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and ambition. These bands, kier Hussein Pacha-ma 'man of formed in haste, ill-accoutred, great decision of character, a and worse paid, wielding, indeed, favourite too of the people, because European arms, but with only a he had always been successful. scanty portion of regular Euro- The emperor gave the first public pean discipline, had yet been able indication of his intentions by into rout his best commanders and creasing the number and pay of most trust-worthy troops, and com- the corps of Topschi, or artillerypelled him to send to Egypt for the men, a corps amounting to nearly dangerous aid of Ibrahim. The fourteen thousand men, which career of the latter, from his arrival had been formed some years bein the Morea, had tended no less fore, and always maintained, upon to convince and determine the something like an approach to emperor. Ibrahim brought with European principles, and of which him troops trained to European Hussein Pacha had the command. discipline by European officers: The predilection shewn in their his course had been one of almost favour made them objects of jea* uninterrupted victory, and he had lousy and dislike to the Janisjust wrested Missolonghi from saries, which instantly became the Greeks, leaving to them mutual, and only bound them little prospect of safety but in more firmly to the fortunes of submission. Mahmoud resolved their imperial master, whose fall to attempt again to remodel the would be the signal for their own Ottoman army, and he conceived destruction. In the beginning of that both the violence and impru- June, Mahmoud promulgated his dence of Bairactar, and the too regulations, and commenced the facile disposition of Selim, might formation of his new army, by be avoided. Even superstition, ordering the enrolment of a cera or the priests of superstition, was tain number of men out of every now in some measure upon his company of Janissaries, to be side; the ulemas themselves saw drilled to European exercise and the rapid decay of the national manoeuvres. Their pay was strength, and the increasing dan- raised : to conciliate their hatred gers of the Mahommedan faith, of innovation, an old name, sige in the necessity in which the nifying organized light troops, was empire had found itself of yield- taken from the ordinances of ing implicit compliance with the Soliman the great, whose military imperious demands of the unbe- regulations, as he had first given lieving Czar of Moscow. He did them the perfect organization not act hastily, without a plan, which they once boasted, were esa but prepared his measures with teemed sacred as the precepts of much precaution. He visited the the Koran. Their uniform was garrisons on the Bosphorus to be selected with the same views, satisfied as to their fidelity; he and whatever ' might recal any assured himself of the hearty co-' idea of the Nizam Djedid was operation of the dignitaries of the carefully avoided. To all apempire, and the heads of religion; pearance the chiefs of the Janis and he found a zealous and able saries, as well as the greater part supporter of reform in the Seras- of the men, were disposed to acVOL. LXVIII.
quiesce in the change; the former, by the Janissaries. They did not had bound themselves to the adop- find him, but his house was pil-, tion of the new system by oath ; laged, , and its inmates abused it was supported by all the in- with barbarous cruelty. fluence of the Ulemas, formerly the In the mean time, the principal most bigotted enemies of innova- body had directed their march tion, and united with the cause towards the palace of the Porte, of their religion by a solemn act of for the purpose of surprising the consecration, performed with much grand vizier. He having received pomp in presence of the troops, intimation from the Aga, had and a large concourse of the people. withdrawn from the palace, with
But, amidst the calm, symptoms his family, and retired to a of discontent, threatening an ap- pavilion of the Sultan's, situated proaching storm, were distinctly near the seraglio, on the side of visible; and the Sultan soon found the harbour. It was here that that the precautions he had taken the partizans of the government were any thing but superfluous. assembled, by degrees, while the The Janissaries incorporated into rebels were occupied in pillaging the new regular troops showed, in the palace of the Porte, or, disthe performance of their new ex- persed among the wine-houses, ercise, a resistance to their offi- were indulging in the grossest cers, which plainly betrayed a excesses. smothered fermentation, The At day-break the Janissaries first traces of it manifested them- who were in the barracks, assem, selves on the evening of the 14th bled in the square of Atmeidan, of June, by several groups of the situated in the centre of the bar-, Janissaries being seen assembled racks, and well known in previous at different points, as if prepared revolts. Thither they took their to take part in some general en-camp-kettles, and caused proclam! terprise; and, in the night be- mation to be made by criers, that, tween the 13th and 14th, it became every Janissary should repair to an open revolt. A troop of the the place of general rendezvous. mutineers proceeded, after mid- A like summons was addressed night, to the hotel of the Aga of to the Tschebedschis, or cutlers, the Janissaries to murder their in the neighbourhood of the general in chief; but he had mosque of Santa Sophia ; but it found time to escape to the palace was evaded by the superintendant of the Porte. Having failed in of these men,
under various pretheir principal object, they in- texts. dulged their rage by pillaging the Government, however, was not house of the Aga, and outraging inactive. On the first intelligence his family. They then proceeded of the seditious movement, the to the residence of Nedschib Ef- sultan Mahmoud left his summer fendi, the agent of Mohammed Ali palace, on the European side of Pacha, who had recently returned the Bosphorus, for the purpose of from his mission in the Morea, returning to the seraglio. In a and who, as one of the most short time the ministers, the ardent admirers of the new order heads of the departments, the of things, was particularly hated Mufti, and the principal Ulemas,
assembled at Zali-Koschk, round to them. Enraged at the demand, the grand vizier. Immediately and very different from his preafter, the Aga, Hussein Pacha, decessor, Selim III., who was the commander of the camp of obser- victim of his weakness, Sultan vation on the European frontier, Mahmoud ordered Hussein Pacha and Mohammed Pacha, com- to march with all the troops at mander of the Asiatic camp, his disposal against the rebels, arrived with a large body of whom a fetwa from the Mufti had troops, among whom were many put out of the protection of the battalions of cannoneers and bom- law. Hussein Pacha, at the head bardiers, with pieces of ordnance of several thousand men, marched from the battery of Tophana. A rapidly against the rebels, who considerable force was assembled could not resist the impetuosity at the same time under the eye of his attack. They retired on of the Sultan, who, in military the Atmeidan, and flung themuniform, directed the arrange- selves into the barracks. Cannon ments in person, and it marched shot and bomb-shells burst upon towards the Hippodrome or At- the strong-holds of the revolumeidan. The customary prayers tionists; after a short struggle in times of disturbance were put the rebels were defeated; up, and the sacred standard of dreadful slaughter ensued in the Mahomet was brought forth from barracks, which were séton fire, the the Treasury, and unfurled—a conflagration extending to some summons to all good believers to neighbouring houses. The numarm in defence of the religion of ber of the rebels killed amounted the prophet. A proclamation an- to between two and three thounouncing the call was published, sand, including those who perish-, at the same time, by criers in all ed in the fire : the loss of the the quarters of the city and suburbs. troops of the Sultan was comparaNumerous armed groups camė tively small. In the barracks from all parts of the Atmeidan, considerable treasure was found, encouraged by the intrepidity of which was given as booty to the the Sultan and the warlike ardour conquerors. The fugitives were Buy Tussein Pacha, and vowed to pursued in all directions, and
the Sultan and the throne those who threw themselves into the last drop of their blood. the stone buildings about the
The same appeal was addressed Adrianople gate, and the Seven. to all the mutineers. Three times Towers, were compelled to sur. they were summoned to repair to render. the standard of the prophet. In the mean time, the cabinet They indignantly rejected all held its sittings beneath tents on summons, and answered, that the Atmeidan, under the presithey would not submit to the will dency of the grand vizier, Hussein of the Sultan, until the new regu- Pacha, and the Mufti, and formed lations should have been abolish- a tribunal to try the rebels. All ed, and the heads of the grand 'the Janissaries who had been vizier, of Hussein Pacha; of the taken with arms in their hands, Aga of the Janissaries, and of but principally their Ustas, and Nedschib-Effendi, were delivered other officers who had formerly
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sworn to adopt the reform, were, the faith, and to find means after a short interrogatory, exe- to resist, under the auspices of cuted; the less culpable were religion, the enterprises of the put into the prisons of the Bos- enemy; that it had convincingly tangi-Baschi.
shown, in the late wars, that the The state reasons for proceed- enemy owed his ' superiority only ing slowly with reform, and to the exercise to which his troops veiling its features under the had been accustomed ; that since mask of old names, had now dis- the wars of 1202 (1787), attempts appeared ; and, on the 16th the had been twice made, to introduce Sultan issued a proclamation, that exercise into the army, that formally abolishing the corps of the corps of Janissaries had shown Janissaries - for ever, and de itself unfavourable to the mili voting their name to execration tary manoeuvres, had disapproved, as habitual rebels. In this pro- and always opposed, them; and clamation he described them with that several sovereigns, who demuch accuracy, and showed that served to live as long as the world, the Porte both knew well where had been the victims of the obstiits weakness lay, and felt deeply nacy and the ferocity of this corps; the mortifications to which that he decreed that the name of. weakness exposed them. The Janissary should no longer exist, Janissaries, said Sultan Mahmoud, and ordered the formation of rewho had formerly gained so many gular and disciplined troops under victories, and conquered so many the name of askeri-muhammedije, countries w. by their courage in for the defence of the empire and attack, and ove all, by their Islamism. No one was allowed blind obedience to the orders of to appear in the dress, on té bear their master, had insensibly de- the name, of a Janissary. All generated, and become cowardly their barracks: were demolished; and mutinous. These troops, in their camp-kettles, which had so the wars which had been carried often served as a signal of revolt, on for a century past, had despised were broken; their distinctive the orders of their chiefs --- had marks of ortas, or regiments, were tbeen seized with consternation taken away, trampled under foot from the slightest causes--had by the Mufti, and destroyed ; in spread terror by false news fine, every thing was annihilated, quitted their ranks, and shame- that belonged to this once forfully fled before the enemy, aban-midable militia. All the posts doning to them the fortresses and hitherto occupied by the Janisprovinces. During this time, the saries were delivered up to artilenemies of the faith, considering lery men, or bostandschis, and at this degeneracy and cowardice as the twenty-four gates of the city equally to be attributed to all were established as many KahidMussulmen, had not ceased daily schi-baschi,w with a guard of to importune the Porte with fresh twenty-five men of these trbops. pretensions and demands. On . The only further resistance to be the other hand, considering that apprehended was what might be the whole nation was bound by 'made by the Yamaks, who garriJaw to arm itself with the zeal of soned the castle on the Bosphorus, celebrated in former insurrections than Tartars of the Porte were to of the Janissaries. But these be employed in that capacity. :* troops remained perfectly tran- During these tumultuous scenes, quil, and even declared that they the Sultan himself displayed much were disposed to assist the Sultan energy both of purpose and activity, with all their force in putting and sternness of execution. It was down the sedition. The grand only by the entreaties of his attend seignior thanked them for their ants that he was prevented, on the loyalty, and sent a present of 15th, from putting himself at the three hundred purses, to be head of the troops who were to act divided among the garrisons of against the mutinous Janissaries. the castles. Every body of men A strict search was kept up in that had been more particularly Constantinople after such of the connected with, or dependent rebels as had escaped the vollies upon, the Janissaries, was pur- of the artillery, and the conflagrasued with stern vigilance, and tion of the barracks, and no mercy disabled from becoming danger- was shewn to them when discoous. The class of hamomals, or vered; they were hurried to the porters, who, for the greater part, Hippodrome, and, so soon as they were enrolled upon the list of were identified, were handed over Janissaries, and had shewn, upon to the executioner. Death was all occasions, a disposition to denounced, too, against all who pillage, and particularly during should barbour these proseribed the late troubles, were excluded individuals, and the banishment from the tribe of porters. Their of every man against whom even chief was executed, and they were suspicion was entertained, secured banished from the capital, Many the tranquillity of the capital and thousands of them were conduct- its environs. The total and ined to the coast by an escort of stant failure of the main body of soldiers, and shipped off for Asia. the mutineers in Constantinople Each received a passport, contain- over-awed and disheartened their ing an express prohibition against brethren in the provinces. An returning to Constantinople. The insurrectionary movement which Kurds were treated in the same took place at Adrianople, was put
The greater part of the down without difficulty ; the gopumpers were banished, their vernors of the fortresses along the chief executed, and both these Danube were faithful to the Sultan, classes were in future to consist and their garrisons submitted to of Armenians.
his will without resistance. A The numerous class of water- firman was sent to every province, men also, who were mostly Janis- to be read publicly by the imams saries, underwent some reform. in the mosques, explaining the Similar regulations were extended state of affairs, and the object of to the Janissaries who acted as the recent changes; they were
guards of honour, or couriers, to enjoined to make known to the the different foreign embassies. people, that the only thing inThe government deprived them tended by the dissolution of the of their distinctive badge as Janissaries was the necessity and couriers, and in future no other the desire of reviving religion, of