and exile for life to Siberia, sentence was commuted into hard after these twenty-years shouldhave labour; one officer was sent to expired. Pestel and his accomplices Siberia, and four were degraded were executed on the 26th of July; to serve as common soldiers in and, on the same day, in front of their distant garrisons. As those of gibbet, the ceremony of degrada- Muraviev's band, who had fallen tion was performed on the pri- in the conflict with the troops who soners of whose sentence that pun- dispersed them, were beyond the ishment formed a part, except the reach of the executioner, gibbets, naval officers, who were sent to with their names, were ordered to Cronstadt, to be degraded on board be placed upon their graves instead a man of war. The fate of the of crosses. Of the officers not enofficers condemned for life to labour gaged in the conspiracy, prince in the mines, or drag out existence Meschtchaki, and several others, in Siberia, was scarcely to be envied were punished with imprisonment in comparison with the lot of on account of their cowardice. those who suffered on the scaffold. The whole progress of this juAny man may nerve himself to dicial inquiry, as well as its termeet the mere extinction of life, mination, was most honourable to and every man does it at last, whe- the character of the Russian gother he meet it on his couch, or on vernment, and the new emperor. the scaffold; but protracted death, It was begun in no passionate or the lingering torture of hopeless vindictive humour; it was prosebanishment, the privation of all cuted steadily and calmly, without that can render life itself accept- those tedious delays which in some able, permission to breathe, when countries prevent the infliction of every moment brings with it the punishment till the impression wish to die, is an accumulation of made on the public mind by the misery at which the heart sickens. guilt of the accused has been almost Yet this was the destiny to which effaced by lapse of time.

The many staff and superior officers of sources of evidence, too, on which Russia were doomed, had not the the commission seems to have rewell-judged policy of the emperor lied, were trust-worthy. An alleintervened. After a careful in- gation of political crime, under a quiry into the extent to which despotic government, generally supthey had approved, or actively for- plies the place of proof; fear and warded, the treasonable viewsof the suspicion serve the purposes

of conspirator's with whom they were conviction : but here there was disinvolved, he ordered them to be played no disposition to condemn discharged from any sentence pro- at random ; no inclination to exnounced by criminal courts, and to aggerate imputed guilt, no atbe liable only to correctional pun- tempt to force an improbable meanishments. The same merciful dis- ing upon actions and words, to position, not more humane than combine artificially circumstances wise, was manifested in the pun, which had no connexion with each ishment of the conspirators impli- other, and, in the absence of that cated in the insurrection excited precision and particularity, without by Muraviev at Kiev. Baron which there can be no evidence, to

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proceed upon vague and tyrannical lenity with which the emperor maxims concerning the motives and interfered to soften down the tendency of acts. On the contrary, rigour of the law, proved that they the government manifested a strong were confident in the hold which determination to avoid the conjure they had upon such public opinion ing up of imaginary plots and as existed. Nicholas found himself dangers, and to deal only with sufficiently secure to be able to be what was substantial and certain, merciful ; Ferdinand felt his power and a humane anxiety to lessen to be so feeble and tottering, that rather than to exaggerate,

the he could not even afford to be just. number of the guilty ; to separate

The interests of so many families their varying degrees of criminality of rank and respectability were infrom each other, and point out volved in the result of this inquiry, every circumstance of moral pallia- that St. Petersburg, during its tion, the irresolution of the leaders continuancé, wore no air of gaiety. themselves, the weakness of their The Emperor had denied himself dupes, even their subsequent l'é- every kind of diversion, and public pentance and remorse. The report shew : even the birth-day of the was the candid charge of a judge, empress had not been observed not the partial statement of a pub- with the customary ceremonies, lic accuser.

Hence, too, the go and the coronation of their mavernment was able to give the ut- jesties had been postponed. But most publicity not merely to the justice and mercy having equally general results of the inquiry, for done their duty, the coronation whose truth and justice their own took place at Moscow, on the 3rd assertion was to be the only guaran- of September, with all the pomp tee, but all its details and evidence, which the rites of the Greek church from which every man could pass could bestow, and amid all the judgment for himself upon the magnificence which the congregated government and its opponents. representatives of all the crowned Nicholas acted as if he wished to heads of Europe could display. convince, not to revenge: and his The most striking occurrence was proceedings thus gained the con- the unexpected presence of the fidence of the nation, the most grand-duke Constantine, who gave essential of all results to the use- a very satisfactory confirmation Qi ful prosecution of political crimes. the good faith with which he acHow different was this deliberate quiesced in his exclusion from the and discriminating inquiry, from throne, by repairing voluntarily to the despotic and sanguinary meam Moscow, and bearing a principal sures, the precipitate punishments, share in the ceremony of placing the general proscriptions, the un- upon the head of his younger relenting love of penal vengeance, brother, the imperial crown, which, by which Ferdinand of Spain was by right of birth, ought to have glitmaking his kingdom recede from tered on hisown brow. Animperial the comforts and securities of social manifesto immediately followed, by life? The very publicity which which, in the event of the emthe Russian government gave to peror's death, leaving a minor son, the inquiry, the discrimination the grand duke Michael was declared with which it apportioned punish- regent till the majority of the heir ; ment among the criminals, and the or if the empress should be left

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