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he probably hoped to recover his tions, to avail themselves of his dost authority. For this purpose, kindness. 1 If he had that share in don Pedro Aldunate, the brother this transaction, which every thing of the governor of Chiloe, was seemed to prove, it was a most, indespatched from Callao, with a auspicious omen for the future commission from O'Higgins, to tranquillity of South America. It excite, the gärrison of Chiloe-to indicated a spirit-rifnot of military insurrection. Aldunate arrived in usurpation at least, of ambitious Chiloe on the night between the and unnecessary interference, and 24th and 25th of April; and, that, too, by exciting insurrection, though he found his brother ab- which might lead to a succession isent, he met with no difficulty in of revolutions in countries, whose executing his task. Fuentes, the prosperity and happiness depended officer in command, joined readily entirely on the permanence and in the plot : and, on the 3rd of stability even of the imperfect May, the troops threw off their governments which they possessed. allegiance, and declared for O'Hig But, in fact, Chili could scarcely gins. Emissaries were sent, at the be said to possess a government; same time to seduce the troops in the administration was a matter of other districts, and to excite dis- cabal to a faction of great proprie

turbancesin Santiago, Conception, tors mingled with some lawyers; and Coquimbo. A sort of assembly the people at large took no share was immediately convoked at in it, and had little or no influence

Chiloe, under the auspices of the on its course. In October, 1825, military authorities, which declared the deputies of Santiago, the capithe province to be henceforth free, tal, had usurped to themselves the and independent of Chili, until a functions of the general congress government, legally constituted by of the republic. Thereupon their the people, should be formed, rea constituents, in a tumultuary astaining in the mean time the con- sembly, recalled theircommissions, stitution of Chili.

the Supreme Director dissolved do That Bolivar was one of the con- them, and banished from the tertrivers of this insurrection, could ritories of the confederation eleven scarcely be doubted. It was from of the most noisy, who insisted Lima, that the emissaries of rebel- on his recognising them. As the lion were sent. O'Higgins was ac- directorship of Freire was about tually with Bolivar 5* and the to expire, and there was no conliberator had long been anxious stitutional mode of re-electing him, to extend the influence of his arms or choosing a successór, without a beyond Peru. He had offered in National Assembly, anew Congress the preceding year to assist the was convoked in July. Don Chilians in the reduction of Chiloe; Manuel Blanco Encalada was but they dreaded the proffered aid, chosen Supreme Director; the and declined it. He was eager, Congress resolved!“ that the reitoo, to march some thousands of public should be consolidated troops to co-operate with the pro- under the Federal system;" and, vinces of the Rio de la Plata; bút so soon as the acclamations attendthe authorities of Buenos Ayres ant on these empty words had died were too suspicious of his inten- away, they proceeded to tear the VOL. LXVIII.

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confederation in pieces by dissen-struction. Some other individual, tion, and leave the government more fortunate than he who adparalysed by poverty. In two dresses you, or more experienced months the Supreme Director in the science of making someEncalada, very wisely, gave in his thing out of nothing, may succeed resignation, and nothing could pre- one whose unhappy fate it has sent a more melancholy picture of been to struggle with insuperable a state than what was contained in difficulties: at one time to oppose his reasons for adopting this step. dangerous innovations--at another “ He had hoped," he said, “ that to discountenance the most absurd Congress, sensibly alive to the cri- and inexplicable theories-now to tical position of affairs, and the ex- foil the intrigues of party-now to hausted state of the treasury, would calm the ardour of passions neither lend their active co-operation, and elevated nor generous.' unite in perfect harmony with the There was now no occasion for executive, for the purpose of call- any South-American power to ing into action those indispensable blush because it did not pay its resources that were so imperiously debts ; they kept each other in necessary for meeting the urgent countenance; and, least of all, and daily necessities of the State, was any great sensitiveness to be and which have been a source of expected from a legislature, which, unceasing perplexity to the govern- in such matters, would listen ment, from the first moment of its neither to “reason, necessity, nor installation. What has been the sound policy.” The Chilian bondstate of the public treasury, from holders in London remained unthat period to this, will sufficiently paid, like those who had trusted appear from the repeated repre- to Colombia and Peru. The sentations made by the executive Chilian government had pretended to Congress. It is, therefore, quite to make provision for the regular nugatory again to allude to the discharge of the interest of its lamentable appearance it presents, debt, but the mode adopted was and which has been already sub not a little singular. It conveyed mitted to the consideration of the to a mercantile company the morepresentatives, without ever pro- nopoly of certain articles of geneducing the effects that might rea- ral consumption; and the comsonably be expected, and which pany, in return for that monopoly, were equally demanded by neces was to provide for the discharge sity, reason, and sound policy.” He of the accruing interest of the further stated plainly, “ The cause foreign debt. Though such a that has induced me to adopt the monopoly might have been mainresolution of tendering myresigna- tained under the Spanish system tion is the alienation and neglect of administration, it is easy to manifested by all parties towards see that, as it must necessarily be the executive power, which has exceedingly unpopular, it could been left to the mercy of the at- not but be insecure under a new, tacks of public opinion, without tattering, inexperienced, half-oliaid or hope, to steer its course garchical, and half-democratical, amidst a thousand hidden rocks, government.

Had the state rewhich must ultimately be its de- tained the monopoly in its own

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hands, it would even then have They were now safe from external been the object of general odium assault, until they should quarrel but when the monopoly was as- with each other; but their governsigned to a company of merchants, ments were devoid of that conwas it to be expected that the sistency and stability which expeople would submit patiently to clude sudden' and capricious deprivations imposed on them, changes in fundamental details, apparently for the benefit of a and at the same time admit imfew speculators? The company, provement by gradual modificathinking that they had not made tion, and by accommodation to a very secure bargain, announced varying circumstances. Yet, while that they would not provide for each had so much with which to the interest of the debt, unless a occupy itself at home, they aslarge extension of their exclusive sembled a pompous and futile privilege were granted. This ex- Amphyctionic council, to delibertension the government dared not ate on the welfare of the whole venture to concede; and the con American continent.

The depusequence was, that the public ties to this grand Diet of the New creditor had to remain unsatisfied. States assembled at Panama in The 'executive could not bring the the month of June. Only four revenue to a level even with the of the states-Colombia, which ordinary expenditure, although it had borne the principal share in had sold its fleet to Buenos Ayres its convocation-Mexico-Peru, to raise &- sum' for its present which was governed by the Conecessities,

lombian president—and GuateThus throughout the South mala, whose provinces were at American States there was little war with each other--sent reprethat was promising, except the sentatives. The provinces of the final removal of the debasing des- Rio Plata regarded the assembly potism and ecclesiastical degrada with more of aversion and sustion of Spain; every where reign- picion than of confidence, from ed disunion and uncertainty, theo- their jealousy of the influence retical symmetry, and practical and designs of Colombia. Similar confusion. In none of them feelings were entertained by Chili, could any man feel the least con- heightened by the insurrection fidence that what existed to-day effected in Chiloe by the military would exist to-morrow; faction adherents of Bolivar's friend, and 'intrigue 'were every moment O'Higgins. The baby Bolivia, attempting or accomplishing in- fondled in the bosom of the novations; the spirit of change Colombian president, was reprewas so busy, and found so much sented wherever he had a minisfacility in gratifying itself, that ter. To preserve a fantastic nothing was regarded as perma- equality, the lot decided the prenent or fixed; and this uncer sidency as well as the order in tainty and variableness not only which the deputies of the differweakened the administrations, but ent states should sign the acts arrested the career of improve of the diet. Don Manuel Lorenzo ment, and quenched the spirit of de Vidaurre, one of the ministers private enterprise and industry. of Peru, happened to be chosen

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president, and addressed to the follow their consequences. For assembly, as the sopening of vits this defective turn of mind they deliberations, a matchless effusione wete hardly responsible; the sya oftpedantiy vand bombast. v Set= tem of education, and the frame ting-out: from such profound of society, which existed in the axioms sas theses -" that man, cin Spanish coloniesz were such as the use of his most perfect facul- scarcely to permit statesman-like tiesy distinguishes what is just habits of thought to grow up. 1001 from whatulis unjust ; wwhat is The political objects vof the useful and agreeable from what Diet, so far as they could be is pericious and offensive; what gleaned from amid, a mass of is secure from what is dangerous vague and declamatory propor. the enjoyment of moderate pleaa sitions, were founded on inveterate sures, which are perpetual, from hostility to Spain, and good will intense gratifications, which are towards all the rest of the world, only momentary;" he assured and to each other. It professed them, vas if to encourage them to to treat with respect the establishset experience at defiance, that ed European governments, how. their revolutions found no ex ever opposite in their principles ample in all the revolutions, civil, to those of America; to seek a moral, and political, which histo- free commerce with all nations, rians have related, or philosophers and grant great commercial priviexamined.'s He then treated of leges to such as recognized its the creation of the world, the independence; to establish rer dynasties of the Chinese and ligious toleration, and abolish Egyptians, the empires of the slavery. To convince Spain that Medes and Persians, the Greeks her hopes of re-conquest, if she and Romans, Marathon, Salamis, still entertained them, were chiThebes, and Carthage; Emilianus, merical, the war establishment O'Higgins, Pitt and Fox; and was still to be maintained; her various other topics equally fit fruits, her commodities, every profor a deliberative assembly, with duction of her industry and soil, a zeal and copiousness betraying were to be absolutely prohibited, not merely bad taste, but poverty seized, and destroyed wherever and barrenness of mind, want of they might be found, till Ferdiexperience, ignorance of all that nand, persuaded that he could is worth knowing, and an absence not recover what he had been of the habits of thought which unable to maintain, and convinced are required in active life. This that in America even faction has hitherto been the bane of the would lend him no assistance, South American statesmen. They should become accessible to reaspeak and they write like boys son and justice, and recognize as who have just left school, as if a right the independence which their minds had been stationary they would never condescend to since they attained the age of purchase. Then America would puberty: they exhibit scarcely a forget all the calamities which he single trace of a reason accus had caused her, and allow him tomed to observe human affairs, the benefit of “the generous reto analyze their combinations, ar conciliation which she proffered

to him.". It was impossible to pected that foreign states would be condemn either the spirit or the very cautious in negotiating with prudence which 4 recommended such an assembly, or through its obstinate resistance to Spain, and agency. When they dealt with even (active war. In relation to Colombia or Mexico, they were the American States themselves, dealing withi a supreme state; if the grand Congress was to act in they dealt with a body like this four characters. i ! It was to be great Diet, they were dealing with "an adviser in great conflicts a à shadow. After concluding an faithful interpreter of treatiesná ordinary treaty of perpetual allimediator in domestic disputes-- ance and friendship among the an agent in the formation of new four republics, the Congress rose, riglits with foreign states.” There apparently alarmed by the unt could be no objection to its giving healthy climate of the isthmus, advice, though that advice had which had proved fatal to some little chance of being much re of the functionaries attending its garded': it might interpret and proceedings; but, as many sus mediate as much as it pleased, pected, in consequence of the apthough it was an awkward circum- prehended intrigues of Bolivar, to stance that the contending parties whose schemes it seemed inclined should themselves bei integral to be less subservient than he parts of the interpreter or media- desired. The members agreed tor; but as to “its agency in the to hold another meeting at Mexico, formation of new rights with or in its neighbourhood.11 :"}!" 'to foreign states," it was to be ex

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