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would treat its rights with much to add to that failure as many cira réspect, or that its own rebellious cumstances as possible of contempt subjects should not draw encourage and disgrace. During the whole ment from the fact t that the work

of November, amid her re-itérated of insurrection was the work of assurances that nothing further Spain. But Spain, with

an in

needed to be dreaded from the refatuation for which it would be fugees of Portugal, a new, and far difficult to account, wéré it neces- more serious, invasion of that counsary to account for any measure of try was actually preparing. To a government in which brutal, un- the rebels themselves were now ada calculating bigotry bccupies the ded Spanish lancers and guerillas; place of foresight, prudence, and Spanish arms

Spanish arms were distributed honesty, was determined to persist among the ranks, and sent across in her career, till she should put it the frontier to be distributed among most thoroughly out of the power the peasantry; and a park of arof any sensible man in Europe to tillery was ready at Badajoz to say a single word in het behalf. acconipany the division which was Eveni

' now she might have retraced to enter the province of Alentejo. her steps without much humilia- Longa and St. Juan, the captains

, tion;

n; she would only have been general of Valladolid and Estremathe last to acknowledge a govern dura, who again and again had ment, whose principles she thought been pointed out to the governdangerous to herself, and her ment by name, as the deliberate hatred to whose institutions she and obstinatè violators of neutrality, did not think it necessary to con- and who, probably for that very téal; the inroads

teason, had been studiously contugal' in October night have afford- tinued in their commands, aled her as favorable an opportunity lowed and encouraged all this as she could now expect, to come bustle of preparation under their off without open disgrace, as if own eyes, where the lowest whisthat unblushing and regular inva- per of discontent could not have

' sion had for the first time forced

escaped the snares and spies of the upon her the unwilling bitlief that police. On the 23rd of November her good-nature had been abused. the rebels entered Portugal, peneShe might still have yielded with- trated from the north across the out appearing to yield to force; Douro, as far as Viseu, threw England had not yet laid her hand Oporto into consternation, pillaged

, upon the sword; France had not

town and country, proclaimed Don yet treated her with contempt ; Miglieł king, established juntas of Russia had not yet read to her a lec- régency in his 'nanie, aná, for six ture of grave disapprobation ; the weeks, kept the fate of Portugal semblance of good faith now would turning almost upon a point. The have covered all the faults and follies whole of this was the work of of the past. But Spain, besides being Spain; she seemed about to derive deprivetl of the exercise of sound from her obstinacy and åeceit the reason, seemed to have lost every advantage of a momentary triumph; feeling of national pride and regard and, but for one cabinet, she might for nationalcharacter, and to reckon have been successful. So soon as it nothing that she failed in her the invasion was known, the object, iect. unless she could contrive

minister at Lisbon was

upon Por


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] to read boon issurtya Haber Suspended from his functions; at conduct-were all, more or less, Madrid," the Portuguese envoy in- expressions of censure, but none of stantly demanded his passports, and them presented any impediment departed; the British minister, to Ferdinand prosecuting his own hastened off the intelligence to schemes, in his own way, and with England, and absented himself his own means: they gave him no from court. England had patiently aid, but they opposed to him no watched the progress of v Spain, positive resistance. A British army, anxious not to interferet till the showever, was an obstacle of a very -conduet of that power I should different kind; Portugal was now justify interference to all the world. beyond the reach of attack; the - Her advice and authority had often very rumour of the arriyal of the restrained Portugal, when provoca- British troops had struck dismay tion' might have led Portugal to into the rebels, and blasted all measures of justifiable retaliation. their hopes ; retreat and defeat folBut, if Portugal had thus dore lowed fast upon each other, and Violence to her sense of insult for within a few days they wer Hai While, in order that her ally swept, with their Spanish allies,

anight stand before Europe on im- from every corner of the kingdom, 'moveable ground, so much the seeking mercy in submission. Spain -more was that ally now bound to might arm the fugitives

mugitives again Haet in her defence with prompti- she dared, but they, themselves

if skade and vigouree Within five

days would

never choose again to their after the intelligence of «sion" reached London, in the be hands. - Like

e ją recreant bully, ginning of December, the troops Ferdinand found it necessary to

of Britain were on their march disavow his pretensions, when he stou the assistance of her oldest had most surely reckoned on mak

friend, and, before the end of the ing them good. He consented to -month, they were again landed on, receive a minister from the Portuthe scene of their earlier. glories. guese regency, a virtual recog

, This

energy and rapidity of deci- nition of the government, on his sion came upon Spain like a thun- own minister at Lisbon being reder-bolt: like her own Sancho, instated in his diplomatic funcwhen the imperious physician of tions. General Longa, and the Barataria snatched the favourite governor of Ciudad Rodrigo, who viands from his lips, she stood had again permitted a few miserstaring in stupid amazement. On able fugitives, from the last defeat an actual war with Britain she of the rebels, to re-enter Portugal, had never counted: for any thing probably because new instructions else she might have been prepared. had not yet reached them, were The recal of the French ambassa- suspended from their commands, dor who had encouraged her in and ordered to be tried by a miliher policy, in opposition to the sen« 'tary tribunal. Instead of all the timents of his government; the points, at which it was known that departure of the Swiss guards of the rebels were to leave Spain, France from Madrid which imme- being stripped of troops, the garridiately followed; and the disappro- sons on the frontiers were inbation which the autocrat of Rusa creased, and supported, by an army sia now formally bestowed upon her of eight thousand men, along the

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line of the Tagus, to guard the stant and proverbial good faith of Spanish territory from violation the noble and elevated Spanish by either party, and prevent the character.”- Not a word of all this importation of the constitutional was liable to any doubt; and every contagion--measures, the honest syllable of it had been pressed adoption of which, two months upon the Spanish government for

it sooner, would have saved Spain months, with exemplary forbearfrom all the contumely to which ance; but it was extremely doubtshe was now

exposed. The cap- fül how far these sentiments protains-general of the provinces, and ceeded from sincere conviction, or the inspector of the royalist volun- would be acted on longer than theneteers, were now informed by the cessity continued. The ministers

“ minister of war, that "his Majesty who had so misguided Spain still rehas the most lively desire to main- tained their places, and their inflytain

famity which ence; except that M. Calomarde him with his august allies, suffered a temporary disgrace, for and 'insure their inviolability by having, by some piece of : bed s means calculated to secure recipró- management, allowed a great numcal confidence that of all these ber of the original orders, which means, none is more indispensable had been sent to the captainsthan that of observing neutrality, general of the provinces on the by abstaining from interfering by frontiers of Portugal, and memoany hostile acts or co-operation randa of the rest of them, to fall against Portugal,

ucal so as not to com- into the hands of Mr. Lamb, the promise himself either with that British ambassador, furnishing docountry or with its ally, England ; cumentary evidence upon which, that to suffer any hostile force to if need were, to pronounce a verremain assembled in arms, on the dict of guilty against Spain, las Spanish territory, would be acting having brought upon herself much

in a manner contrary to these humiliation by want of sense, want principles, and, consequently, ha- of prudence, and want of princizarding the dignity, and the con- ple.

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CHAP. "Pepita 918v pdT T TUMUO 191300

Tindra va PORTUGAL Death of John VI. - Don Pedro's Resignation of the

Thrane in favour of his Daughter--Establishment of a Regency, New Constitution of PortugalPromulgation of the Constitution

Public Opinion Discontent of the Ultra-Royalists, and Desertions from the Army Election of the Depulies to the CortesIntrigues of Spain and the Marquis of Chaves--Spain refuses to disarm the Deserters---Conspiracy discovered in Lisbon--Decree

, against Emigrants-Demands of the Portuguese Envoy-Revolts in

Algarves and Tras os Montes-Meeting of the Cortes-Don Miguel b takes the Oath to the Constitution-Renewed Remonstrances of the --23

Portuguese Envoy at Madrid - Preparalions of the RelielsThey binyade Portugal

Spanish Minister at Lisbon suspended Assurances siuen by Spain--Progress of the Rebels in Tras

os Montes - Revolt Ben 22 Lamego Insurrection in Beira- Progress of the Rebels under Magessi in the Alentejo-Magessi is driven back into Spain--He re-enters Portugal in the Province of Beira-Revolt in Almeida Military Movements of the Rebel Commanders and of the Constitutional Troops--Arrival of British Troops at LisbouThe Rebels

HTMITSU defeated at Caruches-They retreat into Spain,


L61191 1956 wiad soforty d bent 1902 del 30 do 9,

math! TOHN VI. king of Portugal, had declared that the House of

big and titular emperor of Brazil, Braganza hadi ceased to reign, and died at Lisbon on the 10th of to prefer ruling over an inder March, 1826, at the age of fifty pendent empire in America, to

. nine, after a reign of thirty-four wearing the crown of a vassal in years. to During twenty-five of Europe, was a singular step, and, these years, from 1792, he had perhaps, a wise, one; but

but it exercised the sovereign power as was the result of foreign policy regent for his mother, who labour- and urgency, not of his own. ed under mental alienation. He voluntary deliberation. While he succeeded her upon her death in held his court at Rio Janeiro, and, 18.175 and was crowned at Rio in Portugal, after his return to Janeiro, to which he had retired Europe, he still was guided in his with the court on the invasion of course by the circumstances which Portugal by Napoleon, His cha- sprung up around him, seldom at

was marked neither by tempting, and still more seldom eminent virtues, nor debasing attempting successfully, to foresee, vices; and, though he had passed, to direct, or to control them. The during his reign, through many revolution of 1822 carried him vicissitudes of fortune, he did not before it, until it sunk beneath the display in them any sagacity of de- weight of its own vices and ab sign, or much steadiness of purpose. surdities, and left him, for the

rez To leave Portugal when Napoleon mainder of his reign, the old,





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unlimited authority of his fathers. king, who were willing to hazard But neither was he bigottedly every risk to effect its recal, and

, obstinate in adhering to old pre, eyen venture upon the impossible judices, when opposed to plain task of bringing Brazil back by views of what was practicable force to a due obedience to the

By submitting to mother country. They were supbe rationally advised, and recogt ported by the influence of the nizing with a good grace and in good time, the independence of younger brother Don Miguel, both

, Brazil, he preserved that empire of whom had shewn, in the preto his family: while Ferăinand of ceding year, how little they reSpain, blinded by bigotry and pre- garded the affection and the rejudice, and guided by a faction as spect due to a husband and a unthinking as himself, not only father, when it stood in the way lost his dominions in the of their own wild and ambitious world, but lost them amid loud designs. This party itself, again, brayadoes and empty threats, which was in a great measure merely

the rendered his his weakness as cons

creature of some foreign courts temptible as his obstinacy had

a which held the same general creed

2 been ridiculous.

of political obedience, and more A vessel was immediately des- especially of the court of Madrid, patched to Rio Janeiro with the which was wedded to such princiintelligence of the king's decease, ples of policy by a community of and, in the mean time, the go-21

interest. It was the wish of this vernment was

administered by party to induce Don Pedro to a regency, appointed by the temporize as long as possible belate king on the 6th of March, fore making his choice between a few days before his death, at the the crowns, and to prevent all head of which was the sister of representations to him which the new monarch, the princess might hasten that choice, in the Isabella Maria. There was only hope that, by evading and procrasone circumstance which could make tinating, expedients might be found the death of John VI. an occasion to restore the supremacy of Porfor political intrigue. If Don Pedro tugal, and enable him to wield! accepted the throne of Portugal, both sceptres. . The regeney had it was imperative upon him to lay the good faith, and the good sense down the crown of Brazil; for the to follow better advice, and when constitution of Brazil, to guard they informed Don Pedro lof the

gainst the misgovernment which death of his father, they pressed had afflicted it when a colony, had upon him earnestly the necessity provided, in securing its independ- and expediency of a speedy deterence, that the two crowns should mination. Delay would have been never be united on the same head. dangerous to his authority in both It remained, therefore, to be seen, countries, for in both his authority whether Don Pedro would choose would have been uncertain ; and to be emperor of Brazil, or king of in fact, every act of government Portugal. But at home there was exercised by the regency of Pora strong party which had opposed tagal in the name of Don Pedro, to the last the recognition of Bra- after he should have learned his zilian independence by the late title to the crown, would haye

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