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of the country. In Perote an abun- begun to be repaired, in order that dant deposit of munitions of war is the first gate of the republic in the directed to be formed, in order to ocean may be maintained in perfect guard them against the severity of security. weather in the north, and with Our navy, after having done its other views of evident advantage. duty in the surrender of Ulloa, is Provisional commissions have been employed in guarding our coasts given to the presidential companies, from the incursions of pirates and until the chambers shall pass the smugglers. The vessels which consulta of the 13th of March last, are getting in readiness will augand supplies them with clothing, ment its force in a short time, and arms, and munition, to keep in protect commerce in the Mexican order the uncivilized tribes. The Gulf, keeping always in regular Yaguis, in Alto-Sonore, have com- employment two sloops of war and mitted some murders; but the ac a brig in the Southern seas. .

Our tivity of the military chiefs and the correspondence with California, political authorities, has placed which is paralysed for want of vesthem in a condition to demand sels, will soon be increased by two peace, and to avoid the repetition of packets built in San Plas. The similar atrocities. Congress, grant- ship Congreso Mexicano, fully ing means analogous to its philan- equipped, will weigh anchor from thropic sentiments, and the com- Acapulco within a month at latest, passion which those unfortunate for the northern seas, where it branches of the human race in- will perform the useful services spires, facilitates further the ac- confided to it by the nation. quisition of social enjoymentsbanishing for ever the barbarous Knowledge is beginning to be policy of the Spanish government, diffused among all classes of society, which by regulations, printed and The government delights to exert circulated among

the military itself in improving the establishchiefs on their frontiers, ordered ments for the purposes of educathat war should be provoked that tion, in the formation of others, and, their destruction should follow. in the efforts which are taken to Government has drawn them to all effect a genuine and lasting spirit the stations by every means of of intelligence among the people. peace and lenity; and the sword A select meeting of citizens, lovers. will not be drawn unless to punish of the honour of their country, insurrections. The points where have conceived and realised the we border on the enemy have been design of erecting, in the capital, guarded by the opportune despatch an institution for the improvement, of troops. The state of defence in of science, literature, and the arts. Yucatan is very respectable, and The executive has approved of the the government, on account of its statutes, and met the directors approximity to Cuba, has paid par- pointed to distribute the funds, ticular attention to it. These pre. The academy of San Carlos keeps cautions are not superfluous, even the door open for the formation of though the physical and moral im- good taste in those arts which add potence of the enemy be visible. to the comforts of life, and has The fortifications of the important begun to form a national museum, fortress of San Juan de Ultra are which is to be the depository of all VOL. LXVIII,

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and Colombia have been on that vested with an equal power, to respot since the 11th of December side at that government. This last, and those of Mexico and Gua- resolution, founded on a just feeltemala must have joined them by ing of reciprocity is, as must be this time. Although fully sensible apparent, a testimony of our gratiof the great advantages to be de- tude to that republic, the cradle of rived from this confederation, I the liberty of the human race, and have not ventured to take upon an object easier of admiration than myself the nomination of the ema of imitation to all nations. bassy, reserving the decision of this The government of the low most important matter to the na countries have named a consul in tional representation, now assem Valparaiso, with the view of culbled. The principal motives that tivating commerce with Chili. This have induced the meeting of that nation, governed by a prince who congress, the basis of its proceed is a lover of liberal institutions, ings, together with the rest of the makes me presage that this is only documents relative thereto, will be the first step towards others of a submitted to your consideration by friendly nature. the minister of Foreign Affairs. The like advantages may be

The circumstances under which expected from the enlightened the emperor of Brazil provoked an policy of France, and from the disunjust and scandalous war with position evinced in favour of the the United Provinces of the river independent states of America, Plate, obliged the government of whose vessels are already permitted that republic, through the medium to enter their ports, and partake of of the minister plenipotentiary here, the usual protection dispensed to to demand certain explanations, to friendly nations. which, not conceiving I had suffi England, whose circumspect cient authority, I have hitherto, conduct with regard to Chili, has abstained from giving any reply ; been caused principally by the the more so because it seemed to spirit of detraction shewn by preme expedient to avoid every op- judiced foreign writers, or of portunity of becoming involved in sinister informers, for the promos a compromise, which prudence, and tion of selfish motives, having at the laws of strict neutrality, obliged length ascertained the true state of me to evade. These also shall be the interior of our country, will, submitted for your consideration. I confidently hope, soon place us

Desiring to strengthen the on a level with the united states of friendship which binds Chili to Mexico, Colombia, and the united the United States of North Ame- provinces of the river Plate, and rica, and to fulfil the obligation take such measures as are pointed incurred by the generous conduct of out by the equity of her principles, that nation, which, disdaining the and the maxims of sound policy cold circumspection of European which govern the proceedings of diplomacy, has solemnly acknow- her government. ledged our independence, and maintained, from that moment, a

(Signed) minister plenipotentiary amongst

RAMON FREIRE. us, I have named an agent, in

REPORT from the COMMITTEE of the SENATE of the UNITED STATES;

to whom was referred the MEMORIAL of the Merchants, Ship Owners, and Manufacturers of the City of BALTIMORE.

March 31, 1826. do not extend to the British colo. The Memorialists state, -"That nial possessions in America; in Great Britain, having lately opened consequence of which, British vest the trade of her North American sels arriving in the United States and West India colonies, insomuch from those colonies pay the disthat not only are almost all ar- criminating duties before mentionticles admitted, but the trade of ed, amounting on the vessel to one those colonies is accessible to all dollar per ton of its admeasure parts of the world, on far more ment; while vessels belonging to favourable terms than those now the United States pay only six enjoyed by the merchants of the cents per ton, on entering our own United States." They, there ports, but that these vessels, enfore, submit the propriety of tering British colonial ports, are abolishing the discriminating duties subject to a countervailing duty of of 94 cents per ton, on British 48. 3d. sterling per ton, equal colonial vessels, and of ten per cent to ninety-four cents, being the additional, on the duties on their difference in favour of American cargoes, and of admitting British over British vessels, from the com vessels, from whatever ports, on lonies, entering the ports of the the same terms as the vessels of United States. the most favoured nation."

This distinction it has long been In reference to which the com- the earnest desire of the governmittee remark, that, by the exista ment of the United States to ing laws of the United States, a annul, on the principle of a just duty of fifty cents per tòn as a ton- reciprocity; but although much nage duty, and fifty cents per ton discussion has been had on the as light money, is imposed on all subject, and many laws have been foreign vessels entering the ports of enacted in reference to it, by both the United States, with an addition parties, the desired result has not of ten per centum on the amount yet been accomplished. of duties on the cargoes of all such By an act of Congress, of March vessels as belong to foreign powers, 3, 1815, the discriminating duties who do not admit the vessels of on vessels and merchandize were the United States into their ports proffered to be repealed in favour on the same terms as their own of any foreign nation which should, vessels; that a convention is now on its part, reciprocate the same in operation between the United provisions of law towards the States and Great Britain, whereby United States. the duties on the vessels and car. By the convention of 1815 and goes of the respective parties, so 1818, this was done between the far as regards the commerce be- United States and the territories tween the United States and the of Great Britain in Europe: and territories of Great Britain, in à reciprocal liberty of commerce Europe, are equalised; but that was established between them, for the provisions of this convention the period of ten years, from the

it will never be found divided for The Senators have the formation want of a judge to arbitrate, as of the codes and ecclesiastical regufrequently occurs where there are lations; they watch over the ad only two chambers. There being ministration of justice and over here three, the difference between public worship. The Senate chooses two is decided by the third ; the the prefects, judges of districts, question is examined by two con governors, corregidors, and all tending parties, and another im- other persons filling subordinate partial one who decides it; in this situations in the courts of justice. way no useful law is put aside, or It proposes to the chamber of cenat all events it will have been dis sors the members of the high cussed once, twice, or three times court of archbishops, bishops, prebefore it be rejected. In all affairs bends, &c. Whatever has relation between two adverse parties a third to religion and the laws is under is chosen to decide, and would it the

superintendance of the senate. not be absurd not to adopt a mea The Censors exercise a political sure, dictated by imperious neces and moral authority, which has sity, in the most important in- some resemblance to that of the terests of society? The chambers Areopagus of Athens and of the will thus preserve towards each censors of Rome. They are, as it other those considerations which were, the fiscals of the nation are indispensable to the conserva- against the government, to watch tion of the union of the whole; over the religious observance of who ought to deliberate in the the constitution and public treaties. silence of the passions in the calm- I have placed under their protece ness of wisdom.

Modern con tion the national jury, which is to gresses, it will be said, have been decide on the good or bad admicomposed of only two bodies. It nistration of the Executive. is because in England, which has The censors are the protectors been their model, the nobility and of public morals, the sciences, the the people ought to be represented arts, public instruction, and the in two chambers; and if in North

The censors exercise the America they did the same, al- most terrible as well as the most though they had not nobility, it is august functions. They condemn probable that habits derived from to eternal opprobrium the usurpers their living under the British go- of sovereignty and illustrious criz vernment induced them to imitate minals. They grant public honours it. The fact is, that two deliberat- to the services and virtues of illus ing bodies must be in a continual trious citizens. The appreciation state of contention ; on this account of glory has been confided to their Sieyes proposed that there should hands; the censors ought, therebe only one-strange absurdity! fore, to be of unsullied innocence

The first chamber is that of Tric and unspotted life. If they err, they bunes ; they have the right of pro- shall be accused even for trifling posing all laws relative to finance, faults. To these priests of the peace, and war. This body has laws have been confided the cusimmediate inspection over those tody of our sacred tables; for they branches administered by the exe- it is who are to prevent their cutive with least interference on profanation, the part of the legislature,

The President of the Republic,

press.

duties payable on British vessels gives a decisive advantage to imand their cargoes arriving in the portations from the latter. United States, from the colonies, And although it is to be adof six and nine months; that bonds, mitted, that some of these reguwith sureties, are required for the lations are of a character so mulanding of the return cargo in a nicipal as not to be legitimate specified port in the United

States, objects of complaint, in reference which are occasionally obtained to an international intercourse : with great difficulty by the owners yet they nevertheless do, in fact, or masters of the smaller American contravene that just reciprocity on vessels engaged in the trade; that which it was to be presumed it an export duty of 2 per cent would be the desire of both parties is imposed on the return cargo, to place the trade between them. which cannot be countervailed in While the British government, the United States; that vessels, on this part, contends, as it is arriving at a bad market, have, at understood, that it is justified in times, not been allowed to seek a requiring an abrogation of the disbetter, unless by a double payment criminating duties, in consequence of duties; while British vessels of its having partially opened its from the West Indies, seeking a colonial ports for the importation favourable sale for their cargoes, of a limited number of articles from may run along the whole coast of the United States ; and that it has the United States, from New a right to make any municipal or Orleans to Eastport; that onerous local regulations it pleases. And, and heavy duties, and colonial among others, that of admitting, fees, are exacted, amounting, as it free of duty, the produce of its is stated, in some instances, on colonies, however remotely situat small lumber-loaded vessels, to the ed, while it imposes an impost on value of the cargo--the latter of articles of the same description which is corroborated, in a degree, from other countries ; but allowing by Mr. Huskisson, in his speech some plausibility to this reasoning, in parliament, in March of the it is to be recollected, that the last year, in which he mentions question at issue, between the two the liability to abuse, and vexa- countries, is not so much one of tion, of the practices in this par- abstract right, as of equality and ticular; and states that, in many reciprocity in entering into a cominstances, the fees alone, which mercial arrangement intended to are exacted upon a ship and cargo, promote the mutual advantage of amount to much more than all both parties. the public duties; and that im The foregoing present a brief portant discriminating duty is synopsis of the measures which imposed in the West-India market, have been adopted since the year on the flour, the bread, the stuffs, 1815, by the United States and and thelumber of the United States, Great Britain, relative to trade over that which is paid on the with the British colonies, and of same articles when received from the present state of it. Canada, Nova Scotia, and New The recommendation of the Brunswick; and which amounting, memorialists now is : that the disin many instances, to a full freight, criminating duties still imposed on VOL. LXVIII.

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