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police on the frontiers was every panies, reputed free-masons, known where rendered more striet : by for communeros, considered liberal, a special + ordinance, all persons, exaltados, or moderates, and purwhatsoever, entering the kingdom, chasers of national or secularized whether suspected or not, were property. These lists were likeordered to be arrested, till their wise to specify, whether any india, conduet should be examined, and vidual had been a member of the the purpose of their journey aseer-, Supreme Junta of the government tained. It was particularly added, of Madrid, a minister, a member of “the king's pleasure is, that this any tribunal or court of justice, a measure be extended even to all deputy from any province to the persons who have returned with Cortes, or a secretary, a political, lawful permission." At the same chief, or employed on any other time ministerial circulars were service, a member or curator of any issued, rousing the vigilance of the political society, or a political writer. public officers not only to watch all Any other thing, which might give books to be imported, but again to a correct idea of the true opinions set to work, and examine all books held by such individual during the already imported, calling upon the prevalence of the constitution, was , clergy to make use of the pulpit to be added; as well as an explanaand the confessional to enforce the tion of his conduct from the downgiving up of prohibited works ; fall of the constitution, and of the and (as if to remove every shadow influence which he had possessed, 'of social confidence, and hold out and might have in the government, premiums for the gratification of in consequence of his fortune. lying and malicious informers), to When any person, contained in enforce, by these mighty engines these infamous lists, or any of his of a superstitious creed, "the duty children, or servants, applied for of informing, with the greatest passport to leave the district, the seoresy” against persons who shall general intendant was immediately not give up such books.

to be informed of the fact, and of fessor was to compel a man, by the suspicions to which the journey threats- of eternal perdition, to de might give rise. No passport was liver up to the Inquisition a rela to be given to a person "marked tion or a friend who was guilty of as attached to the constitutional the enormity of possessing a Bible, system,” without satisfying the or a volume of Voltaire. Nothing police that he had good reasons for could better illustrate the fears and travelling. His passport, if he rejealousies of the government than ceived one, was to specify the the instructions given to the police places through which he was to after the promulgation of the con- pass, and at which he was to stop stitutional charter in Portugal. in going or returning; and this By these instructions, the subaltern specification was to serve as intendants of police were to make notice to the authorities in these up lists of all persons who came places to have an eye upon his under the descriptions of being conduct." As if false informers attached to the constitutional sy- could never be too numerous, or tem, having been national volun. be too highly. bribed, a reward of a teers of infantry or cavalry, mem- thousand reals was promised to every bers of sacred battalions or com police officer who should denounce

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any meeting of persons whose rents ; some of them allowed tra- ; names were in the lists; and if the vellers to pass unspoiled of any meeting consisted of more than six thing but their horses ; the men persons, and the house was what of Corona, a bandit who kept Ant, was termed a suspected onė, his: dalusia in alarm, sometimes used as reward was to be two thousand their waich-word, “Don Carlos reals, and promotion, even though and the Inquisition;" and governthe object of the meeting should not ment offered a pardon to any mem! be ascertained.

}! Bu ber of his band who would deliver But these, and similar measures, up this rebel, or point out the tyrannical as they were, could not place of his retreat. Every new enable the government to sleep suspicion led to new acts of sevesoundly; they were in constant rity, and vexatious police regudread of insurrection, and public lations. The governor of Almeira, functionaries seemed to vie with on the authority of an anonymous i each other in proving their loyalty letter, prohibited the inhabitants by inventing or detecting plots. from being out of doors after ten One object of terror was, the king's' o'clock at night without a lanthorn, own brother, Don Carlos. A general and forbade more than three perals rising in his favoúr 'all over the sons to meet in public or private,la kingdom was daily dreaded, and by night or day. In its own troops : the wonderful thing was, that the the government reposed little condislike of his adherents to the fidence, for it could not pay them ;' sway of Ferdinand was founded on and anxious precautions were taken their having discovered that the to prevent them from forming any government of the latter was too lasting connection with the popuo's liberal and moderate. Several ec- lation. The captains-general of clesiastics were removed from Ma- the provinces reported regularly to drid in consequence of being sus- the government all the movements pected of Carlism, and rigorous and marches made by the men inquisitions were instituted even' under their command: they were into families to discover these dis-' told in their instructions, that they loyal and ultra-royal inclinations. must “avoid too great a dissemiThe appetite of the priesthood for nation, which is always insufficient;

power must have been, compared with the extent of the i indeed, insatiable, when even the country, and often useless; but executions and proscriptions, and when this dissemination is indisa ordinances, of Ferdinand were in- pensable, it is essentially requisite sufficient to glut it. Proclama- to change the regiments with each tions in favour of Don Carlos were other, in order that this kind of circulated throughout the kingdom; service may not injure discipline, and in the province of La Mancha; and cause the corruption of the solcirculars were addressed to the dier.” The king having gone to visit: commanders of the royalist vo- the barracks of a regiment of prolunteers, setting forth his preten- vincial militia quartered at Aransions, and calling on them to pro- juez, arrived while the men were claim him.' The numerous bands at dinner. 16 You dine láte," said of robbers that infested the cound the king." Yes Sire," answered try, were suspected to be in reality a soldier ; "we dine late, and we under the direction of his adhés dine on credit, too." Lets

revenge and

The only revolt which actually longed to a body, the royalist broke out was a mad attempt made volunteers, which was indeed alin Valencia by general Bazan. He most the only body of troops in was an officer of some merit, and whom the king could repose much had formerly been political chief confidence, but who were freof Valencia. He landed on the quently the cause of much public 19th of February, at Guardamar, disturbance themselves, and the a small sea-port a few leagues from perpetrators of lawless acts of inAlicant, with about a hundred sult, and oppression, and riot; and men who had joined him in his they aggravated their excesses by enterprise. He pillaged the town assuming a sort of privilege to and the church; and, on the ape' commit them, because they ima proach of a body of royalist vo- gined, and not without some reaTunteers, who had already placed son, that the government was too themselves between him and the weak either to dispense with their sea, he retired towards the moun- services, or to punish their crimes. tains. The royal troops, however, They were the chosen support of came up with him and his party, the most extravagant of the Aposand,"after a desperate combat, in tolical party; and all that was which he received four wounds, he required of them was devotion to himself, with his brother, and the its plans. In the provinces they greater part of his companions fell were formed and recruited, and into the hands of the enemy. Some the funds for their pay were some of them were immediately shot at times raised by the influence, on Orihuela, and others hanged at even from the coffers, of the priestMurcia. Bazan himself was spared hood. After they had once felt for a few days, ostensibly because their own importance, discipline he was at the point of death, in lost its power to restrain ; they consequence of his wounds, but raised commotions when they more probably in the hope of ex- thought proper, and scorned the torting information from him ; for attempts of their officers to restore he was at last shot, on the 4th of order. They were irregularly March, ina litter, which his wounds, paid, they had arms in their then in a state of mortification, hands, they were principally men prevented him from leaving. His of abandoned character, and no plan, according to papers said to strángers to crime, and the conhave been seized upon him and sequence of this was, that they his comrades, was, to appoint a acknowledged scarcely any law but regency for the government of the their own will. Three officers be kingdom, erect a supreme revolu- longing to this corps had been tionary tribunal in the capital, convicted at Cordova :of violent with subaltern tribunals in the outrages committed against persons provinces for the punishment of whom they chose to call liberals, the royalists,' and confiscate the and whom they consequently held, property of the nobility and of the in conformity with the practice of churchLists of proscription, Ferdinand's government, to be fout too,' were said to have been al of the pale of the law. I » These ready drawn up.

it, fi il 18811 officers, who were not even in tcus. The military force employed on tady, proceeded forth with to the this occasion to rush revolt, bem court which had tried them, and

insisted that the proceedings against citizen of Madrid, on the public themi should be burned 21 on the street, for no other reason than that refusal of the judges, they and he was a negro«He was arrested. their soldiers immediately raised a with the bloody sabre in his hand, riot, and the civil authorities were, and judicial proceedings were in, i under the necessity of demanding stituted against him. But he ad military assistance from the cap- dressed a petition to the king pre-i tain-general of Sevillez to enable tending that he had had a quarrel, them to maintain the publie peace with the unarmed man, before against the loyal defenders of stabbing him the petition, was "good order," . In the beginning supported by Carvajal, the inspect of April some tumultuary assem- tor of the volunteers, and Calo-. blages of the populace took place marde, the minister of justice in the capital, in consequence of and the authorities who conducted their discontent at the increase of the prosecution, announced that his the duties.ion meaty wine, and majesty had been pleased to pardon other provisions, an increase which the volunteer. One of the municis had partly been occasioned by the pal magistrates had the honest bold-, necessity 1 of providing for these ness to make a direct application to veryomens and the troops were the king against this atrocious jouto, kept under arms. While some rage on justice and deceney; stating royalist“volunteers were coming that the court could not bring out of a housegi ai petard exploded itself to believe that it was the near them in the street. * They royal will that assassins should be said that la pistol had been fired, pardoned, contrary, to existing and aimed at them. In a momenti laws; but the murderet, to the a hundred and twenty volunteers disgrace of this contemptible gost assembled with arms in their hands, vernment, the slave of its own threatening to enter the houses of hired servants, continued to walk, the Negroes (so the constitution, the streets of. Madrid in perfect, alists are termed), and take ven- security.

. Toota tot geance for the outrage. A piquet: The clergy, the directors of 1 of Lancers, who had barracks in these exemplary troops, even/veinthat quarter, 1 attempted to - dis- tured to employ them in more exts perse the mutineers, but they, as tensive, and organized combinawell as b second more considerable tions, to make the government feel detachment, were repulsed. The the power which they could wield, colonel of the volunteers, M. Vil and urge it to the adoption of any lamis, endeavoured/' to appease measure against which

aný solitary them, but, though popular among ray of sound reason still glimmerthem, he was unsuccessful. Heing in the cabinet anight havę; at length ordered the Lancers to made it revolta irAs if the ministry chargerithem. At this juncture, had not manifested sufficient resothe captain-general of the provinces lution in resisting the establishand the governor of the fortress ment of the Portuguese constitu, made their appearance, and, by tion, the apostolics worked on their their persuasions, the volunteers at fears by souzing the royalist, yolun length dispersed, and tranquility teers. At Murcia, on the 13th of was restored. On the 21st of May, September, the volunteers, in fura royalistí volunteer assassinated therance of a plot of which the

bishops of Murcia and Orihuela, that the authorities were glad to with their chapters, were the drag away the wounded man, and prime movers, assembled in the flee with him. They sought refuge great square of the town with in the town of San Martin, about their leaders at their head. They a league from Roa, and there they then divided into small parties, and demanded assistance. Thirty marched through the streets, com- soldiers accompanied the authoria mitting all sorts of outrages against ties of the city and town to Roa, persons suspected of liberal opinions, to restore order there.

They whom they chanced to meet. They reached the square where the inentered moreover the houses of a surrectionists had assembled; and great number of liberals, whom the alcade of San Martin mounted they abused, wounded, killed, and some

some steps and proceeded to pillaged. After having employed harangue them. He reproached several hours in these exploits, they them for their disloyalty and disagain assembled in the square, and obedience to the best of kings; but with shouts of“ Death to the Libe- they would not even allow him to rals ; the King without Chambers finish his speech. He was stopped for ever," marched towards Ori- by insulting cries against the perhuela, to join the volunteers of son of the monarch; and the mutithat town, and of the country be neers declared that neither the tween Orihuela and Murcia. The people nor the soldiery would subcivil authorities were in the plot, mit to any authority that came in and accompanied the volunteers to his name. There was no longer Orihuela ; but when they were any means of resistance; and the departed from Murcia, the in- inhabitants of San Martin, with tendants of finance and police as the volunteers of that town, were sembling the servants of govern- forced again to seek safety in ment in the town, and some of the flight. Such was the authority of respectable inhabitants, succeeded Ferdinand with his

own army, in arming four hundred men, by such was the humility of the whose means they re-established apostolic priesthood, and such were some degree of tranquillity. A the troops to whom was intrusted similar scene was performing at in Spain, the maintenance of the same time in the north, at public order. Roa, a city of Old Castile. There, Nor, in fixing their empire while the commander of the vo over opinion, did the clergy neglunteers was endeavouring in vain lect those means of influence to restrain his mutinous soldiers, which flow from wealth. Una by haranguing them in the market- der the constitutional governplace, he received a blow on the ment, all the estates of the mohead with a club, and fell dead on nasteries and convents had been the spot. An officer who stood by sold, or declared, at least, to be him, wished to lay hold of the mur national property, to be approderer, and remonstrated with the priated to the payment of the men upon their guilty conduct; but public debt. Persons who held he was immediately stabbed in the property under them at a quita belly with a poinard, the point of rent, had been allowed to redeem which protruded through his loins. it, and become absolute proprietors, The tumult now became so great, on making payment to the govern

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