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On the 7th of October, the occupied by the rebels; the great duke of Abrantes, landed at Tavira, body of the army had remained in Algarve, apparently with no faithful; the population had shewn formed plan of operations. A regi- a spirit of quiet and contentment, ment of chasseurs, however, which and, on no occasion, had been was stationed there, was induced seduced by the promises or profesto join him, and Don Miguel was sions of the insurgent leaders. If proclaimed king. This body then even now, Spain had done her marched eastward to Villa Real, duty, and kept her word, by acting where they compelled the governor up to the assurances given by M. of the town to take the oath to Salmon on the 3rd of October, the new king, and were compli- alarm and tumult would have dismented on their success by the appeared from Portugal. But the Spanish authorities of Ayamonte, folly of the Camarilla seemed to a frontier town on the other side be equalled only by its persevering of the Guadiana. The insurgents obstinacy. The retreating rebels were not joined by any part of the were received as kindly as ever ; population, and the rest of the greater exertions than before were military in the province proved now made to organize and arm faithful. M. Saldanha, the minis. them, and convert these predatory ter at war, immediately proceeded inroads into a more serious descent. into Algarve, taking with him all The priesthood laboured with zeal the troops that could be spared to rouse enthusiasm, and to supply from Lisbon. Along with him money ; but, as yet, none of the were five judges, to form a military higher ranks of the Portuguese tribunal, which might move about ecclesiastics had manifested any from place to place, to try sum disaffection to the existing order of marily, and punish instantly, such things. rebels as might be taken. But The charter had fixed the first the insurrection, which was never ordinary meeting of the Cortes for formidable, had melted away before the 2nd of January, 1827 ; but his arrival. The military com- the executive possessed the power mander of the province had checked of convoking them at any time, the advance of the rebels north- in an extraordinary session, if any ward, by taking post at Mertola ; public emergency should render it and when Saldanha reached that advisable. In the present state of town, they had already dispersed public affairs, it was found necesand fled into Spain.

sary that new taxes should be imThe attempt made by the mar- posed, to meet the increased exquis of Chaves again to raise the penditure occasioned by the rebelprovince of Tras os Montes was lion; and, as the continuance of equally unsuccessful. He advan- that rebellion, aided by Spain, ced, in the beginning of October, might force Portugal to claim the as far as Villa Real; but all he assistance of Britain, it was necescould effect was, to induce about sary to obtain the consent of the two hundred men of a chasseur Cortes to the introduction of regiment to desert; and on the foreign troops into the kingdom. 10th of October, he fled with his The Cortes were, therefore, sumfamily into Spain. There was moned to mect on the 30th of Ocnow not a single spot in Portugal tober; and, on that day, their

first session was opened by the dressed his holiness, for the purInfanta Regent, with a speech pose of obtaining the necessary which breathed a spirit of mildness dispensation for solemnizing his and moderation, always becoming, marriage with my august ' niece but not often met with in a new and sovereign Queen Donna Maria constitution. "You are well aware," the Second. Our legislative 'ensaid she, “ that Portugal has never actments will eminently concur to recognized, even in the most re the maintenance of public tranquilmote agés, any other government lity, and in giving stability to the than that of a representative mom political system established by the narchy; but the prelates and the charter. They will establish, on grandees of the kingdom formed the solid basis of justice, the civil the representative body; the people and criminal codes of the empire ; had no voice and no share in its they will give regularity to our institutions, which were almost municipal bodies, and to our profeudal. It was the king of Portu- vincial tribunals; and add, at the gal that, some time after the origin same time, a new impulse to comof the monarchy, conceded to the merce and agriculture, the sources third estate those rights and that of our national prosperity. In dignity which barbarous ages had mentioning commerce, I cannot denied them. Portugal then flou- refrain from communicating to you rished, for the first time, under the very flattering hopes I enterthe protection of a purely repre- tain of seeing its activity doubled, sentative government. There ex both in Portugal and Brazil. Your isted, however, no laws to give attention will doubtless be direct stability to institutions adopted by ed, with very particular care, to usage, and handed down by tradi- education and the public instrucs tion: they fell, in consequence, into tion of the community, which desuetude, and the Cortes were contribute so efficaciously in puriforgotten by the nation which fying the morals of the people, they once represented. It has which times of trouble have corbeen reserved for our days to rupted. Nor will the re-establish revive them by wise and stable ment of education, bottomed upon rules. Such was the design con the principles of the holy religion templated by the royal mind of which we profess, and which we my august father, whose memory shall ever defend, less contribute will be ever dear to Portugal-such to the stability of the monarchy,

design which, to his immor- and to the production of that pertal honour, my august brother has fect harmony in which all the consummated, by conferring upon members of this great family ought this nation the boon of the consti- to dwell. tutional charter. A

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few “ Worthy Peers of the realm ! hours ago, I received from Vienna; in your capacity of legislators you intelligence that my dearly, bes are called upon to take part in loved and much esteemed brother those important labours; but you had taken the oath to the consti- are also called to exercise the high tutional charter, without condition functions of the magistracy. By or qualification, on the 4th of this the wisdom, firmness, and patriotpresent month'; and that, iinme- ism which shall distinguish your diately after this act, he had ait efforts you will serve as an example

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to those who may succeed to your ship and mutual confidence which hereditary dignities. It is with the solemnity of treaties, the ties you, gentlemen deputies of the of blood, and the vicinity of terriPortugueze nation, that all mea tory, have so long consolidated.” sures which respect the recruiting The first care of the Chambers of the army, and the taxes, will was, to provide for the security of of right originate. The establish the kingdom against domestic trea ment of our public credit also de- son and foreign aggression. On mands your most serious attention. law was passed, suspending for a The ministers of state will furnish limited period some of the safe you with all the explanations guards of personal liberty estabwhich the charter requires from lished by the charter; and another, them. Finally, from all of you for making an addition to the conjoined, worthy, Peers of the army, by the formation of a select realm, and gentlemen deputies body of troops, under the name of the Portugueze nation, I ex of Guards of Security. In the pect, and the whole nation hopes, Chamber of Deputies a proposal the accomplishment of our brilliant was made to authorize the governa design. To you the throne looks ment to arm regiments at pleasure, for its firmest support, and you and to employ all foreigners, whehave' placed before you, as the ther - soldiers or otherwise, who great recompense of the interesting had taken refuge in Portugal. labours which you are about to This last measure was intended to enter upon, the delightful satisfac- alarm Spain, by sending back tion of being able, one day, to say armed into her territory, the libe+ to your countrymen, "We found rals who had been exiled on the Portugal weak and languishing: restoration of Ferdinand, as well we leave her vigorous and flourish as some troops who had deserted ing.'”,

on the establishment of the constiThe language used in alluding tution in Portugal. But although, to the relations between Portugal as a measure of retaliation, it and Spain was equally conciliatory. would have been perfectly justified “All will speedily learn that the by the conduct of Spain, yêt, as a representative government of Por- declared act of government, it tugal is truly just and moderate, would have been inconsistent with and that it seeks not to carry dis- the moderation which Portugal quiet into any other State, on and her ally still wished to display: account of diversity of institutions. The proposal was sent to a combut limits its intentions to the mittee, but was never adopted. steady and energetic defence of its To secure the fidelity of the army own. Already have facts more already existing, it was resolved forcibly than words shown the that the pay of such soldiers as prudence and good faith of this might be killed in the rebellion government. These have in a should be continued to their wives great measure diminished the ap- and daughters.': prehensions of a

In the budget of the year, as nation.

government of that brought forward by the minister nation are now convinced, that of finance on the 7th of November, difference of political institutions there was a deficiency to the ought not to diminish that friend- amount of two thousand contos of

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reis, without making any allowance date of her arrival in the kinga for new expenditure which might dom, and was to receive, in ad. be found necessary, and which, in dition, the sum of 2,000 mil-reis regard to the army estimates, as outfit. The other princesses would be unavoidable. The mi were allowed pensions of 125,000 nister stated, however, that there francs ; and the queen dowager, were means of providing for this besides the appanage which she deficiency without having recourse already enjoyed, a pension to the to direct contributions, which, he same amount, proper and becoming thought, in the present circum- from her connexion with the royal stances of the country, would not family, but not merited by any be advisable. The chamber accor- manifestation of good will; either dingly authorised a loan to be to the sovereign or the constitu« effected, to the extent of the de tion. All these allowances were ficiency, at five per cent, with a declared to be independent of any sinking fund of one per cent. 'other sums paid to the personages Twenty contos of reis were to be on whom they were conferred, annually employed in paying the and the enjoyment of palaces of interest and redeeming the princi« other property belonging to them pal, by buying up the bonds of The cares of the Cortes were the loan. To meet this charge, speedily diverted from internal aru certain new duties were laid upon rangements to foreign invasion, some articles of importation, par. The regent, in opening the session, ticularly on cards and foreign had said, “ That the Spanish got wines. A small impost was like-vernment was now convinced, that wise laid on the importation of difference of political institutions grain., bytosti!?

ought not to diminish that friend The regency had already fixed ship and mutual confidence, which the salary to be allowed to the the solemnity of treaties, the ties members of the Chamber of Depu- of blood, and the vicinity of territies at 8,750 reis (about 1l.) per tory, had so long consolidated.” day, during the session, with an But so long as lerdinand hated additional allowance to the depu- and feared the Portuguese constities from the distant provinces of tution, it was impossible that Madeira, the Azores, and Asia. mutual confidence or friendship The Cortes now fixed the estab- could exist between him and the lishments of the different members rulers by whom that constitution of the royal family, as provided was supported; his fondest desire by the charter. To the infanta was, to witness its downfal, and regent was voted an allowance of his only anxiety to conceal this 1,500 mil-reis per day while she share in the conspiracies by which continued regent, and a further it was attacked. The assurances pension of 125,000 francs during given by M. Salmon on October her life, as a mark of gratitude 3rd, had been followed by the ina on the part of the Cortes for vasion of Algarves and Tras-os the services she had rendered to Montes, by Chaves and the duke the state on the introduction of of Abrantes ; and these traitors ? the constitution. The young queen retired into Spain only to recruit was to have an allowance of 2,000 their strength, and better organize mil-reis per day, payable from the their designs. - It was now offici

ally known at Madrid, thąt Don he acted under secret orders from Miguel himself had been betroth, his government, or was the daring ed, at Vienna, to the young queen, instrument of a faction who thought and had taken the gath to the new themselves powerful enough to constitution, without condition or counteract the policy of the minisqualification. His alleged title try of Charles X., gave tho utmost to the throne, on the abdication of countenance to the delays and evaDon Pedro, had never been any sions of Spain. The marquis of thing more thąu direct usurpation; Villa Real addressed a note to him but, after he had solemnly recog- on the 10th November, in which nized the cliarter, and the line of he stated that M. Salmon, assigned succession which it established, as the reason for not recognizing there could no longer be any sup- the Portuguese government, that posed identity of projects between neither France nor Austria had him and the rebels, and Spain made to him any official commucould not lend herself to those who nication of a similar act of reeogmight still use his name, without nition naying bøen performed by being guilty of direct hostilities themselves, and added, " As your against the Portuguese govem- excelleney cannot be ignorant that ment. Trusting to the effect which the communications which the this oceyrrence might have had duke de Rauzan has made at upon the Spanish ministry, the Lisbon, leave np doubt that his British and Portuguese ambassa- most Christian majesty has recogdors renewed their remonstrances nized the legality of the govern: against the refusal to recognize ment established in Lishon, and as the regency. Spain did not dare the chargé d'affaires, appointed by to speak out the true reason of this the infanta regent to your governrefusal, viz., that she denied the ment, has already been presented right of a sovereign prince to es to his most Christian majesty, I do tablish a representative govern- not hesitate to inform you of the ment in his states, and that she objection which M. Salmon has was resolved to oppose the exercise made to my application, in the of his prerogative, because it was hope that you will think proper to disagreeable to her; she had re- obviate them, in so far as regards course to pretences sa flimsy in the opinion of your government themselves, and so inconsistent with respect to that of Portugal, with fact, that she only exposed and will be pleased to communicatie herself to the reproach of hypo- tp M. Salmon, that the opinion of crisy and double-dealing, without the king of France as to the reaping any one of the advantages changes which have taken place in of concealment. She still shielded Portugal, coincides with that of herself behind the necessity of the cabinets of London, St. Peterswaiting the decision of France burg, and Berlin.” The Frenchand Austria, although both of man's answer was evasive and them were known to stand in the laconic: Being of opinion that most friendly relations to the court the solution of the very complicatof Lisbon. In pursuing this course, ed question contained in your letter she derived no small encourage- cannot concern me, I beg you ment from De Moustier, the French not take it amiss that I conüne minişler at Madrid, who, whether myself solely to acknowledging the

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