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Lamb, in which, after stating his British troops had been embarked, satisfaction that the assurances had arrived in the Tagus; but the given in his note of the 28th of course of events rendered it unNovember had produced & the necessary for them to encounter an happy effects which were to be enemy: Their presence, besides expected

from them."w.these effects depriving the rebels of the last having been the landing of five gleam of hope, enabled the regency thousand British troops in Por- to employ an additional force tugalinhe added, that his august against the insurgents, master, in order to furnish another only in Tras os Montes, and in the proof of his desire for peace was upper parts of Beira, that they had ready to receive a public agent on been able hitherto to maintain any the part of his most faithful ma- footing; and even there they had jesty Don Pedro, as soon as the little chance of keeping the field count de Casa Flores, his ambas- against the troops which would sador at Lisbon, should be re-in- now be opposed to them. Hitherto stated in his functions:" New the commanders of the constituassurances, likewise, were given of tional forces had been content in a the fulfilment at last of repeated great measure to act merely on the promises and former resolutions, defensive, because any serious misW taking at the same time such fortune in the provinces might precautions as must insure the have had the worst effects upon punctual execution of them :"- the publie mind, and endangered very plain acknowledgment that the safety of the capital. But the he hitherto had taken care that considerations of prudence, which these promises and resolutions recommended this line of conduct, should be worthless and futile. were now at an end, and the conThis note being transmitted to stitutionalists were at liberty to Lisbon, the regency informed commence offensive operations. count Casa Flores that he would Generals Claudino, and Azeredo be received in a private audience, entered Vizeu on the 28th of Deand, after that audience, would be cember ; the rebels, who occupied considered as re-instated in all his it as the advanced guard of the official rights and privileges. But insurgent army, having already it was added; “ the speedy execu- begun to retire towards the frontion of all the promises made by tier. At the same time Villa Flor Spain in M. Salmon's circular of was moving against them from the the 28th of November, and espe- neighbourhood of Guarda and cially the prompt and total dis- Celorico, and at last they were arming and dispersing of the corps brought to a decisive engagement of Magessi, now in the Spanish near the town of Coruches. The territory, must be considered as an rebels were said to amount to about indispensable part of this concilia- twelve thousand men, and the tion. On the 26th of December, troops opposed to them to seven M. Casa Flores was admitted to thousand. The battle began at his audience, and the diplomatic one o'clock in the afternoon on the relations between the two countries 9th of January, 1827, and lasted were again established.

till night-fall, when it ended in By the first of January, 1827, the total discomfiture of the rebels: all the vessels of war in which the their commanders were among the

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to the Wind ammunition, and with Spanish bad fortune, attended them in the 344] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1826. first to fly. An ineffectual ate into the conduct of several local tempt was made to rally at Almeida, governors; and the cabinet exbut the panic was universal, and pressed diplomatically its high disthe greater part of the rebels, now pleasure at their disobedience to informed of the arrival of the Bri orders which they were said to tish troops, deserted an cause Whioschi

have received. But the disobe

dience of Longa had been particuprinciple; and, by giving them- larly, brought under its notice selves

constitutional long before; and, while troops were commander, endeavoured still to moving from all parts of the kingentitle themselves to the benefit of dom towards Portugal, under the the amnesty, which, in the be- pretext of preventing any violation ginning of November, the Princess of the Spanish territory by the Regent had proclaimed to all sub- contending parties, all those points, alterns and soldiers who should at which it was known the rebels return their duty before the were assembling and arming themexpiry of the year. Their generals, selves, and from which their inaccompanied by about a thousand roads

roads were to be made, were left men, escaped into Spain, and fur defenceless. After the defeat at nished to the Spanish cabinet ano- Coruches, Chaves, and the other ther opportunity of proving how commanders sent their baggage to Httle sincere it had been in the Madrid, where it was granted the assurances given by it on the 18th same privilege with that of ama of December, that precautions bassadors, and allowed to pass would be taken to insure the without being examined. punctual execution of orders for Count Villa Flor having made disarming and dispersing the Por- himself master of Almeida, and taguese refugees. A body of eight the whole province of Beira being laundred men marched from Ciudad thus cleared of the rebels, crossed Rodrigo, ostensibly to meet and the Douro into Tras os Montes, disarm the fugitives from the battle whither the fugitives, few and disa of Coruches; but instead of being heartened, had ventured to return. disarmed, they were allowed time They offered no resistance, and

themselves with money, retired to the frontiers. The same arms in the place of those which northern part of the province, had been thrown away in their where the constitutional troops precipitate flight. In a few days under Angija and Mello, drove they re-crossed the Douro, and them back into Spain, and recoentered the southern part of the vered the town of Chaves. Braprovince of Tras os Montes with- ganza was now almost the only out', meeting with the slightest point which the insurgents retained obstacle from the Spanish author, in the kingdom ; their force was ities. M. Salmon now found it completely broken ; their hopes more difficult than ever to satisfy were gone; their ally was overthe British minister; he found it awed, and there was no prospect. necessary to suspend general Longa, that they would again be able to who had permitted this new act of disturb the tranquillity of Porhostility, from his command; an tugal, or endanger the existence of inquiry was ordered to be instituted its new constitution.

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CHAP. XIII.

TURKEY-Ultimatum of Russia, regarding Wallachia and Moldavia

it is acceded to by the Porte-Conferences at Ackerman belween Russia and Turkey - Settlement of their Differences - The

Sultan attempts to introduce European Discipline among the Janis !" sariesThe Janissaries RevoltThe Revolt is quelled, and the

Janissaries suppressed~Fire in Constantinople-Executions- Meas sures adopted to Reform the Administration.-GREECE—Engage' ments between the Greek and Turkish

Fleets--Siege of MissolonghiAttacks and Repulses of Ibrahim--Capture by Ibrahim of Vassiladi and Anatolico— Famine in Missolongħi-Miaulis endeavours to relieve it-The Garrison attempts to cut its way through the Turkish

Camp-Missolonghi taken-Military Operations after the taking of "Missolonghi--Proclamation of the National Assembly-Measures of

the Commission of Government--European Policy in regard to Greece -Piracies committed under the Greek Flag-Finances-Exposure of the Greek LoansThe conduct of Persons connected with those

ci Loans.

TH
HE Sublime Porte had hither- from her yoke her Grecian pro-

to obstinately refused to vinces, and driving her fleets with satisfy the demands of Russia, disgrace to the very mouth of the arising out of the measures which Dardanelles, was wilfully exposing the former had thought proper to herself at every moment to be adopt for the security of Wal- attacked on the north by the lachia and Moldavia, in conse most gigantic military power in quence of the disturbances in Europe. She may have thought, these principalities in 1821. The that, with its possessor, the threats of Russia, though her throne of Russia had changed army stood on the banks of the likewise its policy, and that the Pruth, prepared to overrun Mol new emperor might feel less davia upon very little warning, powerfully than his predecessor, were disregarded; the united the almost native desire of modern remonstrances and advice of other Russian sovereigns to make the European powers were received Danube the southern boundary with indifference, or treated with of their European dominions. contempt, as an officious intrii- But, from the moment when sion of counsel where it was nei- Suwarrow gladdened Catherine ther wanted nor desired; Turkey, with his brief despatch that Ismael while the small and ill-disciplined was no more, that had been too bands of the Morea were scatter- constantly an object of Russian ing her troops, reducing her policy, to be easily lost sight of Grecian fortresses, emancipating in the mere change of a monarch;

and to limit the authority of the met, and the patience and longPorte in its frontier provinces suffering of Russia, which her towards Hungary and Bessarabia, honour, as well as her interest, is one essential step towards its required should now be at an attainment. Nicholas adopted end. His imperial majesty, it towards these provinces the prin- was said, might have considered ciples of Alexander, and, as soon the negotiations as terminated, as the crown was fixed firmly on after the result of the conference his head, he prepared to assert of 13th October, 1825, and might them with vigour. The total have employed the readiest and failure of thë negotiations of the most efficacious means to enforce former year, although the influ- the observance of his own rights, ence of other powers had pre- and of the faith of treaties. In vented them from being followed holding out the olive branch for by immediate hostilities, seemed the last time, and the addition of to forbid the hope of the matters another to the many opportunities in dispute being ultimately settled which had been afforded to without an appeal to arms. The Turkey of satisfying his demands, sultan pretended that he dared he was only making a new sacrinot consent to the conditions fice to his moderation of temper demanded in favour of infidel and love of peace; in doing so, subjects, without running the risk he gave the Sultan at once the of exciting an insurrection among strongest proof of friendship, and the faithful. He was probably the best-founded motives for concrafty enough to know, that in fidence; he had no wish but for procrastination there was not much a sin and dy ole reconcilidanger, as the jealousies and ation between the two powers, by policy of Austria and England a final determination of all the would not willingly see him pay questions, which, since 1816, had to Russia, in the shape of a ces- rendered their reciprocal relations sion of territory, an additional uncertain and difficult. He, penalty for his delay in giving therefore, once more repeated the her satisfaction; and he was ap- preliminary demands which had prehensive, lest, if he yielded already been so often made, and easily to the demands of Russia as often evaded or refused; viz., and her allies in favour of Chris- 1. That the state of things which tians beyond the Danube, it might had existed in Wallachia and encourage them to be equally im- Moldavia before the insurrection portunate on behalf of Christians of 1821, and, in particular, the in the Moreà. Russia, however, number and organization of the forced upon him the bare and provincial militia, should be comstrict question of peace or war. pletely re-established. 2. That In the month of April, M. Min- the Servián deputies, who had ziacky, her ambassador at Con- been confined in the seraglio, stantinople, presented to the Porte since 1821, should be set at an ultimatum, again setting forth liberty. 3. That the Porte should the grounds of complaint against appoint plenipotentiaries to meet Turkey, the dilatory ånd evasive with Russian commissioners in conduct by which they had been some town on the Russian fron

tiers, there to resume the negotia- pected to embolden him in resisttions on all points which had been ing the demands, and what he under consideration between 1816 thought the encroachments, of and 1821, and bring them to a Russia upon the other. If there definitive conclusion. These were was any reality in his apprehenpreliminary points, on the conced- sions that the concession of what ing of which Russia insisted as was asked by Russia might excite indispensable to the continuance revolt among the fanatic populace, of amicable relations between he perhaps thought that the moherself and the Porte. The Portement was favourable to take adwas allowed six weeks to return a vantage of the more tranquil and eategorical answer; and, if that accommodating temper which this answer should be in the negative, signal victory over heretics and M. Minziacky was immediately to rebels might produce, as a hungry quit Constantinople. To add lion may be passed in safety while force to the demand and the argu- it is gorging on its prey. But the ment, the

army in Bessarabia was true secret of his change of dispoordered to be in readiness to cross sition, or, at least, of conduct, the Pruth, and to clear the princi- seems to have been in very differpalities of the Turkish troops. ent considerations. He had alThe ministers of the other powers ready formed plans of internal at Constantinople were informed, reform, which he very soon afterthat the only object of the attitude wards carried into effect, and which Russia was assuming was, which a war with Russia would to bring to a termination its own have rendered impracticable. He differences with Turkey, which could not hasten into the field the emperor's dignity could not against such an enemy, at the moallow to remain any longer un ment when he was about to subsettled, since the interposition of ject the whole system of his miliother states, and his own forbear- tary force to alterations which ance, during five years, had led necessarily rendered it inefficient to no satisfactory result.

for a time, or, as it actually With a readiness which was turned out, first to annihilate it, any thing but expected, the Porte and then to reproduce it. On the agreed unreservedly to every one 13th of May, the Porte, commuof these demands, and that, too, nicated to M. Minziacky its ac at a moment when the exultation ceptance of the terms of the of success in Greece might natu- Russian ultimatum.

It stated, rally have tended to confirm her that it considered the existence of in her obstinacy and wrong- the Beschlis Agás, officers of proheadedness. In the beginning of vincial militia, in Wallachia and May,the Sultan learned the triumph Moldavia, as necessary for the of įbrahim's arms in the Morea, maintenance of peace in those and the fall of Missolonghi, almost principalities; but that, neverthe last strong-hold of the insur- theless, in conformity with the gents beyond the isthmus of wishes of the emperor of Russia, Corinth. An, event which pro- orders had een given to th inised to free him from a Greek war governor of Silistria to withdraw on one side, might have been ex- the Baschbeschlish and their men

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