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habitants to revolt," and, when October, attacked and defeated the they failed in this, subjecting them Persians near the castle of Mirac, to pillage, and carrying them off and pursued them to within two as captives. But on this side, days march of Erivan itself, where likewise, the Russians were victors. the Sirdar shut himself up., General Dandov, on the 15th of

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SPAIN-General State-Change of the Council-Prosecution of the

Constitutionalists--Plots-Revolt of Bazar.--Disturbances occasioned by the Royalist Volunteers The Clergy-The Finances - Policy towards Portugal---Refusal to acknowledge the Regency of Portugal Support given to the Portuguese Rebels-Desertion of Spanish Troops-Remonstrances of the Portuguese Envoy--Invasion of Portugal-Defeated Rebels again received in Spain--General Longa suspended from his Command, and a Minister from Portugal received.

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PAIN, until in the latter part chantmen in the very mouth of

of the year she attracted the their harbours. The wretched attention of every European court state of the finances occasioned her by her intrigues against the estab- failing to pay a stipulated sum of lishment of a representative govern- six millions of reals to the Dey of ment in Portugal, had no occur- Algiers; and the barbarian imrence in her foreign policy worthy mediately sent his corsairs to sea, of being commemorated, and ex- and paralyzed for a time the hibited, in her domestic condition, whole trade of Catalonia and the same inquisitorial system of ty- Valencia. So early as April, Coranny,

the same endless fears of dis- lombian privateers appeared in the content and danger, the same hope- Mediterranean, harassed the comless prostration of all thought and merce of Cadiz, and made seveaction before bigotry and despotism, ral prizes; others were cruising which had formed her history from with equal success on the norththe restoration of Ferdinand to abso- eastern coasts. Spain was reduced lute power. By the surrender of to too low a state to revenge the Callao, in Peru, to the revolutionists, insults; and even the steam-boat shelost the last foot of ground which between Cadiz and Gibraltar was remained to her in South America'; forced, for a while, to abandon her but she still stinately refused to voyages. These privateers did not acknowledge the independence of always respect the usages of war; her revolted colonies, or to enterinto other flags than those of Spain commercial connexions with them, were occasionally exposed to their which might have been to her aggressions. some compensation for the loss of Too feeble to resent insult from their allegiance. She still made without, Spain was equally deempty vaunts of her inalienable prived of all comfort and respectasupremacy over these distant coun- bility within. What with the tries, and still more empty threats necessities and jealousies of the of using force to assert it, while government, and the violences of the pirates of Algiers, and the pri- organized banditti, neither life nor vateers of Colombia, were insulting liberty nor property were secure her coasts, and capturing her mer for an instant ; a social order could

scarcely be said to exist; since every breeches, a brilliant priesthood, thing which rendered it comfort- high roads infested by banditti, an able and respectable had fled. The exhausted treasury, the country finances were ruined, the popula- divided into parties of all colours ; tion was impoverished, commerce a king who is not ignorant of it, scarcely raised its head; the priest but who does not dare to do any hood were jealous, well paid, and thing; a paper currency which is absolute; the government was solely worth more than it ought to be: occupied with cares of police, ex. nothing was wanting to thee but a tinguishing every latent spark of holy year, and the pope has hastenenlightened thought, and guarding ed to grant it." against the possible return of In the beginning of the year the banished revolutionists, or the im- king changed the constitution of portation of foreign liberals. Super- his council and gave it a new name. stitious belief, slavish terrors, and The Consultative Junta was disSpanish gravity-a king without solved, and a new body installed either heart or head, a ministry in its place, under the appellation without talent or independence, of the Permanent Great Council

, an inquisition without principle or which was to deliberate and des " humanity--a profligate and poor cide upon all proposed measures, aristocracy-a selfish, dark, and and control the ministers in their tyrannical, priesthood--a populace various departments. Neither the whose only energies were reserved men nor their system was changed; for outraging the laws, and con- the duke del Infantado was still verting the country into a den of at the head of the ministry, and thieves a military force setting it- cardinal Inguanzo, now appointed self above the restraints of dis- archbishop of Toledo, was the first cipline, and, reckoning on the credit councillor named. The framers of of its being indispensable to the this council, whether with a view court, letting loose its licentious- to improve its policy by giving it ness on friends and foes--in the more stability, or merely to secure maritime, and once commercial the continuance of their own power, eities, great aptitude for revolt prevailed upon the king to 'sanic every where else un utter listless- tion as a fundamental principle of ness and indifference to political its institution, that its members matters, the mark of a people sunk should not be removeable at pleato the lowest degree of political sure that they should not be disdebasement, and knowing no spring missed, or exiled from the capital, of political conduct except abject except for crimes duly proved, and fear these were the elements by an express order of the sovewhich now constituted the mo- reign. This was a scheme to pronarchy of Ferdinand 7th.

tect themselves against each other's A pásquinade, pasted up in the intrigues, and to resist perhaps the streets of Madrid, in defiance of influence of those menials of the the vigilance of the police, thus king, who, without ostensible power, described the state of the country: forined in reality his privy council; " Nothing is wanting to thy hap- and yet within a few months, the piness, my dear country ; 'thou hast duke del Infantado himself was monks and locusts--the police; under the necessity of resigning. ports without ships, troops without A man gains little by securing the

right to remain in a capital till majesty has been anxious to reproved guilty of a crime, when, if establish, harmony in all the he neglects the hint which itells branches of the monarchy, to prehim that his presence is disagree serve the laws inviolate, and to lable, he may be sent for life to the cement the bonds of affection and dungeons of the Inquisition with-fidelity between yourself and your out any thing being proved against subjects. on The nation, Sire) is him tatu all. The anxiety of the convinced of your anxiety, and is ministersarta protect themselves grateful for it and it feels assured lagainst exile, except in the case of that the neglect alone of those to being convicted of something cri- whom your majesty had intrusted Iminal, wasası bitter- satire upon the execution of your wishes, has the i value attached to law and conducted the monarchy to the liberty in the administration of the brink of a precipicely The nation, Spanish government.'1t;cor your Sire, desired to see its king sur-">The leading members of the rounded by men possessing his connew Council were, the archbishop fidence, and charged with propos of Toledo , the bishop of Leon; ing the means of rendering the father Cyrille ; the duke del In: people happyy of attacking and fantado; the duke de San Carlos; destroying those vices which the don Louis de Salazar; don Francis course of time had introduced into Calomarde, as minister of Justice; the govbrnment of reforming that don Louis Ballasteros, as minister government, of watching over its of Finance; the marquis de Zam. Heets and armies, of maintaining brano, as minister of War ; Cas- the nights of legitimacy, and, in tanos, captain-general; the marquis fine, of bringing on that day which Villa Verde; the marquis de la should restore to the people concord Reunion ; the count du Venadito'; and tranquillity. The permanent don (Jose Garcia de la Torre It Council is charged with these was solemnly installed in its func- important duties; and, in order to tions on the 15th of January. The accomplish them, it will spáres no dykę del Infantado, addressing an sacrificesYes, Sire, we promise harangue to his majesty, in which and swear, that we will not rest, só he told him all that he the king long as the enemies of your sovehad ever wished to do, and all that reignty exist, until we shall have he would ever intend to do, laid dragged them forth, i no matter the blame of the present state of where they may be hidden, or things on the incapacity of those under what disguise they may seek who had before possessed the royal to conceal themselvesi?.." bus mit confidence, and described the new If it had ever been the wish of council as setting in its constitution Ferdinand"to re-establish harmony an example to asl monarchies, and in all the branches of the monarchy, forming, by its creation, an epoch and cement the bonds of affection in the history of Spain. "We between himself and his subjects,” must endeavour," said the minister the measures which he was still to the king," to strengthen what sedulously pursuing, were certainly the disaffected seek to weaken, and admirably calculated i to defeat his to reclaim those parts) to order own purpose) and make the world which have quitted their bounds. believe that he sought the safety Impressed with these truths, yout of his throne only in perpetuating

discord and distrust. The pre- families were said to have already tended amnesty, clogged with 'been driven into texiléii in consevague exceptions of whole classes quence of their connexion with so ill defined that al man could political events, and they had car scarcely tell whether or noti he nied forth with them almost all was included, had destroyed all the capital and enterprise of the confidence: no one who had in jeountry. A number of citizens of any way, contributed to raise the Barcelona, who were suspected of troops, or tookh any share lin prom having once favoured the constituclaiming the constitution through- tion, or who had consented to hold but the kingdom, but was in hourly offices under its reign, when Fer danger of being called to aecount dinand himself consented to hold for by-gone , iniquities, in which his crown under it, were ordered nearly the whole population had to leave the city within four-and. participated. M. Burgos, int à twenty hours, and betake them. memorial addressed to the king, selves to particular places of I rein the beginning of the year, on straint specially assigned to them. the best means of winning back the Not a moment's delay was allowed departed prosperity and tranquillity them for preparation, and their of the country, said, with much entreaties to be allowed to quit the truth and boldness 344€

. The first kingdom were disregarded.o. 1 The mean is a full land absolute amo criminal tribunal of Seville passed nesty, to all, without exceptions; sentence of death upon about seb or, nif there be exceptions, they venty of the deputies whoi had must be few, personal, and dis- voted for the establishment of al tinctly named. To fear danger regency in 1823, but fortunately from an amnesty is to tremble at a only four or five of them were in phantom Men, whose severity the hands of that tardy justice is offended if criminals are not which had kept them up for three punished, I will perhaps maintain years, as if afraid lest victims that the impunity of certain royal- should fail for her periodical fesists might encourage excesses, and tivals of blood. General Capåpe lead to new convulsions. "I entreat had long been imprisoned on sus your majesty not to yield to this picion of being accessory to an in melancholy scruple. 1- Justice is surrection similar to that of Best already satisfied with the leaders sieres. - At length he was brought of the rebellion having died on the to trial before the Supreme Couneil scaffold. Three years of proserip- of war, on the 10th of April. A tion and misfortune have suffi- minority of the court were for finde ciently punished those who took ing him guilty, and passing senpart in the errors and disorders of tence of death ; but the majority the late period. Policy authorizes voted that he ought to be acquitand prescribes exceptions to the ted, and re-instated in his former ordinary rules of justice, when honours. The king, however, in crowds have been guiltys" when the face of this judgment of the punishment is impossible, pardon Court, sentenced him to be banished orl oblivion is necessary" in This to the West Indian island of Porto was honest, wise, and humane ad. Rico, and to be confined in St. vice, but it was lost upon Ferdinand Sebastian till a vessel should be and his ministers, Forty thousand found to transport him. The

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