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would treat its rights with much to add to that failure as many cirréspect, or that its own rebellious cúnstafrees as possible of contempo subjects should not draw encourage and disgrace. During the whole ment from the fact that the work of November, amid her re-iterated of insurrection was the work of assurances that nothing further Spain.

But Spain, with an in needed to be dreaded from the refatuation for which it would be fugees of Portugal, a 'netv, and far difficult to account, were it neces more serious, invasion of that counsary to account for any measure of try was actually preparing To a government in which brutal, un the rebels themselves were now ads calculating bigotry bccupies the ded Spanish lancers and guerillas place of foresight, prudence, and Spanish arms were distributed honesty, was determined to persist among the ranks, and sent across in her career, till she should put it the frontier to be distributed among most thoroughly out of the power the peasantry; and a park of arof any sensible man in Europe to tillery was ready at Badajoz to say a single word in her behalf. acconipány the division which was Even' now she might have retraced to enter the province of Alentejo. her steps without much humilia- Longa and St. Juan, the captains tion;

n; she would only have been general of Valladolid and Estremathe last to acknowledge a govern- dura, who again and again had ment, whose principles she thought been pointed out to the governdangerous to herself, and her ment by name, as the deliberate hatred to whose institutions she and obstinate violators of neutrality, did not think it necessary to con and who, probably for that very real'; the inroads made upon Por- reason, had been studiously contugal'in October might have afford- tinued in their commands, aled her as favorable an opportunity lowed and encouraged all this as she could now expect, to come bustle of preparation under their off without open disgrace, as if own eyes, where the lowest whisthat 'unblushing and regular inva- per of discontent could not have siòn' ħad for the first time forced escaped the snarės and spies of the upon her the unwilling belief that police. On the 23rd of November her good-naturé had been abused. the rebels entered Portugal, peneShe might still have yielded with trated from the north across t the out appearing to yield to force; Douro, as far as Viseu, threw England had not yet laid her hand Oporto into consternation, pillaged upon the sword; France had not town and country, proclaimed Don yet treated her with contempt; Migiel king, established juntas of Russia had not yet read to her a lec- régency in his name, and, for six ture of grave disapprobation ; the weeks, kept the fate of Portugal semblance of good faith now would turning almost tipen'a point. The have covered all the faults and follies whole of this was the work of of the past. But Spain, besides being Spain; she seemed about to derive depriveil of the exercise of sound from her olistinacy and deceit the reason, seemed to have lost every advantage of a momentary triumph; feeling of national pride and regard and, but for one cabinet, she might for national character, and to reckon have been successful. So soon as it nothing that she failed in her the invasion was known, the object, unless she could contrive Spamish minister at Lisbon was


, tzverdh from ks Bus ; * snik-eBere e Mütms, the Pro 50 envoy in- sons of casers, bai bei named as sports, and tam prescatei aay ipeceat

; the Britizá minista, treziazd posesiz bis 07 hat th the imeligence to schetnes, ia kis ** way, and with Primari, satt inental himseif his en beats: they gare bin no trian Engad bazi patientiy zid, but the coposed to him to wrastaste the progress of Spain, positive resistance. A Bariharay, 2.4 ME 0 interize fill the homeTET, #as an obstacle of a rery unting of that power shonid diferent kind ; Portugal was DOW Josvily interference to all the worid. beyond the reach of attack; the Ilm ytrue and authority had often Very Tumour of the arrival of the Torino Portugal, when provocaBritish troops hand struck dismay tim might have led Portugal to into the rebels, and biasted all 74 of justifiable retanation. their hopes ; retreat and defeat folBut, if Portugal had thus done lowed fast upon each other, and * Wyslumen to her sense of insult for within a few days they were

while, in order that her ally swept, with their Spanish allies, zaight stand tuture Europe on im- from every corner of the kingdom, mismaltes ground, so much the seeking mercy in submission. Spain nuore, wit tagt ally now bound to might arm the fugitives again if met in her defence with prompti- she dared, but they themselves anule sivi visgrur. Within five days would never choose again to cross siter the intelligence of the inva- the frontiers with arms in their tum ' reached Landen, in the be- hands. Like a recreant bully, whining of December, the troops Ferdinand found it necessary to * Britain were on their search disavow his pretensions, when he w the mistance of her oldest had most surely reckoned on mak

friend, and, bufore the end of the ing them good. He consented to - youth, they were again landed on receive a minister from the Portus the wine of their earlier glories. guese regency, a virtual recog

This energy and rapidity of deci- nition of the government, on his kion came upon Spain like a thun own minister at Lisbon being reder-bolt: like her own Sancho, instated in his diplomatic funcwhen the imperious physician of tions. General Longa, and the Baraturia matched the favourite governor of Ciudad Rodrigo, who viands from his lips, she stood had again permitted a few miserstaring in stupid amazement. On able fugitives, from the last defeat an actual war with Britain she of the rebels, to re-enter Portugal, hul never counted: for any thing probably because new instructions clm she might have been prepared. had not yet reached them, were The recal of the French ambassa- suspended from their commands, dor who had encouraged her in and ordered to be tried by a milia her policy, in opposition to the sen- 'tary tribunal. Instead of all the timents of his government; the points, at which it was known that depurture of the Swiss guards of the rebels were to leave Spain, I'runce from Madrid which imme- being stripped of troops, the garridiately followed; and the disappro- sons on the frontiers were inbation which the autocrat of Rus- creased, and supported, by an army sia now formally bestowed upon her of eight thousand men, along the


tain the relations of amity which ence; except that M. Calomarde buah HISTORY OF EUROPE. [309

08 line of the Tagus, to guard the stant and proverbial good faith of Spanish territory from violation the noble and elevated Spanish by either party, and prevent the character."-- Not a word of all this importation of the constitutional was liable to any doubt; and every contagion-measures, the honest syllable of it had been pressed adoption of which, two months upon the Spanish government for sooner, would have saved Spain months, with exemplary forbearfrom all the

contumely to which cance ; but it was extremely doubtshe was now exposed. The cap- fül how far these sentiments protains-general of the provinces, and ceeded from sincere conviction, or the inspector of the royalist volun- would be acted on longer than theneteers," were now informed by the cessity continued. The ministers minister of war, that "his Majesty who had so misguided Spain still re

has the most lively desire to main- tained their places, and their infly- unite him with his august allies, suffered a temporary disgrace, for and insure their inviolability by having, by some piece of bąd means calculated to secure recipro- management, allowed a great numa cal confidence that of all these ber of the original orders, which means, none is more indispensable had been sent to the captainsthan that of observing neutrality, general of the provinces on the any hostile acts or co-operation - randa of the rest of them, to fall against Portugal

, so as not to com into the hands of Mr. Lamb, the promise himself either with that British ambassador, furnishing do

country or with its ally, England;cumentary evidence upon which, that to suffer any hostile force to if need were, to pronounce (a verremain assembled in arms, on the dict of guilty against: Spain, ias Spanish' territory, would be acting having brought upon herself much in a manner contrary to these humiliation by want of sense, want principles, and, consequently, ha- 'of prudence, and want of princi

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CHAP. XII, PearlgAL Death of John VI.- Don Pedro's Resignation of the

Thrane in favour of his Daughter-Estat lisbment of a RegencyYem Constitution of Portugal Pronulgation of the Constitution State of Public Opinion-Discontent of the iltra-Royalists, and Desertions from the Army Election of the Deputies to the CorlesIntrigues of Spain and the Marquis of Chares--Spain refuses to disarm the Deserters---Conspiracy discovered in Lisbon-Decree cyainst Emigrants-Demands of the Portuguese Enroy-Revolts in Algurves and Tras os Montes-Meeting of the CortesDon Viguel takes the Qath to the Constitution-Renewed Remonstrances of the Porluguese Envoy at Madrid Preparations of the Rebels-They ingade Portugal-Spanish Minister at Lisbon suspended-Assurances given by Spain--Progress of the Rebels in Tras os Montes-Revolt in Lamegom Insurreciion in Beira-Progress of the Rebels under Magessi in the Alentejo-Magessi is driven back into Spain--He re-enters Portugal in the Province of Beira-Revolt in Almeida Military Movements of the Rebel Commanders and of the Constitutional Troops-Arrival of British Troops at LisbonThe Rebels defçalęd, at Coruches-They retreat into Spain,


J OHN VI. king of Portugal, had declared that the House of and titular

emperor of Brazil, Braganza had ceased to reign, and died at Lisbon an the 10th of to prefer ruling over an indeMarch, 1826, at the age of fifty- pendent empire in America, to nine, after a reign of thirty-four wearing the crown of a vassal in years. 1. During twenty-five of Europe, was a singular step, and, these years, from 1792, he had perhaps, a wise

one; but it exercised the sovereign power as was the result of foreign policy regent for his mother, who labour- and urgency, not of his ed under mental alienation. He voluntary deliberation. While he succeeded her upon her death in held his court at Rio Janeiro, and, 1817, and was crowned at Rio in Portugal, after his return to Janeiro, to which he had retired Europe, he still was guided in his with the court on the invasion of course by the circumstances which Portugal by Napoleon, His cha- sprung up around him, seldom at

was marked neither by tempting, and still more seldom cminunt virtues, nor debasing attempting successfully, to foresee, vicen; anıl, though he had passed, to direct, or to control them. The during his reign, through many revolution of 1822 carried him vicissitudes of fortune, he did not before it, until it sunk beneath the display in them any sagacity of de- weight of its own vices and absign, or much stendiness of purpose. surdities, and left him, for the reTo leave Portugal, when Napoleon mainder of his reign, the old,

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XA [311 unlimited authority of his fathers. king, who were willing to hazard But neither was he bigottedly every risk to effect its recal, and obstinate in adhering to old pre eyen venture upon the impossible judices, when opposed to plain task of bringing Brazil back by views of what was practicable force to a due obedience to the

By submitting to mother country. They were supbe rationally advised, and recogt ported by the influence of the nizing with a good grace and in good time, the independence of younger brother Don Miguel, both Brazil,

he preserved that empire of whom had shewn, in the preto his family : while Ferdinand of ceding year, how little they reSpain, blinded by bigotry and pre- garded the affection and the rejudice, and guided by a faction as spect due to a husband and a unthinking as himself, not only father, when it stood in the way lost his dominions in the of their own wild and ambitious world, but lost them amid loud designs. This party itself, again, bravadoes and empty threats, which


was in a great measure merely the rendered his weakness

creature of some foreign courts temptible his obstinacy had which held the same general creed

ju been ridiculous.

of political obedience, and more A vessel was immediately des- especially of the court of Madrid, patched to Rio Janeiro with the which was wedded to such princiintelligence of the king's decease, ples of policy by a community of and, in the mean time, the go- interest. It was the wish of this

was administered by party to induce Don Pedro to a regency, appointed by the temporize as long as possible belate king on the 6th of March, fore making his choice between a few days before his death, at the the crowns, and to prevent all head of which was the sister of representations to him which the new monarch, the princess might hasten that choice, in the Isabella Maria. There was only hope that, by evading and procrasone circumstance which could make tinating, expedients might be found the death of John VI. an occasion to restore the supremacy of Porfor political intrigue. If Don Pedro. tugal, and enable him to wield accepted the throne of Portugal, both sceptres. The regeney had it was imperative upon him to lay the good faith, and the good sense down the crown of Brazil; for the to follow better advice, and when constitution of Brazil, to guard they informed Don Pedro of the against the misgovernment which death of his father, they pressed had afflicted it when a colony, had upon him earnestly the necessity provided, in securing its independ- and expedieney of a speedy deterence, that the two crowns should mination. Delay would have been never be united on the same head. dangerous to his authority in both It remained, therefore, to be seen, countries, for in both his authority whether Don Pedro would choose would have been uncertain; and to be emperor of Brazil, or king of in fact, every act of government Portugal. But at home there was exercised by the regency of Pora strong party which had opposed tugal in the name of Don Pedro, to the last the recognition of Bra- after he should have learned his zilian independence by the late title to the crown, would haye

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