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a few generals of little note, and own crown.

He could at all some noblemen of extensive pro- times, moreover, be lavish of rema perty. The deserters uniformly grets, and assurances, and protook refuge in Spain, carrying mises; and he might hope that with them their arms and ammu- the mask might thus be safely nition; at different points within worn, till the triumph of the Porthe Spanish frontier, were esta- tuguese rebels should have enabled blished regular dépôts, where they him to throw it off, and come forth might be concentrated and organ- as the acknowledged champion of ized, under the rebel commanders. the true public opinion of PortuThese were the bands whom Spain gal. determined to employ in invading A system of policy like this rePortugal; they were a species of quired much wiser and cooler force, which, if sufficiently strong heads than were to be found in in numbers, would be doubly effi- the cabinet of Ferdinand, and a cient for her purpose by the ex- ministry much more faithless, and ample which they set, and the capable of being hood-winked, disaffection which their appear than that which conducted the ance in axms in the kingdom could policy of England; and, unfortunot fail to excite among

their nately for the whole scheme, while friends and dependents; she flate it threatened, as its issue, to bring tered herself with being able to down upon Spain the whole venconceal, or to explain away, the geance of England, it necessarily aid which she might afford them ; set out from acts which would and that she thus might conquer have justified an immediate dePortugal without incurring the claration of war on the part of odium of attacking an unoffending Portugal. Its very foundation ally, or exposing herself to cer was a refusal to recognize the extain destruction by attacking her isting government of Portugals, as single-handed. If the captains a regular and legitimate governgeneral of the frontier provinces ment, or to acknowledge the title allowed the refugees to assem of the young queen, or the title of ble in arms, or provided them the regency appointed by : Don with arms, for the attack of Portu- Pedro to exercise the powers

w of gal, Ferdinand could pretend that sovereignty. To persist in this it was done on their own respon- refusal was a measure which could sibility, and contrary to his wishes; neither be concealed nor explained, if money was conveyed to them, it was treating the Portuguese he could represent it as being no government as an illegal usurpa aid from the public treasury, but tion, and, if Portugal had been the pious collections and offerings quarrelsome, would very speedily of the holy servants of the altar; have led to open hostilities. If if they took solemn oaths, amid Spain, again, acknowledged the pompous ceremonies, on the Span-government, she acknowledged its ish territory, to maintain the title right to insist upon the faithful of Don Miguel to the throne, and execution of existing treaties bethe claims of the queen-mother tween the two countries ; but to to the regency, he could answer, execute these treaties was to counthat the Portuguese best knew teract all the machinations which the rules of succession to their Spain was devising.

By these

treaties, Spain was bound at least Spain thus received, encouraged, to disarm all desèrters, to send them armed, organized, and sent back to into the interior, to preserve the the invasion of Portugal-accom peace of the frontiers, and deliver panied on some occasions by bodies up their arms to Portugal from of Spanish troopsambelong more whom they had been stolen. But properly to the history of the if the legality of the Portuguese latter country : at present we have government were recognized," à only to trace the progress of the refusal on the part of Spain to policy which Spain had thus fulfil these conditions would be adopted. The complaints of Porequivalent to a declaration of war. tugal on the refusal to recognize She might pretend not to see the her government, and to execute positive assistance rendered to the existing treaties by disarming and rebels by her authorities ; but she dispersing the rebel refugees, were could not refuse, at least, to order unceasing and unanswerable. M. their dispersion, and the restoring Gomez, the ambassador of Portugal of their arms: for the execution at Madrid, having declared himself of these orders she was responsi- against the constitution, and deble; if she was too feeble to com clined taking the oath required by mand obedience from her own the charter, there was no accredited servants, it was full time that minister of that power to urge

her other powers should take the au- remonstrances, till the arrival of thority into their own hands. If his successor, count Villa Real, in such orders were obeyed, her po- the month of September. ' All the liey was at an end ; if they were pressing applications of that minisnot obeyed, peace was at an end, ter, joined to those of the ambassafor their non-fulfilment was an dor of England, were unable to infraction of solemn treaties. She procure an acknowledgment of the wished equally to avoid war, and new government; and a change to save her policy against Portu- which had taken place in the cabigal; but, as she managed them, net seemed to hold out more unthese objects were incompatible, favourable prospects than ever. and she ended with adding to the The council of the king had not disgrace of disappointed cunning, been unanimous in approving of the humiliation of unsuccessful the course on which Spain had war. In fact, Ferdinand seems entered ; some of the members had never to have suspected, till the been in favour of a more plausible truth burst upon him at the same neutrality by disarming the rebels moment that it overwhelmed him, in terms of the treaties, and althat Britain would take the de- lowing events to take their own cisive part which she soon adopted; course: they could not see the pruthat she'would do any thing more dence of giving Portugal a motive than remonstrate, or, at the worst, and a justification for adopting threaten, or would require any dangerous measures in her turi, thicker veil to be thrown over his and embodying on the frontiers policy than would just enable her the multitudes of Spanish refugees to say with decency, that she had whom the proscriptions of the last been mistaken in its character. three years had forced into exile; . The military operations carried and still less could they discern the on by the bands of rebels whom policy of strengthening the Portu

guese constitution by compelling than those from Portugal, now England to interfere in its defence. took place among the troops of The ultra-royalists, with Calo- Spain. These desertions occurred marde, the minister of justice, at principally in Gallicia and Estretheir head, undervalued the danger, madura, but were more formidable and silenced every whisper of pru- from the disposition which led to dence by pourtraying the horrible them, than from their extent. It consequences of liberal institutions may be well doubted whether to the Crown and religion of Spain. they proceeded, in point of fact, The duke del Infantado would from anything connected with seem to have been inclined to the politics. The men no doubt bea more moderate and the safer course, longed to those troops of the line but found himself unable to resist the who had formerly set up the con united influence of the personal in- stitution; they were said to have clinations of the king, and the arranged their desertions upon secret influence of the Apostolics, a regular plan, and to have anto whose burning zeal, moderation nounced to the governors of the seemed treachery and indifference. Portuguese provinces in which He resigned the ministry of Foreign they took refuge, their purpose of Affairs in the month of August, aiding Portugal to bring the Spaand was succeeded in his office by nish government to the adoption don Manuel Gonzalez Salmon. of a system of greater moderation;

The Portuguese ambassador dia but these latter circumstances were rected his applications more par- of very doubtful truth; only two ticularly to obtain the disarming officers had joined in the desertion, and dispersing of the rebels, whose and no name was even mentioned numbers had now increased to an of sufficient weight to head a plot. alarming extent, in all the frontier The Apostolics, to whom even a provinces, but especially in Gallicia, public suspicion of political disconValladolid, and Estremadura. The tent existing in the army was an captains-general of these provinces object of alarm, ascribed the desernot only opposed no obstacle to tions to the jealousy excited in the their proceedings, but treated them army at large by the gay trappings as if both parties had been allies and regular payment of the Royal armed in the same cause ; supplied guards. Probably, both reasons them with military stores, and rem operated: an ill-paid, ill-clothed, fused nothing that could complete and ill-fed, soldiery, might expect their military organization. The better treatment in the ranks of determinations of the Spanish can their neighbours, and in the politibinet were more fixed than ever, cal quarrel between Portugal and because some recent events seemed Spain, they would not doubt but to realize all its apprehensions of that their services would be thankdestruction from the vicinity of so fully received. But, whatever dangerous a neighbour as a free might be the cause of the deserconstitution. The promulgation tion, Portugal kept faith most of the Portuguese charter had ex. honourably with Spain, and, on cited much interest at Madrid, her part, at least, honestly fulfilled though every expression of satis- the obligations in which she was faction was prevented by the police; bound by treaty. Spain had been and desertion, still more alarming doing every thing to provoke her,

and had allowed her refugees, Revolutionists, and Liberals from during nearly two months, to almost every state in Europe, assemble under her protection for being about to enter the field purposes of invasion; and Portugal against Spain, with the countewould have been perfectly justified nance and protection of England. in the eyes of all Europe, if she There was no truth in these invena had embodied these deserters, and tions; but, if she dreaded such a sent them into Spain, to teach' danger-and well might she dread Ferdinand what he had been doing it—it was madness to persist against Portugal. Bụt Portugal, in a line of conduct which, if it under the restraining advice of did not render it inevitable, gave Britain, took ä" nobler course. Portugal, beyond all doubt, a full The moment the regency was in- right to produce it. Spain could formed of the desertions, it disc have had no reason to complain, armed them, and sent them into if Mina had entered her territory the interior. The decree of the at the head of his brother exiles Spanish government disbanding from the frontiers of Portugal, so the regiments to which they had long as Chayes and Montealegre belonged, and holding out to them were invading Portugal' from a conditional pardon if they re Gallicia and Salamanca. turned to their duty, was published In the mean time viscount Cain the Lisbon Gazette; while the vellas, himself a refugee, and one of Spanish government refused to the prime leaders in all the plots of allow a similar proclamation of the therebels, had taken uphisabode for princess regent to be printed either a time in Madrid, where he resided in the Madrid Gazette, or in the in full communication with the miprovincial newspapers, lest it should nistry, supporting the interests and entice stragglers from the rebel arranging the plansofhisparty. The standard. The incendiary pro: presence of a declared rebel to his clamations, which were profusely native sovereign was at best a circulated within the Portuguese gratuitous insult to Portugal; and frontier,' and reached even her minister demanded that he Lisbon, were openly printed, with=' should be ordered to leave Madrid. out any impediment, in Badajoz M. Salmon did not hesitate to give and Ciudad Rodrigo. The Portu assurances that Cavellas would be guese governor of Elvas "com- ordered to leave Madrid, within plained of the abuse to the com three days, and Spain within a mandant of Badajoz, and threat- month; but M. Salmon had not the ened to retaliate, if it was not put most distant intention that his asan end to. In such a war of re surances' should be fulfilled, or if taliation Spain was sure to be a he had, there were stronger inloser; and yet she seemed deter- Auences which counteracted his. mined to provoke it, for no one At the same time, in the beginofficer or public authority was ning of October, Portugal was incensured for whatever he might'vaded by the rebels almost simultado or permit in favour of the rebels, neously in the provinces of Tras os and against the constitution. The Montes and Algarves ; the Spanish Spanish people were ainused, and minister having promised, on the the Spanish government pretended 3rd of October, that measures would to be alarmed, by tales of exiled be taken to prevent any further

VOL. LXVIII.

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, 306] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1826. disturbances from the armed re the oath to the new constitution, fugees. Their success was briefs and been solemnly

betrothed to the they were speedily driven back young queen, in obedience to the across the frontier ; but while they will of his brother. This last agremained in possession of some gression, too, against Portugal, had small towns, they were publicly so completely unveiled the designs congratulated by the Spanish au- of Spain, and the active share thorities of the neighbourhood, which she had borne in hostilities

, without any, expression of disap- which but for her assistance coulá probation on the part of the govern- never have been conmitted, that ment. This new outrage almost forbearance could no longer be exexceeded the bounds of forbeár- pected from Portugal

, or her allies. ance; and especially as the rebels, * Is it consistent," said count Villa after being repulsed into Spain, Real, in a note to M. Salmon in were received with the same en the end of October, consistent couragement as before, supplied with the interests of the Peninsula, with the munitions of war, and and of Europe, that Portugal should again prepared for a similar en

in terprise. The government could what may befal her from without? no longer pretend ignorance of that the attention of its governarmies being formed within its ment should be withdrawn from territory, and formed for purposes the objects of its internal adminis, of

tration, and that it should be imthat these armies had been formed, peded in its progress by the enand these invasions made, under couragement which the passions the eyes, and with the connivance, inseparable from changes such as power, and ought to have had

gone, will riaturally find in the atorders, to prevent them : yet not titude of Spain? If Portugal has only did it adhere to the same hitherto been able to abstain from policy, which obstinacy might ac- taking measures which the duty of count for, but, by repeating its her preservation would appear to assurances that all this had been dictate to her, she has done so only done without its knowledge, and in the confidence which she has contrary to its orders, seemed placed in the support of her allies

. actually to imagine, that, while În thus proving her moderation, adhering to that policy, it could Portugál has acquired the right of still by possibility be believed. The addressing herself to them, without pretext, under which Spain now re- fearing that her appeal will be fused to recognize the Portuguese made in vain.” regency, was her want of informa To these and similar remiontion as to the sentiments of Austria strances, Spain replied by palpable and France upon the subject. Of evasions and lying assurances, If the inclinations of both these she intended with good faith to prepowers it was mere trifling to doubt vent violence against the frontiers, for a moment. Both of them had ac for what reason could she refuse to credited ministers at Lisbon ; and recognize its government? So long at Viennå, the Infant don Miguel, as it was known that she regarded whom rebels and Spain had set up itas an usurpation, it was impossible as entitled to the crown, had taken to hope that her own functionaries

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