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fears and her bigotry, she seemed were willing to await in indif even to shut her eyes upon the ference the issue of these machi. đangers with which her own prin- nations, and perhaps would not ciples threatened her own govern- have been displeased to see the ment. If Ferdinand was entitled constitution of Portugal fall, they to say to Pedro, I will not recoge did not dare to lend their aid to nize the form of government which its overthrow; and Spain found you have established in Portugal that she must depend upon her own why should not England and Por resources." An open declaration of tugal' on the same grounds say to war was not suitable to her own Ferdinand, we will not recognize internal state, and would have that which you have established been too hard to justify in itself ; in Spain? If Spain could say, she applied herself, therefore, to s we shall aid Chaves and Canelo reach her end more covertly by las, in overturning the regency,” finding a Spanish army in the ad why should not the regency say, herents of Chaves and Canellas. ks

we shall let loose Mina, and his The intrigues of these traitors exiled countrymen upon your and their coadjutors, aided by the shores to overturn Ferdinand ?" money and agents of Spain, had

Spain first expressed her fears begun to shew themselves even to the cabinets of her continental before the oath to the constitution allies, in the hope of finding in had been taken, in alarming and them kindred apprehensions, and frequent desertions from the Porreceiving their countenance in the tuguese army. Instigators of rex course which she might pursue. bellion appeared on different points But, however little some of these of the frontier, from Algarve to cabinets might be inclined to fa- Tras os Montes, assembling and vour popular rights, none of them arranging the deserters, who, until was inclined to imitate her incon- they formed a body strong enough sistency or endanger the peace of to act

, were received as allies in Europe by declaring war against the Spanish territory, by the Spathe prerogative of kings. Al- nish authorities. A whole regithough they did not, by any formalment abandoned the important declaration, refuse to her all coun fortress of Almeida, and, in the tenance in her plans, and for a time neighbourhood of Ciudad Rodrigo, were suspiciously cold to the re awaited orders to return as invamonstrances of the Portuguese re- ders. To the south Magessi was gency, yet neither did they openly assembling and organizing in the justify her proceedings. England vicinity of Badajoz the batallions had taken the part of the new goa which deserted from the different vernment firmly and decidedly. corps stationed in the province of France, although her sincerity was Alentejo: and in the north, Chaves exposed to suspicion by the mis and Montealegre, not only concenconduct of her minister at Madrid, trated the fugitives, but, vided by professed the most cordial satisfac- the influence of the former, whose tion with the regency, and subse“ paternal estates were situated in quently proved, by deeds, her disa that part of the kingdom, they approbation of the mad policy of crossed the frontier and advanced Ferdinand. If among the other some leagues into the interior. great powers, there were any who Whenever the approach of the

allegiance 326) ANNUAL REGISTER,II 1826. constitutional troopscompelled fled, and, if required, to deliver up them to retire, they again found the deserters themselves. But, ina refuge in the Spanish territory, stead of any part of these engage where they proceeded with their ments being fulfilled by Spain, preparations as openly and tran her military and civil governors quilly as if they had formed on the frontiers, not only received a Spanish army, and Spain had the rebels as allies, and allowed regularly declared war agninst them to prepare for their campaign Portugal.

The ," within the Spanish territories While they assumed the name but where arms, or ammunition, of royalists, and received assistance or provisions were wanting, all from a monarch, tho more than these necessaries were supplied at any other, was extravagant in his the expense and by the authorities notions of kingly power, their of Spain herself. Repeated applideclared object was, to control the cations were made to the commansovereign by force and to alter the ders in the frontier towns and order of succession.

They pro- fortresses, urging the execution of claimed Don Miguel king, although the existing conventions, which in even after the abdication of Don an instant would have put an end Pedro, his rights were excluded by to the hopes and schemes of the every one of Don Pedro's childrer. insurgents, but in every instände Failing him they transferred their they were evaded, on the preand her son, although by the laws taken without entering upon negoof Portugal, the marriage of that tiations which they never deigned princess had incapacitated her from to particularize. These remonsucceeding On the 31st of July strances proving fruitless, and it they proclaimed Don Miguel king, being evident that the officers in and the queen dowager regent the provinces had higher sanction during his absence.

for this continued violation of The desertions alarmed and treaties, Gomez, the Portuguese embarrassed the regency not so minister at Madrid, was directed, much by their numerical amount, on the 7th of August, to commuas by the influence of the exč nicate to the Spanish government ample, and the general distrust the occurrences which had taken of the army which they inspired. place; to explain that; as the Decrees were' immediately issued, regiments which had deserted had disbanding the different corps been disbanded, and the time whieh had deserted, but holding limited in the decree in favour ott pardon to the privates and of the inferior officers and soldiers to the inferior officers upon their had expired, the individuals of returfi to their duty. By the these corps who might remain on standing treaties betwech Portu- the Spanish territory were guilty

Spain, cach country was of treason and rebellion and bound, in the case of troops de- to demand, therefore, that they serting from the other, imme- should be given up or placed in diately to disarm thein, to restore safe custódy until brought to trial their arms; imoney, and ainmuni- wthat the horsės, arms, ammunition to the nearest authorities of tivn, money, &c., which they had the country from which they had carried off, should be immediately

, HISTORY OF EUROPE, A (327 seized and returned-and that the time, the disobedient commandSpanish authorities, against whom ants were continued in their ofthe government of Portugal had fioes; the refugee Portuguese such just cause of complaint, should were received and arined; the be dismissed. But Gomez unfortu-l equipment of infantry and the riately was himself an adherent of mounting of cavalry were going on the rebels, he had refused to take in Gallicia, Valladolid and Salathe oath to the constitutional manca, and Canellas himself, the charter ; and as this was unknown very soul of the conspiracy, whom at Lisbon when these instructiong Ferdinând was bound by treaty, to were sent to him, Portugal at this have sent in chains to Lisbon, was critical moment was left without å residing in Madrid, in constant representative at the Court of and familiar communication with Madrid. His place was abundantly the Spanish ministers, as if he had supplied by Mr. Lamb, the British been the recognized plenipotentiary minister. Ourgovernment, from the of the rebel chiefs. very first, had declared firmly that Hitherto the infidelity to the the Portuguese constitution should constitution and the regency had have fair play ; that we were bound been confined to the military, and by treaties to interfere in defence to the fortresses and towns on the of Portugal, if an unprovoked age frontier. In the interior the troops gression should be made upon her had displayed no symptoms of disfrom without; that we had no affection; every wliere the grcat right, and no wish to interfere in body of the people had remained civil dissentions among her own tranquil ; and at Lisbon, and citizens; but that an army of Por- Oporto public opinion was detuguese rebels, armed, equipped, cidedly in favour of the new system. and paid by Spain, would be treated An abortive attempt made at List as what it really was, a Spanish bon to excite insurrection only army. Spain did not wish to strengthened the government, by come single-handed to a contest the contemptible poverty of its with Britain ; but she was equally means, and the facility with which unwilling to allow the constitu- it was suppressed. Some disaffecta tion of Portugal to settle into ed officers, having seduced four tranquillity. Falsehood and eva- companies of the cavalry of police, sion were employed, even when along with a few infantry, formed they deceived nobody: all the re- the project of rising in open rebelmonstrances of Mr. Lamb were lion in the heart of the capital on answered by lying assurances that the night of the 21st of August, the governors on the frontiers had If they were joined by the garrison, acted without the knowledge or au- it was their intention to proclaim thority of the government---by pro- a new king, and institute a new mises, which were i never intended regency; if they found their forec to be fulfilled, that such proceed- unequal to that attempt, they ings would be prevented for the were to march to Villa Franca, a future-and by hypocritical là short way above Lisbon, on the mentations that the Portuguese Tagus, and there await the cifeet deserters should have abused the whieh their examplo might produce; refuge afforded to them in the

this last

was

march quite across Portugal into already left the kingdom, and those Spain. The conspiracy was com- who might be disposed to join them. municated to the government: the It ordered the local authorities in four companies were disarmed with the different towns and cities out resistance ; and both the gar- throughout the kingdom to make rison and the people of Lisbon up lists of all persons, of whatever displayed the highest zeal in sup- condition, who had emigrated from porting the measures of the re their respective districts, pointing gency, To contribute to the tran- out their dignities and employquillity of the capital, a decree* ments, and to sequestrate the prowas issued, requiring all persons, perty of the fugitives of every who should cry newspapers

, peri- description. But, by the existing odical, or other printed papers law of Portugal, the punishment about the streets for sale, to take of the absentees, independently of out a licence from the police; and their rebellion, went much further ordaining that, if any person so than sequestration. By the old licenced should announce alarming law, not only was any person, leavnews, proclaim seditious papers, ing the kingdom without permis publish calumnies, or give cri- sion, deprived of his civil rights and minal notifications, he should be employments, but his property was arrested, and detained until it ipso facto confiscated, without any should be ascertained, whether his judgment of a court, upon a bare spoken program were conformable certificate of his absence. In 1792, to the contents of the

paper

he this severe forfeiture had been vending, and till he should give up changed into sequestration during the editor or author. The execu the absence of the offending party, tion of this decree was intrusted but in 1811, the deeree of 1792 to the military patroles. It was was repealed, and the old law conno favourable treatment of the firmed in all its parts., DJ'T press to constitute such function The regeney, on being informed aries the judges of what might be of the defection of their minister "alarming news, seditious papers, Gomez, had despatched the marquis or criminal notifications ;” but, at of Villa Real as plenipotentiary to the commencement of an untried Madrid. On his' arrival, the order of things, threatened by open Spanish ministry, still refusing to rebels from without, and appre- acknowledge his government, rehensive of concealed traitors from fused to recognize his official chawithin, measures of strict and ir- racter-a double rejection, which regular police are, not merely constituted in itself, by the law of justifiable, but indispensable. nations, a just cause of war; and,

Another decree, issued on the perhaps, an immediate declaration 27th September, was directed of war by Portugal would have against the conspirators who had brought Spain more speedily to

listen to reason. But the former * One article of this decree declared, was unwilling to add the embarthat " such business” (viz, the crying of rassments of war, if by possibility newspapers, &c. in the public streets) they might be avoided, to the diffi« shall be given only to persons of known probity, possessing real property, or some

culties in which every new governcommercial or manufacturing establishment finds itself; and hoped that ment of their own."

::..

;;the recognition of the constitution extring stone w !! li

by Don Miguel, which was daily liberty to have recourse to every expected from Vienna, would check means which might appear suitable the ardour of conspirators i who for her defence. About the same had no shield but his name.' Bebe time; Mr. Lamb absented himself sides, in the event of a war, Britain from a solemn levee at the palace, was the only power to which on the 1st of October, assigning as Portugal could look for active and his reason the unsatisfactory cont immediate aid ; and, as Britain was duet of the government in regard bound to come to her aid, only if to the disarming of the Portuguese she was unjustifiably attacked, it refugees. The cop sequence of this was wise to allow Spain to de- was a note from M. Salmon on the velop her wiles more fully, and 3rd of October, addressed not only put herself in the wrong, to the to M. Villa Real, but likewise to conviction of all the world. For all the foreign ministers, in which the same reasons, the marquis of he asserted that the king had Villa Real still continued his diplo- already given orders' to send back matic intercourse with the Spanish the arms of the deserters, and pregovernment. He pressed for the vent them from violating the Porrecognition of the charter and the tuguese frontier, and had directed regency, the punishment of the Canellas to leave Madrid within commanders on the frontiers who three days, and Spailt within a had openly protected and armed month.” The first assertion was the rebels, the expulsion of Canel- either a deliberate falsehood, or the las from Madrid, and at all events, government of Ferdinand was de the seizure and restoration of the spised, and his commands flouted arms which the deserters had car even within his own kingdom ; for ried off. His demands either re- those orders never were obeyed, i

if mained unanswered or wereevaded. they were ever given. The Spanish The pretence of Spain was, the ne- government was not ignorant to cessity of consulting with her allies whom their orders were addressed, before taking so important a step and by whom they were violated; as the recognition of the new the names of the offending generals government. But the opinion of had been particularized to them, her allies was already known; every general Longa on the northern great court in Europe had recog- frontier, St. Juan on the eastern, nized the regency as a legitimate and Quesada in the south. Along government, and had its accredited the whole frontier, the system con agents in Lisbon. Wearied out by tinued to be followed ; at the very this long course of bad faith, the moment these assurances were Portuguese minister addressed a given by M. Salmon, the Portunote to M. Salmon, Ferdinand's guese rebels were equipping thémminister for foreign affairs, in the selves, with the aid of Spain for a end of September, stating, that, if new inroad across the frontier ; the court of Madrid finally refused after these assurances, the equipto recognize the present govern- ment proceeded as actively as bement of Portugal, and would not fore; the very arms which were satisfy her demands with respect to to be seized and restored were put the refugees, he would withdraw into the hands of refugees, or himself immediately, and then allowed to remain in them; and Portugal would feel herself at Portugal was again invaded both

in the

north and in the south.

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