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police on the frontiers was every“ panies, reputed free-masons, known where rendered more striet :: by for communeros, considered liberal, a special ordinance, all persons, exaltados, or moderates, and purwhatsoever, entering the kingdom, chasers of national or secularized whether suspected or not, were property. These lists were likeordered to be arrested, till their wise to specify, whether any

india conduet should be examined, and vidual had been a member of the the purpose of their journey ascerası Supreme Junta of the government tained. It was particularly added, of Madrid, a minister, a member of “the king's pleasure is, that this any tribunal or court of justice, a measure be extended even to all deputy from any province to the persons who have returned with Cortes, or a secretary, a political, lawful permission." At the same chief, or employed on any other

time ministerial circulars were service, a member or curator of any * issued, rousing the vigilance of the political society, ora political writer.

public officers not only to watch all Any other thing, which might give books to be imported, but again to a correct idea of the true opinions set to work, and examine all books, held by such individual during the already imported, calling upon the prevalence of the constitution, was clergy to make use of the pulpit to be added; as well as an explanaand the confessional to enforce the tion of his conduct from the downgiving up of prohibited works ; fall of the constitution, and of the and (as if to remove every shadow influence which he had possessed, of social confidence, and hold out and might have in the government, premiums for the gratification of in consequence of his fortụne. lying and malicious informers), to When any person, contained in enforce, by these mighty engines these infamous lists, or any of his of a superstitious creed, the duty children, or servants, applied for a of informing, with the greatest passport to leave the district, the seoresy" against persons who shall general intendant was immediately not give up such books. The con- . to be informed of the fact, and of fessor was to compel a man, by the suspicions to which the journey threats-of eternal perdition, to de- might give rise. No passport was liver up to the Inquisition a rela- to be given to a person « marked tion or a friend who was guilty of as attached to the constitutional the enormity of possessing a Bible, system,” without satisfying the or a'volume of Voltaire. Nothing police that he had good reasons for could better illustrate the fears and travelling. His passport, if he rejealousies of the government than ceived one, was to specify the the instructions given ito the police places through which he was to after the promulgation of the con- pass, and at which he was to stop stitutional charter in Portugal. in going or returning; and this By these instructions, the subaltern specification was to serve intendants of police were to make notice to the authorities in t

these up lists of all persons who came places to have an eye upon his under the descriptions of being conduct." As if false informers attached to the constitutional sys- could never be too numerous, or tem, having been national volun. be too highly bribed, a reward of teers of infantry or cavalry, mem- thousand reals was promised to every bers of sacred battalions or com police officer, who should denounce

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any meeting of persons 'whose rents ; some of them allowed tra-; names were in the lists; and if the vellers to pass unspoiled of any meeting consisted of more than six thing but their horses; the men persons, and the house was what of Corona, a bandit who kept An. was termed a' suspected one, his dalusia in alarm, sometimes used as reward was to be two thousand their watch-word, '<« Don Carlos reals, and promotion, " even though and the Inquisition;" and governthe object of the meeting should not ment offered a pardon to any mem.. be ascertained.

li ber of his band who would deliver But these, and similar measures, up this rebel, or point out the tyrannical as'they were, could not place of his retreat. Every new enable the government to sleep suspicion led to new acts of sevesoundly; they were in constant rity, and vexatious police regu-.. dread of insurrection, and public lations. The governor of Almeira, functionaries seemed to vie with on the authority of an anonymous each other in proving their loyalty letter, prohibited the inhabitants by, inventing or detecting plots. from being out of doors after ten i One object of terror was, the king's o'clock at night without a lanthorn, own brother, Don Carlos. A general i and forbade more than three perul » rising in his favour all over the sons to meet in public or private,l. kingdom was daily dreaded; and by night or day. In its own troops i the wonderful tlting was, that the the government reposed little condislike of his adherents to the fidence, for it could not pay them ;' sway of Ferdinand was founded on and anxious precautions were taken their having discovered that the to prevent them from forming any government of the latter was too lasting connection with the popua'i liberal and moderate. Several ec- lation. The captains-general of : clesiastics were removed from Ma- the provinces reported regularly to drid in consequence of being sus- the government all the movements pected of Carlism, and rigorous- and marches made by the men inquisitions were instituted even under their command: they were into families to discover these dis- told in their instructions, that they loyal and ultra-royal inclinatious. must “avoid too great a dissemiThe appetite of the priesthood for nation, which is always insufficient, ! revenge ana

power must have been, compared with the extent of the 1 indeed, insatiable, when even the country, and often useless; but executions and proscriptions, and when this dissemination is indisa ordinances, of Ferdinand were inc' pensable, it is essentially requisite sufficient to glut it. Proclama- to change the regiments with each tions in favour of Don Carlos were other, in order that this kind of circulated throughout the kingdom; service may not injure discipline, and in the province of La Mancha; and cause the corruption of the solcirculars were addressed to the dier.” The king having gone to visit: commanders of the royalist vo- the barracks of a regiment of pro-lunteers, setting forth his preten- vincial militia quartered at Aransions, and calling on them to pro- juez, 'arrived while the men were claim him. The numerous bands at dinner. “ You dine láte," said of robbers that infested the coun- the king.---- Yes Sire,” answered try, were suspected to be in reality a soldier ; “ we dine late, and we under the direction of his adhés dine on credit, too." Love ?

solved for war, and the troops tiations, stated that he would imwere ordered to mareh to the fron-mediately apply to his government tier.

for further orders; but he was inThese resolutions had been formed that he would be furnished adopted, while prince Menzikov with the means of returning to was on his journey to Sultania. Teflis, and that, although the neOn the road he had been passed by gotiations might be resumed in a Abbas Mirza returning in great frontier town, it would only be on haste from Tauris to the camp;

and, the footing of the treaty of Guwhen he arrived at Sultania, helistan, that was, upon Russia, as experienced a striking change from a preliminary, retiring instantly the deference and respect with from the disputed territory. On which he had been received on the the interposition of the English frontier. At his first audience, Chargé d'Affaires, prince Menziwhen he presented the emperor's koff agreed to take with him to letter to the Schah, the latter, in- Teflis a Persian negociator, whose stead of taking it in his own hand, efforts he might second, and who the usual mark of respect to a should endeavour to procure from foreign potentate, and which, in general Yermolov the evacuation the course of the previous arrange- of the coast of the Goktcha during ment of the ceremonial of presen- the ensuing winter, which could tation, he had twice positively pro- be employed in arranging the mised to do, made a sign to the prince points in dispute regarding the to lay it upon a cushion, a mark of frontiers. The Schah assented to contempt and insult to his master. * this proposal, and named an envoy War had been already resolved to proceed to Teflis; but the portion upon, but decency required that a of territory in dispute were not the reason should be given. The object or motive of the war party, Persian minister accordingly made and such an arrangement did any." a peremptory demand to prince thing but suit their views. The Menzikoff, that Russia should im- Khan of Talyche, a district subject mediately give up possession of the to Russia, chose this moment to country which she occupied on the revolt ; he put the Russian garrison lake of Goktcha. Prince Menzi- of Arkevan to the sword, and de! koff answered by referring to the manded of Persia, what he inletter of Abbas Mirza to general stantly received, assistance against Yermoloff, in which his royal high- the infidel. Abbas Mirza and his ness had consented to vield that adherents took advantage of this district in exchange for the tract occurrence to decide the king between the Kapan and Kapana- for war. The king and the army tchy ; but Alaiar Khan replied, which had been in the camp at that such an exchange had never Sultania, marched to the frontier received the sanction of the Schah, of Georgia, and prince Menzikov and totally inadmissible. set out on his return to Teflis. The Russian envoy, whose instruc- On his journey he was subjected tions had been framed on the to manifold species of insult, and supposition of that exchange being bad treatment. His dragoman was a point already fixed by the nego- put under arrest; the couriers

coming to him as well as those Prince Menzikov's Despatches. sent by him, were stopped, and


the despatches taken from them. therefore, on the 28th September, At Erivan he was detained for issued a declaration of war against three weeks by orders of the Persia, in which, after stating the Persian minister, notwithstanding facts, she concluded, that, as the all his remonstrances against this treaty of Gulistan had been

uch of the law of nations; and broken, she would not lay down he at last made his escape, and her arms, “ till she had obtained reached Teflis in safety, only by guarantees for perfect security for causing it to be represented to that the future, and a just indemnity minister, that, as his numerous for the past, by a solid and honourenemies would assuredly make able peace." use of the first unsuccessful or The folly, the precipitation, the even doubtful battle, to destroy his fanaticism of Persia thus hurried credit, it would be good policy for her into an unnecessary war, him to think beforehand of con- for which she was not at all precluding a peace on advantageous pared, and that, too, with a power terms, and thatsuch a peace was most whose colossal strength, if directed likely to be obtained by allowing towards schemes of conquest, could the departure of the Russian am- have wished for no better pretext bassador, who would have a pers to crush her. Even if Russia, by sonal interest to incline his go- occupying the shore of the Goktcha, vernment to an accommodation. had extended her occupation be

When these proceedings first yond the limits prescribed by became known at Petersburgh and treaty, it was not an aggression of Moscow, the emperor Nicholas was yesterday, calling for immediate disposed to ascribe them to the action to repel it. The encroach. disobedience of some Persian com- ment, if such it were, had been, mander, who had disregarded the and was at that moment, the subintentions of his sovereign ; and he ject of negotiation ; that negotiademanded nothing more than the tion had already come the length immediate removal and exemplary of an arrangement sanctioned by punishment of the Sirdar of Eris the prince royal; and if a refusal on van, whom he considered to be the part of Persia to ratify it, renthe first aggressor.

But when dered it necessary for the Russian these orders arrived in Georgia, it envoy, necessarily uninstructed on was no longer possible to execute an occurrence which had never them, and the affair was decided. been anticipated, to await the Abbas Mirza, having returned from farther orders of his court, it could the camp of Sultania, had taken, be no good reason for interrupting in person, the command of the negotiation altogether by an unPersian forces. He already occum expected appeal to arms. Persia pied a part of the province of rushed into war without a suffi, Karabasch, belonging to Russia, cient motive; and, as she brought and was exciting rebellion; his to it neither adequate resources, emissaries were encouraging the nor sufficient preparation, she could Mahommedan subjects of Russia in not reasonably promise herself that all the frontier provinces to revolt; the result would be favourable. and the Persian proclamations an- The Persian army was trained by nounced a religious war. Russia, British officers; but

when it

the one

is attendants. frontier, the British chargé d The Russians now advanced, and affaires forbade them to fo

follow took possession, of Elizabethpol The Persian army consisted of without opposition. Abbas Mirza, between thirty and forty thousand having been joined by Alaiar men; and, as the invasion took Khau, burning to avenge their deplace in the midst of peace, it feat, advanced against Madatov, found, when it crossed the Araxes, who had prepared to meet him by the frontiers of Georgia almost effecting a junction with general stripped of troops. The Georgian Parkæwitch, and a second battle army of Russia was dispersed in was fought on the 25th September, its cantonments, and to collect in the neighbourhood of Elizabeththem required time. At first, pol. According to the Russian therefore, success was on the side accounts, the Persians, though of the Persians; the Russian posts amounting to no fewer than thiron the frontiers fell back as the ty-five thousand men, with twenenemy advanced, being too weak ty-six pieces of artillery, were, to resist them, and, the country after a short combat, routed with being open to them for a time, the the loss of twelve hundred men, Persians issued their manifestos while the killed and wounded in calling on the delivered population the Russian army did not amount to take up arms in the name of to three hundred men. The Mahomet, and in defence of their Persians retreated across the Arax. religion, a call which was not very es in confusion, leaving behind generally answered.

them great part of their bagperity was of short duration. 'gage, and fell back upon the General Yermolov rapidly con- frontiers of Persia. General Parkæcentrated his troops at Teflis, and witch sent detachments across the strengthened the different points river to seize the enemy's magawhich were threatened. In the zines, clear the frontier, and middle of September, the Persians recover the numerous families of were first encountered by general Russian subjects, who had been Madatov, who attacked a body of carried off as plunder. In the them amounting to about ten course of these operations numerous thousand men under the command skirmishes took place, all of which of a son of Abbas, and a brother terminated to the advantage of of the Schah. After a severe con- the Russians. In the end of test, the Persian cavalry took to October, they returned to the left flight, and the infantry, being thus bank of the Araxes to go into left unsupported, were broken by winter quarters; and, at the same the Russian cavalry, and complete- time, Abbas Mirza, who had rely routed. The Persians lost two treated to Ardebil, retaining a thousand men in killed and wound- small body of troops round his own ed. Amur Khan, the uncle of person, dismissed the remainder till Abbas Mirza, was killed while en- the spring. From the province of deavouring to rally his troops, and Erivan, the Serdar, and his brother the young prince, son of Abbas, Hassam Khan, made various preafter having been taken prisoner datory incursions into the Russian by a Cossack, was rescued by the territory, striving to excite the in

Their pros

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