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were worn out with watching, and store and magazine had been long famine stared them in the face; exhausted; the famine was absoyet their desperate resolution lute, and women and children were never failed, and every proposal dying of starvation. Shut out from of va surrender was treated with every gleam of hope, and looking contempt. Ibrahim, who, with on the life which would be reserved all his barbarism, does not seem for themselves and their families to have delighted in blood for its in Turkish slavery, as a life not own sake, sent a summons to the worth retaining, except as an intown on the 2nd of April, offering strument of revenge, the Missoa capitulation on the garrison sur-longhites formed a resolution which rendering prisoners of war, pro- only despair could have adopted. mising to save the lives of the in- It was determined that the men habitants on their arms being able to bear arms should make : given up, and undertaking that sudden sally, and endeavour to they should be allowed to proceed force their way, sword in hand, to any part of the Turkish domi- through the besieging army. To nions which they might select. assist their project, it had been These terms were refused, either arranged, by means of secret mesfrom distrust in the good faith of sengers, that the Rumeliot troops the Egyptian commander, or, it in the mountains, and behind the may be, from a noble wish to set Turkish camp, should, at a fixed a heroic example of that total for- hour, attack it from the rear; the getfulness of self, which the love commencement of their firing was of country will sometimes inspire. to be the signal for setting fire to In the mean time, the unfortunate some houses in the town;i'while garrison was abandoned to its fate. the attention of the enemy was The commanders in the north, thus distracted, the garrison was and at Argos and Napoli, made to make a sortie, in the hope of no effort for its relief, Goura and being able to carry, in the confuFabvier were in the rear of the sion, one of the batteries on the besiegers, but were either too sea shore, and secure their pasweak, or too timid, to attempt sage. The other part of the plan even a diversion. Miaulis, indeed, was still more dreadful: the old risked his feet, and endeavoured men, the women, and children, to break through the blockade; unable to be sharers in this desbut, although the advantage was perate enterprise, and, remaining sometimes on his side, the naval defenceless in the town, certain superiority of the Turks was too only of massacre and dishonour, decided to enable him to open the prepared for voluntary death. harbour, and throw in provisions. Several parts of the works and of By the 16th of April, Ibrahim the town were undermined and had cut off every means of com- charged; there these helpless vicmunication, by mooring across the tims resolved to take their stand, harbour-rafts and flat-bottomed when stripped of their natural de boats, armed with heavy artillery; fenders ; there they were to await even :, the scanty supplies, which the entrance of the Turks, then hitherto had occasionally, stolen spring the mines, and bury them in, could no longer arrive ; every selyes, their abodes, and their ene
my, in one common destruction for themselves, I and joining KaThese resolutions were all taken, raiskaki and his Rumeliots in the and the necessary preparations mountains. The Turks, heated made, in the course of the 19th from slaughter and resistance, and 20th. On the 21st and 22nd, rushed into the defenceless town; Miaulis" made a last attempt to amid the confusion, the mines come to their 'assistance, and to were only partially sprung, and carry a vessel laden with provi- the sickening scenes of licentioussions into the harbour; but his ness and murder began. Ibrahim small fleet struggled in vain with himself bewailed the carnage which the overwhelming force of his ad- he could not restrain; many women versary, and he was reluctantly sprung into the sea, and into wells, compelled to leave this devoted with their children in their arms; handful of brave men to their fate. many more were killed by their own The execution of their design relations, as the only protection could no longer be delayed. The against the Turkish i ravisher. Rumeliots made the preconcerted Among the slain was Noto Bozzaattack on the rear of the Turks ris, the commander of the town, on the 22nd of April, but a de- an old man of seventy-six, who serter from the town had revealed had refused to depart, declaring the plan to the enemy, who in con- that he considered himself the sequence re-inforced their posts, cause of all their misfortunes, to keep the Rumeliots in check, since it was by his advice that and beset every avenue by which they had rejected every offer of the besieged might be expected capitulation. A band of about to issue forth. - When, therefore, one hundred and thirty ment for the garrison, having taken leave tified themselves in a house, and of their families, for whom - not defended it during the whole of even a chance remained, and the following day, till, when about received from their bishop the to be overpowered, texhausted by blessing and the absolution of fatigue and hunger, they blew up heaven, sallied out to the attack, themselves and their assailants. instead of falling unexpectedly So obstinate was the confliet sat upon an unprepared adversary, the works, and so ruthless was
1! they found the enemy on the alert, the massacre in the town,h that, and doubly strengthened, every although between two and three trench and every battery manned. thousand Greeks perished in both, A surprise had been their only only an hundred and fifty were hope, but yet to advance was not returned as having been taken more certain destruction than to alive. The male population above retire. They threw themselves twelve years of age was extermiwith desperate and reckless nated; between three and four courage into the works ; they fell thousand i women and children in ranks before superior numbers; survived, to be carried into slavery. but, notwithstanding the murder- After the falls of Missolonghi, ous discharges from the Turkish the Rumeliots who had occupied cannon, about eight hundred men, the mountains of Acarnania, with less than one-half of their number, that part of its garrison which succeeded in cutting a passage had escaped, and the corps un
der Goura, which had been in advance of Ibrahim into Eastern the neighbourhood of Salona, re- i Greece, if he should think proper tired, leaving Western Greece open to move. In an unsuccessful asto the conqueror, and took refuge sault made by the besiegers on in Athens. Thither they were fol- the 18th of October, general lowed by Redschid Pacha, who Goura, who commanded the garformed the siege of the town. rison, was killed. Ibrahim, hitherto irresistible, re- About the same time that Miscrossed the Gulph into the Morea, solonghi fell, the Greeks were having no impediment in the way equally unfortunate in an attempt between him and Napoli di Ro- which they made against Negromania, the only important fortress pont. Colonel Fabvier, one of now occupied by the Patriots in the European officers in the Greek that part of Greece. But he had service, had employed the spring
, suffered too severely in his repeated of the year in raising recruits at attacks upon Missolonghi, to be Athens, and in the islands, and able to undertake new offensive succeeded in bringing together, operations, until he should have and training, about one thousand recruited his army, and received five hundred men. At the head reinforcements from Egypt, for of these he unexpectedly landed in which purpose the Egyptian fleet Euboea in the end of March, and had sailed for Alexandria after surprised Carysto, an open town, the taking of Missolonghi, while the Turkish garrison of which rethe proper fleet of Turkey returned treated into the citadel; but havto the Dardanelles. He occupied ing lost his time in attempting to himself in strengthening and pro- take the citadel, and his provisioning Tripolizza, which was visions being consumed, he was exposed to the attacks of Coloco- surprised by the governor of Netroni, and Napoli remained un- gropont, who had hastened to the disturbed. The rest of the year aid of Carysto with a numerous was spent by Ibrahim in inactivity, body of cavalry. for the fleet from Alexandria did Colonel Fabyier, and the greater not arrive at Navorino till the 4th part of his corps, succeeded in of December; it brought to him fighting their way to an isletor rock, no troops, but a large supply of called Stura where, during several military stores, and a million and days, and under great privations, half of piastres. The siege of they resisted the attacks of the Athens, likewise, though pressed Turkish forces, till they were by Redschid Pacha, did not pre- rescued by some of the vessels sent any memorable occurrence. of the Insurgents of Tino and The Turks were repulsed in all Syra. their attacks upon the Acropolis ; On the 11th of April, a body of and, on the other hand, all at Albanians effected a landing near tempts to raise the siege failed. Bairout, a trading town on the The Greeks were unable to sup- coast of Syria ; and, guided by ply forces for its relief, with- spies, entered the town almost beout withdrawing the few troops fore any alarm had been given. they still possessed below the The mussulmen, however, flew to Isthmus, and thus facilitating the arms; and, after a sharp contest,
the Greeks, although supported by subjected us to bitter trials, he the fire of the ships from which has never forsaken us during our they had landed, were compelled long and arduous struggle; and, to retreat to a neighbouring hill, testifying from the bottom of our leaving behind them between thirty hearts, our deep gratitude towards and forty of their number killed. an. Omnipotent Providence, we They remained in this position for again proclaim, in the name of several days, without attempting the Greek nation, its unanimous any thing further; when, finding resolution to live and die amid that the Greeks of the mountains the chances of war, rather than were not rising in their favour, they cease to struggle for the deliverreturned to their ships. They ance of Greece. For that object, made no booty, and committed no we have long beheld, and still beravages in the country, or violence hold, tranquilly and 'unyielding, towards the inhabitants.
our cities and villages deluged The National Assembly was sit- with blood, our fields made a ting at Epidaurus, when the in- wilderness, thousands of our feltelligence of the taking of Misso. low citizens dragged to slaughter, longhi reached it, Even a regular to slavery, to pollution worse and long established government than either. The Representawould have felt much embarrass- tives of the Greek nation conment, if placed in the circumstances sider it their duty to proclaim in which this body found itself; these things openly to those who defeated in the field, surrounded are attached to the name of by discord at home, the treasury Christ, and whose hearts beat reempty, and neither wealth in the sponsive to the generous senticountry to tax, nor credit abroad ments, and unchangeable resoluupon which to borrow. Its first tion, of the Greek people. They step was, to address a manifesto to entertain 'a fervent hope that the the nation, in which it did not monarchs of Europe, who exercise conceal the mischief of the re- dominion under Christ, convinced verse of fortune which had taken of the equity and justice of their place, but in which it still spoke contest, will, in this appalling hour, the same language of determined cast an eye of pity on an unfor resolution to resisteven unto death, tunate nation, whose sufferings and in a tone of calmer and deeper arise from their professing and solemnity than it had hitherto maintaining a similar creed to assumed, appealed to the jus- themselves." tice and mercy of Christendom. The next step of the National “ When we deseended into this Assembly was, to separate, having great arena, we proclaimed in the first appointed an executive depuface of God and man, our de- tation, or commission, consisting termination to die with the cross of eleven members, and a combefore us, and our weapons in our mittee of its own body, consisting hands, rather than live as slaves of thirteen members, vested with without a religion, without a the full powers of government. The
, country, a scorn and an opprobri- seamen of the fleet were prevailed um to neighbouring nations. Alu: upon to agree to serve for six though God, in his wisdom, has months longer without demanding
their pay; and the executive ex- utmost delicacy and difficulty. In erted itself in procuring provisions every christian state, the melanand ammunition for the fortresses, choly fate of the devoted garrison and the troops, which were still on and inhabitants of Missolonghi exfoot; sending numbers of females cited only one feeling of deep comand children into the islands, that miseration; in every capital, and in the event of asiege, the magazines even in some courts, contributions might not be burdened with a were collected to relieve the crouds croud of useless mouths. The in- who were perishing in nakedness activity of Ibrahim, who was re- and want, and to re-purchase posing his army at Modon, and captives. At Berlin the king watching over the safety of himself set the example. The king Tripolizza, allowed it to carry on of Bavaria transmitted from himits military preparations undisturb- self and his family a sum of uped; and it found leisure to em- wards of 3,0001, in addition to a ploy its authority in attempting, sum of nearly 2,0001. which he sometimes successfully, to allay had already given towards the rethe dissentions which were per- demption of women and children petually, on the eve of breaking who had been carried into slavery out among the chiefs. The pre- from Missolonghi. The self-consident of the executive commission stituted Greek committees, too, himself, with two of its members, who, as yet, had exhibited only inand the archbishop of Arta vice- contestible proofs of vanity, brapresident of the committee of the vado, and mismanagement,-sinNational Assembly, hastened to creased their exertions to export Corinth, where petty and private for the service of Greecel certain jealousies of long standing be- persons who assumed the appellat tween the general and vice-general tion of Phil-Hellenes, small enough of the province were now openly as- in number to be utterly. consuming the form of a civil war; the temptible as allies, and in the use factions having successfully re- of arms, if arms could be obcruited, even in the neighbouring tained, far less practised and exprovinces, men, who, if they drew perienced than the Greeks them the sword at all, ought to have selves. Forty-five of these persons been opposing the common enemy. were shipped from Marseilles-in These, deputies, backed by the the month of July with much presence of Colocotroni, who was parade, and theatrical affectation thus withdrawn from the Morea at of sentiment,“ to fight for liberty so critical a period, succeeded in and the cross," as it was called restoring for a time, at least, ap- that is, to make windy apostrophes parent harmony.
in the gulph of Salamis, or on the The appeal which the National plain of Marathon ; to frame con Assembly had made to Europe was stitutions for people who could partially answered in one way, but not think; and establish the libercould not be answered in another; ty of the press, as the all in all their treasury might be assisted, of human happiness, in a nation and their troops armed, by private that could not read; to prate of contributions: but the interference Miltiades and lord Byron, without of governments, was a task of the having one ray of common sense