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ment of a capital equal to that the necessity of censuring its suprent, estimated at a fixed number pression, and attempting to enforce of years. Ferdinand now declared its principles by a second. all these redemptions null ; and the authority of the church was not only re-instated the religious thus despised, when employed to orders in their property, but con

restrain the violence of its own demned the tenants to pay to them sons, that of the state was still the rents which had become due less respected. An order having since the date of the redemption. been issued by the government to Within two years and a half the the bishops to restore to their Jesuits received upwards of three parishes some eurés who had been millions of reals from the public suspended on account of unfounded purse, on account, it was said, of political charges, the bishops con. what was due to them by the descended to tender obedience to state, while every other creditor the decree, provided only that the remained unsatisfied, and even the curés would enter into an ecclesitroops and public servants were astical engagement, almost amountirregularly paid, or not paid at all. ing to an act of rebellion--namely, Both in the capital and in the pro- that they would recognize the vinces several estates and houses Pope as Christ's vicar on earth, were restored to them. In Madrid and would resist all civil interand its neighbourhood, they fitted ference whatever in the affairs of up for their principal abode, a vast the church. hotel, and yested their capital in While the fortunes of the clergy purchasing farms and houses ; they flourished, the fortunes of the were founding colleges for the edu- public were ruined. M. Zea cation of the nobility. Their houses Bermudez had been unable to reof noviciate and convents, of which tain his office for four and twenty Madrid alone contained two hun- hours after proposing an impost dred, were full; they had regained which would affect equally eccletheir situations and influence as siastical and lay property.

The chaplains or confessors in the fa- receipts of the Treasury did not milies of the grandees; and they amount to half the unavoidable were intrusted with the education expenses; new taxes excited pubof the eldest son of the infant Don lic discontent, and little remained Carlos, the presumptive heir to the in the country from which addicrown. Even the will of their tional taxes could be paid. Twelve master the Pope was questioned, regiments of militia were disbandif it seemed to stand in the way of ed, because the government, though their own humour, or the gratifi- ill able, and much disinclined, to cations of their own vindictive dispense with their services, was passions. His holiness had issued still less able to pay them; and, poa bull, addressed to the archbishops litically, they would not be so and bishops of the Peninsula, re- dangerous in the form of armed commending union and charity, but robbers, as in that of murmuring the clergy had sufficient influence soldiers with just and disregarded to prevent the council of Castile claims. Borrowing was out of from publishing it for several the reach of Ferdinand; no sensible months ; and the Pope was under man would have trusted him with

some

bishops of Murcia and Orihuela, that the authorities were glad to with their chapters, were the drag away the wounded man, and prime movers, assembled in the flee with him. They sought refuge great square of the town with in the town of San Martin, about their leaders at their head. They a league from Roa, and there they then divided into small parties, and demanded assistance. Thirty marched through the streets, com soldiers accompanied the authorimitting all sorts of outrages against ties of the city and town to Roa, persons suspected of liberal opinions, to restore order there.

They whom they chanced to meet. They reached the square where the inentered moreover the houses of a surrectionists had assembled ; and great number of liberals, whom the alcade of San Martin mounted they abused, wounded, killed, and steps and proceeded to pillaged. After having employed harangue them. He reproached several hours in these exploits, they them for their disloyalty and disagain assembled in the square, and 'obedience to the best of kings; but with shouts of“ Death to the Libe- they would not even allow him to rals; the King without Chambers finish his speech. He was stopped for ever," marched towards Ori- by insulting cries against the perhuela, to join the volunteers of son of the monarch; and the mutithat town, and of the country be neers declared that neither the tween Orihuela and Murcia. The people nor the soldiery would subcivil authorities were in the plot, mit to any authority that came in and accompanied the volunteers to his name. There was no longer Orihuela ; but when they were any means of resistance; and the departed from Murcia, the in- inhabitants of San Martin, with tendants of finance and police as the volunteers of that town, were sembling the servants of govern- forced again to seek safety in ment in the town, and some of the flight. Such was the authority of respectable inhabitants, succeeded Ferdinand with his own army, in arming four hundred men, by such was the humility of the whose means they re-established apostolic priesthood, and such were some degree of tranquillity. A the troops to whom was intrusted similar scene was performing at in Spain, the maintenance of the same time in the north, at public order. Roa, a city of Old Castile. There, Nor, in fixing their empire while the commander of the vo over opinion, did the clergy neglunteers was endeavouring in vain lect those means of influence to restrain his mutinous soldiers, which flow from wealth. Unby haranguing them in the market- der the constitutional governplace, he received a blow on the ment, all the estates of the mohead with a club, and fell dead on nasteries and convents had been the spot.

An officer who stood by sold, or declared, at least, to be him, wished to lay hold of the mur- national property, to be approderer, and remonstrated with the priated to the payment of the men upon their guilty conduct; but public debt. Persons who held he was immediately stabbed in the property under them at a quitbelly with a poinard, the point of rent, had been allowed to redeem which protruded through his loins. it, and become absolute proprietors, The tumult now became so great, on making payment to the govern

ment of a capital equal to that the necessity of censuring its suprent, estimated at a fixed number pression, and attempting to enforce of years. Ferdinand now declared its principles by a second. If even all these redemptions null ; and the authority of the church was not only re-instated the religious thus despised, when employed to orders in their property, but con

restrain the violence of its own demned the tenants to pay to them sons, that of the state was still the rents which had become due less respected. An order having since the date of the redemption. been issued by the government to Within two years and a half the the bishops to restore to their Jesuits received upwards of three parishes some curés who had been millions of reals from the public suspended on account of unfounded purse, on account, it was said, of political charges, the bishops conwhat was due to them by the descended to tender obedience to state, while every other creditor the decree, provided only that the remained unsatisfied, and even the curés would enter into an ecclesitroops and public servants were astical engagement, almost amountirregularly paid, or not paid at all. ing to an act of rebellion--namely, Both in the capital and in the pro- that they would recognize the vinces several estates and houses Pope as Christ's vicar on earth, were restored to them. In Madrid and would resist all civil interand its neighbourhood, they fitted ference whatever in the affairs of up for their principal abode, a vast the church. hotel, and yested their capital in While the fortunes of the clergy purchasing farms and houses; they flourished, the fortunes of the were founding colleges for the edu- public were ruined. M. Lea cation of the nobility. Their houses Bermudez had been unable to reof noviciate and convents, of which tain his office for four and twenty Madrid alone contained two hun- hours after proposing an impost dred, were full; they had regained which would affect equally eccletheir situations and influence as siastical and lay property.

The chaplains or confessors in the fa- receipts of the Treasury did not milies of the grandees; and they amount to half the unavoidable were intrusted with the education expenses ; new taxes excited pube of the eldest son of the infant Don lic discontent, anil little remained Carlos, the presumptive heir to the in the country from which addi

Even the will of their tional taxes could be paid. Twelve master the Pope was questioned, regiments of militia were disbandif it seemed to stand in the way of ed, because the government, though their own humour, or the gratifi- ill able, and much disinclined, to cations of their own vindictive dispense with their services, was passions. His holiness had issued still less able to pay them; and, poa bull, addressed to the archbishops litically, they would not be so and bishops of the Peninsula, re- dangerous in the form of armed commending union and charity, but robbers, as in that of murmuring the clergy had sufficient influence soldiers with just and disregarded to prevent the council of Castile claims. Borrowing out of from publishing it for several the reach of Ferdinand; no sensible months ; and the Pope was under man would have trusted him with

crown,

was

a pound; his conduct in regard to a representative assembly was the bonds of the Cortes had made altogether incompatible. Power, him bankrupt all over Europe, not when in the hands of a weak and only in fortune, but in good faith. bigotted monarch like Ferdinand, He was a large debtor to the was in their own hands; his fears, governments both of England and his superstition, and his stupidity, France ; but, excepting a payment rendered him their tool 3.i but it of 700,000 francs, which he cone would be a hopeless task to attrived to make to France, neither tempt to rule, by the same means, of them could obtain any thing a body of elected deputies, rendered but a statement of the account, doubly formidable by being conand a recognition of their claims, joined in a legitimate union, and and eyen that only after he had invested with regular and constithrown every possible difficulty in tutional authority. They remem the way. to

bered moreover, and remembered It was impossible that a govern- with bitterness, the indiscriminatmentiso despotic, so weak, so ing and unjust fury with which jealous, could look without appre- their order had been pursued, and hensions at the establishment of their property confiscated, during the constitutional system in Por- the temporary domination of the tugal. That system was not a Cortes of Spain ; and they saw the direct attack upon her own insti- constitutional charter of Portugal tutions, but its success would not, itself, although the work of a Can on that account, be ultimately less tholic monarchy anxiously excludfatal to their stability. A free ing priests and monks fvom the government- could not continue to exercise of the elective-franchise. exist in their immediate neigh- The objects which Ferdinand and bourhood, without powerfully the apostolics had in view in res affecting the public feeling, and sisting the establishment of liberty enlightening the public mind in in Portugal, were in themselves Spain: the spectacle of public bad and unworthy objects, but tranquillity preserved, and reli- being onée entertained, it is imposgion, I with its ministers and cere- sible to say that the cabinet and monies, duly honoured and cele the camarilla were not aeting in a brated, under the auspices of a manner calculated to attain them, representative constitution, would when they employed all their en have been to the subjects of Fer- gines of intrigue against the Por? dinand 11 a satisfactory refutation of tuguese charter.' W'ith such ideas his political, creed, that every in their head, the destruction of amelioration of despotism was its representative government, identified with blasphemy and either by foreign force or domestic infidelity, with crime and confu- rebellion, was a consummation der sion. The manifest and unblush, voutly, to be wished; they would ing object of the priesthood was, gain much, if they could even exnot merely to establish absolute cite public disturbances, though power, but much more to vest that soon crushed; for its was easy to absolute power exclusively in their lay the blame of such irregularities own body. With the attainment on the new system, and to repre, of such an object, the existence of sent internal commotion as the donji dewi

up,

can to want mustria, hand HISTORY OF EUROPEANA (301 unavoidable consequence of mixing and was in i no respect contrary to

with the pure mass of des- the principles supported by the potism any portion of the leaven European governments. The of liberalism. lii i111110110 1147709 i journey of Anduaga was, there

Ferdinand and his clergy, there fore, in the mean time deferred fore, were equally opposed to the and recourse was then had to the constitution, and, as a necessary Russia,

them from acconsequence, to the recognition of knowledging the Portuguese con the regency which acted under the stitution, and induce them to supsame power thatl had granted uit. port her in endeavouring to crush The clergy, however, were more ito' But Ferdinand's remonstrances inclined to hurry at oficerinto desi were ineffectual, it was not a quarperate measures, and proclaim open rel in which the other kings of Eua hostility şi the cabinet, well know. rope had any interest, or in which ing that Spain,,

i without: foreign Spain bad any justice on her side : assistance, was in Bo condition to they stood in the same amicable undertake u

la war, and probably, relations with the infanta regent likewise, I feeling that their mere in which they had stood with king dislike of liberty would scarcely John. 11 They might be called on justify in the eyes of Europe a to interfere if the ruling party in declaration of war against an un- Portugal, in the pride of new born offending neighbour, because it liberty, should attempt to act upon obeyed the mandate of its sovea Spain by any other influence than reign, were more willing to try the inevitable influence of exam the effects of concealed intrigue, ple; but so long as Spain herself and to nendeavour to make the was not disturbed by Portugal, other continental courts parties to they could see no reason for standi their machinations. They resolved, ing by the side of Spain in an thereforest to encourage every attack on Portugal

, an attack, symptom of discontenth which moreover, in which they knew might i show itself in Portugal, that they would find England ånd to gratify the more extrava in arms by the side of the latter. gant apostolics by appointing M. Their determinations might have Di Anduaga, a violent adherent of been different, if they had unly that"party, is to succeed M. Casa had to deal with the House of Flores sast -ambassador at Lisbon; Braganza, but they could not to organize rebellion, and collect conceal from themselves, that the coadjutors in the capital. The true and serious question was not, foreign ministers had sufficient whether they would be parties to influence, however, to prevent this a war against Portugal, but whestep from being taken. They ther they would be parties in a represented to the government, war with Great Britain all how impolitie a mission avowedly. The spirit of discontent in Por" of such a'character would be in tugal had begun to show itself on the existing state of things in Por- the promulgation of the constitutugalis,li that the constitution of tion at Lisbon, in the 'midale of that country had come from a les July.rs Frequent desertions took gitimate source, as the voluntary place from the troops on the front gift of the legitimate sovereign, tiers, produced by the influence of

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