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been, on his part, a violation of tuated by sinister and reprehensible the constitution of Brazil. ligos kviews, may seek to excite in the A In the event of Don Pedro re- kingdom criminal is commotions, solving to sacrifice the crown of perhaps making use of my name Portugal, and I transferring it to to cover their perfidious views. "*: one of his children, it was doubtful work Under these circumstances, howfär Don Miguel and his ad- and considering the distance which herents would patiently submit to separates i me from Portugal, I such an arrangement. They were have thought that it was not only declared enemies to the separation suitable, but absolutely necessary, of the two countries; there was to express, by the only means in reason to apprehend, that, when my power, that, far from authoriPedro relinquished the throne him-zing, directly or indirectly, any self, they would dispute his right seditious machinations, tending to to it with another; and, at all disturb the tranquillity of our events, Miguel's elevation to the country, I positively declare that vacant seat, would be the triumph nobody respects more than I do of their own principles. - On his the last will of our august father father's death, however, Don Mi- and master'; and that I shall guel appeared to be most submis- always disapprove every thing that sive and respectful. When that shall not be conformable to the event happened, he was still re- dispositions of the decree of the sident at Vienna, whither he had 6th March of the present tyear, i by been sent as into a kind of honour which his majesty the emperor and able relegation, after his attempt king so wisely provided for the against the authority of his father; public administration, by creating and, however little the Austrian a junta of government for these cabinet might be inclined to give kingdoms, till his legitimate heir countenance to political changes, and successor, who is our dear by encouraging princes who ac- brother and master, the emperor knowledged the independence of of Brazil, shall have provided for devolted colonies, they had nothing it, as he, in his wisdom,

shall see fit. ton gain for her by exciting in- “I beg you, therefore, my ternal discontent in Portugal, or tender sister, in the improbable raising up a competitor to its law- that

any i

should dare ful h monareh. Accordingly, the rashly to abuse my name, to serve answer: which Don Miguel re- as a cover to projects subversive of turned to his sister, on receiving good order, and of the legal existofficially the notification of his ence of the government established brother's accession, while it plainly by him who had the incontestible showed what apprehensions were right to do s

so, to take care to cause entertained of his own inclinations, to be published and declared, for of the purposes for which a when, how, and where you shalí party might employ his name, was please, by virtue of the present frank and satisfactory. Though letter, the just sentiments which the fidelity," said he, which the it contains, which spontaneously Portuguese nation has always ob- emanate from my heart, and are served towards its sovereigns be inspired by the fidelity and respect Sunalterable, it is, however, possi- due to the memory of the last will ble that evil-minded persons, ne of our dear father and sovereign;"



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Such was the language of Don moved; establishments military, naa Miguel on the 6th of April. In val, and commercial, which had exthe course of a few months a wide- isted for centuries; and allies both spread rebellion was raging in the able and willing to support his aukingdom, to overturn the is

succes- thority, if he should be so inclined, sion appointed by his dear bro- against any popular encroachments. ther and master," tand i place him« In Brazil, he wasto give steadiness to self upon the throne, without its a throne tottering amid the storms drawing from him any speedy, or of surrounding revolutions; laws decisive, or public disavowal of the and institutions, a fleet, an army, traitors who were levying war in and a treasury, were to be created; his name against a government to a war already begun, but neither which he had sworn popular nor successful, was to be 0. The intelligence of the death of prosecuted; his subjects were to be king John reached Rio Janeiro on jealous colonists, and savage, or the 24th of April, the anniversary half-civilized aborigines; and he of the day on which he had em- was to have for neighbours, not barked from it to return to Portů powerful allies, and monarchs who gal Don Pedro had now before had the same interest with himself, him anchoice which on every side but vigilant, and inimical repub was surrounded by difficulties. lics. But it was natural for him At first sight it would appear to desire that, although he could natural that he should prefer the 'not rule over both countries himancient and settled throne of his self, they should both remain subEuropean monarchy, to a new and ject to the House of Braganza. unsteady dominion, whose popula- The successor whom he might ap tion were not attached to him by point to the throne of Portugal, habit, while their national and po- was not likely to be attacked by litical prejudices were strongly di- any dangerous and extraneous rected against his native country, competitor : the habits of legitiand whose territory came, on every mate succession were too deeply side, into contact with states the rooted in Europe, and it was too very form of whose government much the interest of all its momade them his enemies, and were narchies to preserve them, to allow incessantly presenting seductive the tranquillity of the legal suc examples to the discontents and cessor of a sovereign who had abjantipathies of his own hetero- dicated to be seriously disturbed. geneous provinces. In Europe Brazil, however, was in a very there was prepared for him à crown different situation, and to relinvenerated for its antiquity and re- quish it to reign-in Portugal spectable for its strength'; a people brought the imminent danger of accustomed to obedience and at- losing it entirely. Of all the colotached to his family; a state of nies which Spain and Portugal had society which had nothing in it to planted in South America, Brazil produce uneasiness, excepting the alone had retained a monarchical remaining traces of a momentary government; and her continued convulsion which half the liberality adherence to monarchical forms *he squandered upon the constitu- had been the result, in no small

tion of Brazil, if joined with prúc degree, of the presence of the dence, would speedily have reking and the court during the

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guese constitution by compelling than those from Portugal, now England to interfere in its defence. took place among the troops of The ultra-royalists, with Calo- Spain. These desertions occurred marde, the minister of justice, at principally in Gallicia and Estretheir head, undervalued the danger, madura, but were more formidable and silenced every whisper of pru- from the disposition which led to dence by pourtraying the horrible them, than from their extent. It consequences of liberal institutions may be well doubted whether to the Crown and religion of Spain. they proceeded, in point of fact, The duke del Infantado would from anything connected with seem to have been inclined to the politics. The men no doubt bez more moderate and the safer course, longed to those troops of the line but found himselfunable to resist the who had formerly set up the conunited influence of the personal in- stitution; they were said to have clinations of the king, and the arranged their desertions upon secret influence of the Apostolics, a regular plan, and to have anto whose burning zeal, moderation nounced to the governors of the seemed treachery and indifference. Portuguese provinces in which He resigned the ministry of Foreign they took refuge, their purpose of Affairs in the month of August, aiding Portugal to bring the Spaand was succeeded in his office by nish government to the adoption don Manuel Gonzalez Salmon.

of a system of greater moderation ; The Portuguese ambassador din but these latter circumstances were rected his applications more par- of very doubtful truth ; only two ticularly to obtain the disarming officers had joined in the desertion, and dispersing of the rebels, whose and no name was even mentioned numbers had now increased to an of sufficient weight to head a plot. alarming extent, in all the frontier The Apostolics, to whom even a provinces, but especially in Gallicia, public suspicion of political disconValladolid, and Estremadura. The tent existing in the army was an captains-general of these provinces object of alarm, ascribed the deser not only opposed no obstacle to tions to the jealousy excited in the their proceedings, but treated them army at large by the gay trappings as if both parties had been allies and regular payment of the Royalarmed in the same cause ; supplied guards. Probably both reasons them with military stores, and rem operated: an ill-paid, ill-clothed, fused nothing that could complete and ill-fed, soldiery, might expect their military organization. The better treatment in the ranks of determinations of the Spanish can their neighbours, and in the politibinet were more fixed than ever, cal quarrel between Portugal and because some recent events seemed Spain, they would not doubt but to realize all its apprehensions of that their services would be thank destruction from the vicinity of so fully received. But, whatever dangerous à neighbour as a free might be the cause of the deser« constitution. The promulgation tion, Portugal kept faith most of the Portuguese charter had ex. honourably with Spain, and, on cited much interest at Madrid, her part, at least, honestly fulfilled though every expression of satis- the obligations in which she was faction was prevented by the police; bound by treaty. Spain had been and desertion, still more alarming doing every thing to provoke her, and had allowed her refugees, Revolutionists, and Liberals from during nearly two months, to almost every state in Europe, assemble under her protection for being about to enter the field purposes of invasion; and Portugal against Spain, with the countewould have been perfectly justified nance and protection of England. in the eyes of all Europe, if she There was no truth in these invenhad embodied these deserters, and tions; but, if she dreaded such a sent them into Spain, to teach danger-and well might she dread Ferdinand what he had been doing it-it was madness to persist against Portugal. Bụt Portugal, in a line of conduct which, if it under the restraining advice of did not render it inevitable, gave Britain, took a' nobler course. Portugal, beyond all doubt, a full The moment the regency was in- right to produce it. Spain could formed of the desertions, it dis- have had no reason to complain, armed them, and sent them into if Mina had entered her territory the interior. The decree of the at the head of his brother exiles Spanish government disbanding from the frontiers of Portugal, só the regiments to which they had long as Chaves and Montealegre belonged, and holding out to them were invading Portugal' from a conditional pardon if they re- Gallicia and Salamanca. turned to their duty, was published In the mean time viscount Cain the Lisbon Gazette; while the vellas, himself a refugee, and one of Spanish government refused to the prime leaders in all the plots of allow a similar proclamation of the therebels, had taken uphis abode for princess regent to be printed either a time in Madrid, where he resided in the Madrid Gazette, or in the in full communication with the miprovincial newspapers, lest it should nistry, supporting the interests and entice stragglers from the rebel arranging the plansofhisparty, The standard. The incendiary pro- presence of a declared rebel' to his clamations, which were profusely native sovereign was at best a circulated within the Portuguese gratuitous insult to Portugal; and frontier, and reached even tờ her minister demanded that he Lisbon, were openly printed, with=' should be ordered to leave Madrid. out any impediment, in Badajoz M. Salmon did not hesitate to give and Ciudad Rodrigo. The Portu- assurances that Cavellas would be guese governor of Elvas com ordered to leave Madrid,' '

within plained of the abuse to the com- three days, and Spain within a mandant of Badajoz, and threats month; but M. Salmon had not the ened to retaliate, if it was not put most distant intention that his asan end to. In such a war of re- surances should be fulfilled, or if taliation Spain was sure to be a he had, there were stronger inloser; and yet she seemed deter- fluences which counteracted his. mined to provoke it, for no one At the same time, in the beginofficer or public authority was ning of October, Portugal was incensured for whatever he might' vaded by the rebels almost simultado or permit in favour of the rebels,' neously in the provinces of Tras os and against the constitution. The Montes and Algarves ; the Spanish Spanish people were ainused, and minister having promised, on the the Spanish government pretended 3rd of October, that measures would to be alarmed, by tales of exiled be taken to prevent any further VOL. LXVIII.


disturbances from the armed re- the oath to the new constitution, fugees. Their success was brief, and been solemnly betrothed to the they were speedily driven back young queen, in obedience to the across the frontier ; but while they will of his brother. This last agremained in possession of some gression, too, against Portugal, had small towns, they were publicly so completely unveiled the designs congratulated by the Spanish au- of Spain, and the active share thorities of the neighbourhood, which she had borne in hostilities, without any, expression of disap- which but for her assistance could probation on the part of the govern- never have been committed, that ment. This new outrage almost forbearance could no longer be exexceeded the bounds of forbeår- pected from Portugal, or her allies. ance; and especially as the rebels, * Is it consistent," said count Villa after being repulsed into Spain, Real, in a note to M. Salmon in were received with the same en- the end of October, " is it consistent couragement as before, supplied with the interests of the Peninsula, with the munitions of war, and and of Europe, that Portugal should again prepared for a similar en- be kept in alarm on account of terprise. The government could what may befal her from without? no longer pretend ignorance of that the attention of its governarmies being formed within its ment should be withdrawn from territory, and forined for purposes the objects of its internal adminis of invasion; it could not but see tration, and that it should be im. that these armies had been formed,

peded in its and these invasions made, under couragement which the passions, the eyes, and with the connivance, inseparable from changes such as of its own authorities, who had the this country has recently underpower, and ought to have had gone, will naturally find in the atorders, to prevent them : yet not titude of Spain? If Portugal has only did it adhere to the same hitherto been able to abstain from policy, which obstinacy might ac- taking measures which the duty of count for, but, by repeating its her preservation would appear to assurances that all this had been dictate to her, she has done so only done without its knowledge, and in the confidence which she has contrary to its orảers, seemed placed in the support of her allies. actually to imagine, that, while In thus proving her moderation, adhering to that policy, it could Portugál has acquired the right of still by possibility be believed. The addressing herself to them, without pretext, under which Spain now re- fearing that her appeal will be fused to recognize the Portuguese made in vain." regency, was her want of informa- To these and similar remontion as to the sentiments of Austria strances, Spain replied by palpable and France upon the subject. Of evasions and lying assurances. If the inclinations of both these she intended with good faith to prepowers it was mere trifling to doubt vent violence against the frontiers, for a moment. Both of them had ac for what reason could she refuse to credited ministers at Lisbon ; and recognize its government? So long at Vienna, the Infant don Miguel, as it was known that she regarded whom rebels and Spain had set up itas an usurpation, it was impossible as entitled to the crown, had taken to hope that her own functionaries

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