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THE UNITED STATES-Negotiations with Britain regarding the Color

nial Trade.-SOUTH AMERICA-War between Brazil and Buenos - Ayres-Constitution of Brazil_STATES OF THE Rio DE LA

PLATA COLOMBIA-Revolt in Venezuela Venezuela declares itself Inde* * pendentRelurn of Bolivar-Non-payment of the Dividends on the

Debt-Lans concerning the Public Debt.-Mexico-Finances"Negotiations with the Pope--GUATEMALA— Internal Dissentions. !"_PERU--Surrender of Callao— The National Representatives

refuse to meet -- Conspiracy against Bolivar --He is chosen President for ' Life-His "departure --Finances- BOLIVIA ceives a Constitution from Bolivar-Chili-Chiloe conqueredInsurrection in Chiloe in favour of O'Higgins-Confusion in the j Government ---The Supreme Director resigns-Non-payment of the y! Dividends on the Public Debt.-CONGRESS OF PANAMA,

Tiin? jo 10 URING this year, the United led, by ill health, to decline the presidents, Mr. Jefferson and in Washington; and, before sunMr. " Adams, who were besides set, they had both breathed their two of the only three survivors of last, having witnessed their counthe members of Congress, who, try rising, during half a century, in 1776, signed the Declara- to power and wealth, under the tion of American Independence. government in laying whose found It was thought a coincidence ations they had borne so large a worthy of being remarked, that share. Their whole lives had they both expired on the same been spent in the public service; day, and that day, the 4th of they had filled the highest offices July, the fiftieth anniversary of in the state at home, and conducted the issuing of the Declaration its diplomacy abroad. which made America an inde- The revenues still continued to pendent nation. They heard the be more than equal to the expensound of the bells and the salutes diture; and, in the budget of the which ushered in the political year, they were estimated as fol. festival ; both had been compel- lows: The revenue From Customs

24,000,000 00 dollars From the public lands

1,000,000 00
From Bank dividends

385,000 00
From miscellaneous and incidental
receipts ..

115,000 00

-25,500,000 00 The expenditure of the year was estimated as follows: Civil, miscellaneous, and diplomatic.. 2,032,454 66

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Military service, including fortifica

tions, ordnance, Indian department, revolutionary and military pensions, arming the militia, and arrearages

prior to the 1st of January, 1817... 5,525,662 55 Naval service, including the gradual increase of the navy

3,026,612 81 Public debt

10,000,000 00

-20,584,730 03

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The United States were more it was more than probable that interested than any other country measures might be proposed, and in the progress of the new South resolutions adopted, to which the American republics. Geographi- United States could not become cal situation, as well as similarity parties without injuring their reof political institutions, drew them lations with Europe, or, at all towards each other, and promised events, with Spain. To America, to the former peculiar advantages the recognition by Spain of the for the establishment and exten- independence of her colonies was sion of a most lucrative commerce. of much deeper interest than to The general Congress which the the powers of Europe; their relaSouth American republics pro- tions with these colonies would posed to hold at Panama, held be only commercial and diploout to the United States an op- matic; but America would natuportunity of forming with them rally form with them a much more a connection exclusive of all Eu- intimate political union, directed ropean influence, which would exclusively to American objects ; make North America, in some and some American statesmen measure, a member of their own were already speaking of preventbody, and secure to it preferences ing Europe from “colonizing any and a preponderance, to which part of America." Hence arose European powers, who took no the urgency with which the United part in the deliberations of the States were using all their influassembled representatives of the ence in the cabinets of Europe, American continent could not hope and particularly that of Russia, to aspire. On the other hand, in such , to procure from Spain a formal an assembly of political bodies, acknowledgment of an indepenwho had just thrown off the su- dence which had been established premacy of the mother country, irreversibly de facto, and hence whom the mother country still arose their hesitation to become treated as rebels, and whose inde- at once mbers of this Amphycpendence was far from having tionie council. From the moment been universally and cheerfully it was projected, Mexico and Corecognized by the European courts, lombia had expressed their wish that the United States should be the different parties on several represented at the proposed Con- material points; that it threatened gress; stating, at the same time, to compromise the neutrality of that they did not desire the latter the United States; and that some to depart from their neutrality, of the proposed subjects of deor expect them to take part in liberation would be better settled such of the deliberations as might in separate negotiations with the regard the prosecution of the ex- individual states, than in a conisting war with Spain. To this ference with all. They, therefore, invitation, the executive of the recommended a resolution, “that United States answered, that such it is inexpedient for the United a Congress as was contemplated States to send any minister to the might be highly useful in settling Congress of Panama." On the several important and disputed other hand, the committee of the questions of public law, in arrang- House of Representatives, recoming matters of deep interest to mended a resolution, " That, in the whole American continent, the opinion of the House, it is and in strengthening the ties of expedient to appropriate the funds friendship and mutual good-will necessary to enable the president among the American powers; but of the United States to send mithat it would be expedient first to nisters to the Congress of Panama.” adjust among the states, of whose This recommendation they justirepresentations it was intended to fied by the consideration, that, be composed, such preliminary as the subjects on which the Conpoints as its" organization--the gress was to deliberate were of nature and form of the diplomatic primary importance to the counagents who were to compose it- try, the measure, instead of being and the topics to which their at- prejudicial to public interests, was tention was to be directed. If of the most obvious political expethese matters were arranged to diency; that, as it was stipulated the satisfaction of the United that the neutrality of the United States, it was the opinion of the States should not be brought into président that they ought to be hazard, all apprehensions of berepresented at Panama, where coming involved in entangling the Congress was intended to be alliances were unfounded, and held. These preliminary points the Congress would be regarded, having been settled, the executive in so far as the United States named its representatives to the were concerned, as being purely Congress; but considerable differ- a consultative assembly. ence of opinion as to the pro- opinion prevailed, and the necespriety of the measure, prevailed in sary suins were voted for the exthe legislative bodies. In the Senate penses of the mission, the ministers as well as in the House of Repre- having been already' named by the sentatives, the question was sent to president: a committee on foreign relations. By an act of parliament passed The committee of the Senate ob- in 1822, the trade with the Brijected to the measure, on tlietish West Indian colonies had ground that there was still a want been partially opened to America. of concurrence of opinion among That statutė permitted certain

enumerated articles to be import- with those of any other the most ed into certain specified ports in favoured nation, but until " proof the colonies, from. ' any foreign should be given to the satisfaction country in America or the West of the president of the United Indies, in British vessels, or in States, that no other or higher vessels of such foreign country duties of tonnage or impost, and indiscriminately'; it also allowed no other charges of any kind, are the articles so imported, to be ex- exacted in the British colonial ported to any other colony, or to ports on the vessels of the United the United Kingdom. Although States, and upon any goods, wares, this privilege extended, in words, or merchandize, therein imported to all the countries of America, from the United States, than its was, in reality, an exclusive upon British vessels entering the benefit conferred upon the United same ports and upon the like goods, States, for the new South Ameri- wares, and merchandize, imported can States : had as yet nothing in such vessels from elsewhere. which could deserve the name of By another clause, which provided, a commercial marine. It was a that no British ship, entering an benefit, too, which the United States American port from the United could never have demanded as a Kingdom, or from any other Briright, and which, in point of fact, tish possession, except directly had not been conceded to any from the West-India colonies, European power. They laid hold should be allowed to clear from of the trade which was thus open any port of the United States for to them ; but, instead of meeting any of these colonies, an interdict the relaxation which had been was laid upon any trade being made in their favour, in any carried on between tlie motherfriendly spirit, they immediately country and her colonies, through burthened British vessels with the United States.

At first, higher duties, and set up claims the British government misappreto the colonial markets which hended the import of the words were unheard of among indepen-“from elsewhere ;" conceiving it dent powers. In the session of to mean only foreign countries, Congress which followed the and never supposing that the passing of the act of 1822, they United States could intend to set made a law, imposing upon British up so extravagant a pretension as vessels.coming from the West that of being admitted on the Indies, an alien duty of 94 cents same terms with themother-country per ton, and an additional duty into the markets of her own coloof 10 per cent upon their cargoes. nies. However, after several official To this enactment, sufficiently notes had been interchanged beunfair and ungracious in itself, tween the British envoy at Washthey superadded a provision, that ington, and the American secrethese alien duties should continue ''tary of state, it was ascertained in force, not until their ships that such was the concession reshould be admitted into the colo- 'quired by the act of Congress as nies on the same terms with Bri- the condition of removing the tish ships, and their produce and additional alien duties' imposed merchandize on the same terms on the tonnage and cargoes of

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British vessels trading from the cles) being the growth or produce West-India islands to the United of the country to which such vesStates. To concede such a claim, sels belonged, and to export the and thus procure the recal of the produce of the colonies to any duties, was impossible; and country, except the United KingBritain met them, by laying dom, and its dependencies thus countervailing duties upon the opening to foreigners the carrying tonnage and

cargoes of American trade from our colonies to all the vessels entering the colonial har-, world, except the mother country. bours. She might, under the act This measure was justly and proof , have interdicted all in- perly limited by certain conditions, 20

, in the circumstances intended to secure a return of which had arisen, between her benefits from those who were to colonies and the United States; gain by it. It was provided, that but she adopted a milder expe- it should be lawful for his majesty dient of retaliation, both from a to prohibit the intercourse between hope that the latter would the colonies, and any country in not persevere in their pretensions Europe, having possessions in Amewhen they came to understand rica or the West-Indies, which didi their extravagant nature, and be- not confer on our ships the like pri-> cause a full opportunity of ex- vileges with those which we, by, that plaining them would be afforded act, granted to foreign ships : and, in the course of the negotiations by a subsequent act of the same between the two governments session (6th Geo. 4th c. 114., which it was intended to open. s. 4) it was declared, that the priThese negotiations, however, which vileges of intercourse with our commenced at London in the colonies should not be enjoyed by spring of 1824, had not led, in so the ships of countries not havingt far as this matter was concerned, colonial possessions, which did notu to any satisfactory result; the place our commerce on the footori United States being so far from ing of the most favoured nation, giving up their demands, that unless his majesty should deem it their envoy, Mr, Rush, declared expedient, by an order in council, every proposal to be. inadmissible to make an exception in their which was not accompanied with favour. The act of parliament the concession of rights equal to passed in July, 1825, but was not thoseofthe mothercountry, required to come into operation till the 5th by the American act of Congress. of January, 1826. . The United 1

In the mean time, the more States had thus sufficient time toq liberal principles which had been consider,whether or not they would introduced into the commercial repeal their discriminating duties1 policy of Great Britain, , had;; upon British vessels, place this is opened the markets of her colocountry on the same footing with nies to all the world, as well as to the most favoured nations, and/5 America. In 1825, an act of withdraw their absurd pretensions in parliament was passed, allowing to equality with the mother-coun-2 foreign vessels to import into her, itry herself, or sacrifice their trade colonies any commodities (with the with the colonies by insisting on! exception of a few prohibited articthese spretensions and retaining.7

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