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not think it wise or becoming to ships entered was 21,986, the tonallow the session to terminate, and nage 2,786,844. The number of parliament to be dissolved, without foreign ships, in the same period, shewing how groundless these re- increased to 5,661,the tonnage being presentations were, and stating 68,192. And it was to be recolwhat had been the real conse lected, that in this year there was quences of such changes as had an unusual demand for shipping, hitherto been ventured upon. On the both British and foreign, in con12th of May, he moved for “ re- sequence of the unprecedented exturns of ships built in the British tent of speculation in almost every dominións, between 1814 and 1825, branch of commerce. Therefore, both inclusive, distinguishing the on looking to these returns, it was number in each year, and the clear that the amount of British amount of their tonnage.” The shipping had increased in' a far motion was introduced by a very greater proportion than that of all elaborate, detailed, and masterly other countries put together. This speech, displaying a most accurate being the case, we were not cerknowledge of every part of his tainly in such a situation as was subject, and great power of stating calculated to excite alarm with reit luminously to others. Having spect to the comparative growth of developed the general principles on British

British and foreign shipping : which the navigation laws were ori- Even if the latter had somewhat ginally founded, the different ob- increased last year, it would form jects to which these principles had no ground of alarm, because it been applied, the modifications, if might fairly be attributed to the any, which down to the present time very extraordinary cause that was had been made upon these objects, then at work, and the unusual deand the causes, arising from poli- mand for shipping, produced by: tical and commercial changes, the spirit of overtrading and spewhich had rendered such changes culation which prevailed. The advisable or necessary, he stated, alarm felt upon this subject was that all the allegations of mischief grounded, in part, upon the state having ensued, and of an undue pre- of our commerce from the Baltic, ference having been given to foreign and the number of Prussian ships over British shipping, in conse- which entered our ports, as comquence of the late alterations on the pared with British. Now in 1824, navigation laws, were contradicted the number of British ships which by theaétual results. The complaint entered from the Baltic was 440, was, that, in consequence of these and, in 1825, 942. The number changes, a decrease had taken place of Prussian ships which entered in the employment of British ship- were, in 1824, 682, and in 1825, ping. Now, in December, -1824, 827. The number of Prussian the number of British ships which ships, therefore, increased only by entered our harbours was 19,164, a fourth, , while that of British and the tonnage 2,364,000. The ships was more than doubled. number of foreign ships which en- Such was the comparative state of tered, during the same period, was the shipping of both countries in 5,280, the tonnage being 66,940. the last year; and, as Prussia In 1825 the number of British ed to be the main object of jealousy; VOL. LXVIII.

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when there existed so little ground states came to retaliate upon the for it with respect to that nation, discriminating duties of this counwe might dismiss our apprehensions try, by the adoption of a similar upon this point. There was no system, the duty could no longer mode by which the change which be kept up, so far as America was had taken place in the trade with concerned, without leading to disthe Baltic, could be more accurately astrous consequences. It became ascertained than by comparing the indispensable, therefore, to enter number of all vessels which, in two into some arrangement upon the different periods of ten years, had subject with the American governpassed the Sound. He was fur- ment. That having been done, nished with the means of making and other nations demanding that such a comparison between the the same principle should be experiod which elapsed from 1783 to tended to them, it was impossible 1793, and from 1816 to 1826. From for us to embark in a contest upon such a comparison it appeared, that, the subject without being, in the in the last year, the number of end, the greatest sufferers. It was British ships which passed the much more advisable, under the Sound was greater than in any circumstances, to make arrangeprevious year since 1783. In 1821 ments in time. Whether the old the total number of British ships system was a good or a bad one, which passed the Sound was 2,816; government was no longer at lithe number of ships belonging to berty to make a choice ; for, what all other nations, 9,177 : In 1822 was their situation, with respect to British ships, 3,000 ; of all other other countries, at the time this nations, 9,000. In 1823 the com- change of system was recommended ? parative number was about the In 1822 the king of Prussia issued same as in 1822. In 1825 the an ordinance, establishing in his number of British ships was 5,186; dominions the same duties which of all other nations, 13,000. So existed in our own, with a view that last year we had more than of inducing other countries, and a third of the whole of the navi- particularly Great Britain, to act gation through the Sound. These upon more liberal principles of facts were sufficient, or ought to commerce, and to enter into arbe sufficient, to quiet all the appre rangements for that purpose. This hensions which had been excited, order applied equally to ships and silence all the clamours which coming in ballast, and to such as had been raised; but it was doubly had cargoes on board. The conpleasant to know that these were sequence was, that, in 1823, gothe results of our measures, when vernment was assailed with me the latter were measures which we morials from all quarters, stating, could not have any longer avoided. that it was impossible any longer The system of discriminating duties to carry on the trade with Prussia, could not have been longer maina owing to her heavy port charges. tained under the changed cireum- A communication in consequenee stances of foreign powers. After was made to the Prussian minister the American war, great attention here ; but with what show of had been drawn to the subject, in reason or justice could we complain consequence of the rapid growth of of this, we who had set the exthe United States ; for, when those ample? The natural answer was,

that Prussia had nothing else in The only change made upon the view, but to induce us to re-con- Navigation-laws during the session sider our own system. In such a was rendered necessary by the situation of affairs, if we had em- commercial treaties which had barked in a contest of prohibitory been concluded between this counduties, all commercial intercourse try and Colombia, and the United would have ceased between the Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. two nations, except that carried on When these states emerged from in their own ships. Such being the condition of colonies into that of the state of things, a discussion independent republics, they were was entered into with the Prussian in possession of no commercial government, and the question was marine of their own. In their put, will you withdraw all dis- state of colonial dependency on criminating duties, if we do the the mother countries, they had same? The answer having been possessed no trade, and consein the affirmative, an arrangement quently no ships. But the British was entered into upon that basis. Navigation-laws, even as they at Similar arrangements were made present stood, imposed burdens with Denmark, Sweden, Norway, upon the importation of foreign and the Hanseatic cities of Ham- produce, if not imported in vessels burgh, Bremen, and Lubeck. It belonging to the country of which would have been unworthy of this the cargo was the produce, which country, if, while extending this were not imposed upon national principle to America, and some of vessels bringing a national cargo. the powerful states of Europe, it As Colombia, however, and the had been refused to those little states of the Plata, possessed no republics which, in the feudal national ships, it was deemed right times, were the means of preserve to allow them a fair and reasoning the seeds of liberty and free able time to procure ships, before trade. Small these states might they should be placed on the same be; but they were not unimportant, footing with long-established counand it was our duty to treat them tries : otherwise the treaties, so far with equal generosity and justice as regarded the permission to inas the greatest. Perhaps if Dant- port their produce into this counzic had still formed a component try, would be nugatory. It would part of that combination of free have been unfair, on the first cities, instead of having passed establishment of commercial reunder the dominion of Prussia, lations with them, to compel them there might not have been so to employ only their own shipping, much danger in Prussia insisting when, in fact, they had none. upon a principle, the tendency of had therefore been stipulated in which was to exclude us from the treaties, that vessels, wherecommercial intercourse with her soever built, being the property of ports, because that commerce might any of the citizens of either rehave been carried on through public, should be considered as Dantzic.

national vessels of that republic, The motion was agreed to; sir the master, and three fourths of M. Ridley expressing his hope, the mariners of the vessel, being that the subject would receive a always citizens of such republic. full investigation in the next pare A bill_to give effect to these liament.

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stipulations was brought in by treaties of a like nature might be Mr. Huskisson, and was passed concluded by his majesty with without any opposition, except other states of South America, not what was founded on opposition't yet possessed of any national merto the general principles of com- cantile marine, the same provision mercial policy, of which parliament was extended, in the same terms, had so repeatedly and deliberately, to states with which such treaties approved. The duration of the might be formed. privilege was limited by the stars tute, to seven years from the date

tiliitto si til oss! of the respective treaties; and, as

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1, Tea

20 Pilun Leather....

29 Malt ein, British Spirits

50

53 jated Sugar

19 On acCoffee....

43 , ed, and Tobacco.......... Wine

88 expected Wool

44 vear's inwhere about In the expense, too, of collecting ret the actual the revenue, a large saving had unding the losses been effected. In 1818 that ex

commercial diffi- pense had amounted to 4,353,000l.; in to be felt at the in 1825. it had been reduced to 1825, was upwards 3,832,0001., being a diminution of Il., being very con

more than half a million. 1 core than the original

While taxation, and the cost of the assump

collecting, had been thus diminish† there would be no ed, both the principal, and the n of taxes at all. The yearly charge, of the debt had of all these statements was, likewise been reduced. On the

5th of January, 1823, the funded,

debt amounted to 796,530,000.. ; ' estimated amount of revenue for on the 5th of January, 1826, the last three years taken together, the funded debt was reduced

155,440,500 The actual receipts for the

to 778,128,000l., being a reduction, same period

156,838,500 in the three years, of 18,401,000l. ;;

or at the rate, in each year, of Exceeding the Estimate

6,133,0001. On the 5th of Jan. therefore by

1,398,000

1823, the unfunded debt was And yet, during these three years, 36,281,000l. ; on the 5th of Jan. taxes to the amount of no less than 1826, it was only 31,703,000l. ; eight millions had been repealed. being a reduction of 4,577,0001. Thus, even more than what had the reduction in the total charge been promised, had been performed; of the debt, is the true way of and it had been distinctly proved estimating the real reduction that the reduction of duties on

effected in the burdens of the articles of consumption had raised country, rather than by looking the produce of such duties by in- only at the reduction in the capital creasing that consumption, and had of the debt. Now on the 5th of thus kept up the revenue, while it Jan. 1823, the charge on the added largely to the comforts of funded debt was 28,123,000l. : on the people. The increase of con

the 5th of Jan. 1826, it was only sumption in different articles in 27,117,000l. ; being a reduction of 1825, as compared with 1816, was 1,107,000l. On the 5th January, various, but it was uniform. Some 1823, the interest on Exchequer, of them were as follows:

bills was 1,100,000l. ; on 5th Jan.

1826, it was 800,000l.; being a On the consumption of

reduction of 300,000). Taking Beer, the increase in 1825 was ... 161 Candles,

36

both together, the charge on the Paper

55 funded and unfunded debt was on

was...

per cent.

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