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the last extremity of sickness, had fered very widely on the financial surrendered to the constitutional state and prospects of Mexico ; ; troops of Mexico, on the 17th of the former, M. Estava, bringing November, 1825. This event out a deficiency of more than eight freed every part of the Mexican millions of dollars upon the act: territory from the enemy, insured counts of the year, the latter. the command of Vera Cruz, one of bringing out a surplus revenue, the most important harbours of the upon the same accounts, amount state, and enabled the government ing to more than two millions of , to improve its finances, by putting dollars; the former calculating it in its power to reduce greatly upon a much higher expenditure, the military expenditure. The and a considerably less productive contemplated reduction in the war revenue, than the latter thought establishment was so great, that a ought to be allowed and antici. committee of finance struck off pated. The Mexican - budget, one half of that item in the budget according to the estimates of these presented by the minister. The different authorities, was as folminister and the committee dif


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REVENUE. antibļivirkilob sa jos prisimi!

Estimates by the Minis. Amended Estimates Bind 1111,115 v !"

ter of Finance by Finance Com. ! Customs

D.2,675,732 !21. 3,275,232 Duty on introduction into consumption.. 1,618,223..6 1,868,223 Tobacco

648,142 .. V1,044,925

84,303 14'!!! *56,184,303 Alcabala on Tobacco.

39,784 .!!!

39,784 Posts

'164,246 ... 6'1164,246 Lotteries'

70,136 i...170,136 Salt


80,000 Territories of the Federation,

9,950 National Property

42,245102.. 42,245 Tithes.

1'529,989 ...),529,989 Rents of the Archbishopric of Mexico 86,929 dodda old; 86,929 Do, of the Dignity of the Treasury 14 8,194 .J!8,194 Contingent of the different States... 2,285,872 1051 2,317,127 Averia

... 169,664"...ot 169,664 Peage..

37,454 Restorations


65,579 Foreign Loan

!:!'1,317,543!!:.. -2,476,315

D.9,832,898 12,850,345


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11 Department8J (v. 2002 om 1:0, 11 y Home and Foreign ........... D. 105,737 ... 105,737 Justice

W... Wow..513177,220...103, 77,220 - War' in.


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Marine T. Valcarlooredido. at 2,934,535 1 1,310,785

Arrears: 161, oradascido los sbp.ou + 865,804 to obosit 724,871 Expense of Collection vou.dowebstets 618,968 kb 17 11237 ! Pay of Officers b..... ....dás arbatos3 301,267,6%. zvolt, 11.gstent

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* 101 GD.18,086,674.: 10,292,636 basansat, )

26" ** I o The president, in his communi- cabinets of Europe to aid her cations to Congress, represented chimerical designs of recovering every branch of the revenue to be them by force. They were all too in so thriving a condition, that, prudent to involve themselves in after defraying the expenses of the so ruinous a contest, and they administration and the interest of knew that Great Britain would not the debt, a large sum might be look with indifference upon their expected to remain in the treasury, armed interference. · The Mexiapplicable to other national pur- can'congress resolved to cut off posesofThe pecuniary engage

from them all temptation to interments of the republic, had, he said, pose even with the influence of been religiously observed. In the their diplomacy in favour of the beginning of the year it had be- pretended rights of Spain, by pass. come necessary to remit money ing an act which declared guilty to London for payment of the of treason, every person subject to dividends on the loan contracted the laws of Mexico, who should forby Goldschmidt and Co. ; what propose verbally or in writing, would be wanted for the July divi- publicly or privately, within as dends was about to be shipped, without the territories of the reand the sums which were to come public, that the 'state should listen into the treasury by vessels already to any proposal, on the part of entered in the ports, would prove Spain, or of any other power, sufficient for all the remaining which had not for its basis the dividends of the year. A sum of absolute recognition of the indemoney had been lost, and public pendence of the confederation credit somewhat affected, by the under its existing form of governstoppage of Goldschmidt's house; ment. By the same law every but the executive had immediately person was to be punished with restored the credit of its funds by eight years imprisonment who announcing, that the money des should propose or maintain that tined for the regular payment of Mexico should accede to any its obligations was already de- demand of indemnity, tribute, or posited in the customs. ' et contribution, which might be made o Mexico, like the other confede- by the Spanish government, or by rations of South America, was any other in its name, as a comperfectly aware, that Spain, feel pensation for its ancient supreing her own impotence to recover macy. li it: c'h colonies over which she obstinately All the new republics of South asserted an empty title of supre- America, in establishing their inmacy, had been using every effort dependence, had declared popery to prevail on the continental to be the national religion, but

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the more I immediate interests of the ecclesiasticalcouncils, reserved an arduous struggle for political a perfect freedom from control on existence had not left them leisure questions of discipline, patronage, to attend seriously to ecclesiastical church. revenues, organization of government; while the freedom dioceses, and the election of with which they applied - the pro- bishops. All ecclesiastical affairs perty of the church to national were to be determined within the purposes, and dispersed congrega- republic, according to its laws and tionslof wealthy idlers, seemed to the canons ;:ino stranger wasTto throw weighty obstacles in the exercise ecclesiastical jurisdiction way lof their reconciliation with by virtue of any commission; the head of their religion. But monks and nuns, formerly amenri pope Leo XII was less obstinate able to authorities out of the res than the first born of the church, public, were to be subject to their Ferdinand of Spain, although the proper metropolitan; and Jan anlatter had been thoroughly strip- nual gift of 100,000 pesos, was ped seven of that influence of opi- offered to his holiness.d. These nion, which, among an ignorant ineipient negotiations, with the and superstitious people, still ad peaceful tenor of the pope's apos, hered to the office of the latter. tolic benediction, had a beneficial In the preceding - year, the pope effect on the Mexican clergy, who had addressed a very friendly seeing their communication with letter to his beloved son," the their spiritual head renewed, were president of the United Mexican under less temptation to contriwe States, congratulating him on the its re-establishment through ithe peace and concord which prevailed restoration of Spanish authority, under his government, applauding and became more disposed to cons his constaney in the faith, and his cur in the existing order of things. veneration for the papal chair, and The religious feelings of Mexican finally bestowing on him the apas- legislators sometimes appeared in tolic benediction, “ as one of the forms which rendered ludicrous best-beloved sons” of the church. what they held most sacred. In Mexico, in return, sent plenipo- the constituent congress of the tentiaries to Rome to regulate by state of Mexico itself, on the prea concordat, the relations between amble of the constitution being the pontiff and the national church. read, bearing that what followed At Rome, they met with a very was decreed, “ under the auspices favourable reception ; but the prin- of the Supreme Being" Senor ciples laid down by the Mexican Olaez proposed that, in place of senate as the base of the proposed these words, the words in the arrangement went to curtail

, in name of the Almighty God? its most important points, the should be inserted. There was no power of the Holy See, and to objection to the first, but he thought leave merely a mode of communi- the terms most commonly used cation between it and the national should be preferred, and justified church, under very strict and them by the example of the Spaefficient limitations. The republic, nish constitution, the federation, submitting its opinions, in so far and many other states. Senor as doctrine might be concerned, to Jauregui opposed the change, on the shewing of the last speaker spectacle of civil obedience, and pohimself, who admitted that it lítical tranquillity, as did its neighmade no difference which of the bour Colombia. The provincial terms was made use of. Accord- governments disregarded the coming to that principle, there could mands of the general government, be no objection to the insertion of and there scarcely existed any effithe whole creed, the invocation cient executive authority. Barrunof saints, or whatever the piety of dia, the military chief of the proany deputy might suggest. vince of Guatemala, displeased with

Senor Villaverde said, that his certain orders which had been iswish on this subject proceeded sued by the supreme government, or neither from prejudice nor fanati- thinking them encroachments upon cism ; but, at the same time, he the limits of his own command, thought it would be necessary to employed the troops to oppose say God, three in one, because their execution. The President of he knew all the members of that the republic had the firmness imassembly to be Catholics; and by mediately to put him under arrest; invoking God, the Trinity in but so violent was the prevalent Unity, then no Catholic could spirit of disunion, that the disform a conception of him apart obedient soldier found as warm from his divine essence, attributes, partisans as the insulted governand perfections.

ment. The picture of this small Senor Najara thought the in- confederation, drawn by the prevocation of the Supreme Being sident himself in a manifesto which sufficient, because he was God; he addressed to the people in the but if it was necessary, in framing beginning of October, strongly disa political constitution, to shew played the impotence and anarchy that they were Catholics, then in- which are the natural attributes of deed all that had been proposed these federal constitutions. The was required, and the creed too state of Honduras, according to might be inserted.

his description, was entirely disSenor Mora said, the congress organized, having neither a legiswould make itself ridiculous by lative body, a representative asmixing up with a political discus- sembly, nor a court of justice. "In şion what was the province of a the state of Nicaragua, the excouncil. He asked, who did not ecutive and the legislative were at know that he invoked God when variance, and the citizens, inhe called on the Supreme Being, flamed by an old spirit of discord, without the formality of expres- were arming against each other. sing distinctly the Father, Son, The executive government of and Holy Ghost. To say " in Guatemala had conspired against the name of God," was to prosti- the federal government, had seized tute it; in the same name, the the federal revenue, had organized Inquisition had burned. At length civil war, levied forces, attacked the original preamble was carried, the troops of the republic, and

committed other flagrant acts of GUATEMALA, or the confederá- usurpation and revolt. The federal tion of CENTRAL AMERICA, prem congress at the close of their sessented nearly as unpromising a sion, in the present year, had been incomplete as to representation, by an army of several thousand and doubtful of the validity of its troops, assisted by vessels of war, proceedings; on this account, the while the Spanish flag could not delegations ofthestates of Salvador be displayed in any corner of the, and Costa Rica had withdrawn, Pacific; the garrison was now re, and other delegations were de- duced to about five hundred men; ficient. The new. congress, con who, worn out by famine and favoked for the 1st of October, had tigue, were sacrificing themselves not been able to assemble then, to a vain obstinacy, without the and would not be able to assemble most distant hope of securing at all, for want of regularly elected any ultimate advantage by delay representatives. The senate of ing the triumph of the enemy, the republic was not in existence On the 23rd of January, genepractically, not having the con- ral Rodil, who had done every stitutional number of members; thing that fidelity and honour deand, of course, the executive was manded, surrendered the fortress, deprived of its constitutional coun- on condition that he and his men cil. Public opinion called im- should be allowed, if they should peratively for remedial measures, think proper, to return to Europe, but these were beyond the legal He himself immediately took his faculties of the executive alone. departure for Spain, where he was In consequence of all these evils, honourably received as a trusthe convoked an extraordinary worthy supporter of the inalienanational congress, to be fully em- ble and absolute supremacy of powered by the people to restore monarchs; and, as such, was constitutional order, and to meet vested with an high command, in in the city of Cojutepeque as the army of observation, which, in soon as a proper number of repre- the end of the year, was formed sentatives should be freely elected, on the frontiers to frown at the at the rate of two for every thirty- constitutional army of Portugal, thousand inhabitants.

The fall of Callao terminated

the war : the liberation of Peru Peru was the last portion of from the Spanish yoke-the object South America from which the for which Bolivar had entered it standard of Spain disappeared, with his Colombians--was now after more than three centuries of 'effected; there seemed to be no domination. The castle of Callao, reason why his army should any the port of Lima, had already en- longer continue to be a burthen dured a long siege ; its garrison, upon the country, or why a Peruunder the command of general vian government should not be inRodil, having submitted with stalled, and the virtual dictatormuch constancy to scarcity of pro- ship of a foreigner brought to visions, and withstood the dis- end. Bolivar himself, however, couraging conviction that their seems to have entertained very difenemies were triumphant all ferent notions, to have viewed with around, and that from Spain, of dislike the approaching terminawhose cause they were the last tion of his power, and to have supporters, no succour was to be wished to establish in himself a expected. The siege was pressed more lasting, and efficient inz


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