Sivut kuvina
PDF
ePub

tention, and he, with a boldness could not be ascertained, but we which greatly enhanced the re- are told it was fully as mild as in spect I bore him, expressed his the latitude 61°, in the month of willingness to push our research in December (340 to 369) and they that direction, though we had were now near the parallel of been hitherto so unsuccessful." 73o. The sea was literally covered

Proceeding, therefore, to the with birds of the blue peterel kind, southward, in about the latitude but nothing like land nor any indi65°, they thought they had dis- cation of land appeared. The weacovered land, which showed itself ther continued mild and serene, in the shape of a black rock; but, and not a particle of ice of any on a nearer approach, it proved to description was to be seen;" and be only an ice-island, covered on this absence of ice continued till one of its sides with black earth. the 20th of February, when in Their disappointment, however, latitude 74°15', longitude 34° 17, was somewhat soothed by "the three ice-islands were in sight from consideration that it must have dis- the deck, and one more from the engaged itself from some high mast-head. land possessing a

considerable Having attained this high latiquantity of soil, and the possibility tude, which is three degrees and that this land might not be far five minutes farthersouth thạn capdistant. From this place, however, tain Cook, or any preceding navi, till their arrival in latitude 699, de- gator had reached ; and the wind tached islands of ice were constantly blowing fresh from the south, the occurring, so numerous, indeed, season too fast advancing, captain about the latter point, as almost Weddell deemed it prudent to reto impede and prevent their pasturn. sing further. « Sixty-six," says

“I would willingly says he) captain Weddell, “ were counted have explored the S. W. quarter, around us; and for about fifty but taking into consideration the miles to the south, we had seldom lateness of the season, and that we fewer in sight."

had to pass homewards through one **Arrived at 70° 26' S., the wind thousand miles of sea strewed with became moderate, the sea tolerably ice-islands, with long nights, and smooth, thế weather pleasant, and probably attended with fogs, I the ice-islands had almost disap- could not determine otherwise than peared. Unfortunately the two to take advantage of this favourable thermometers had been broken, wind for returning." and the température from this time 11, 0);

ir

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

*** A new expedition is projected the ice' from Spitzbergen to the for captain Parry. It has for its Pole, and this plan had been adopt object to reach the Northern Pole; ed by captain Parry, who, in addito make known to us what the tion to his own ardent expectations inmost point of the ice-bound Arc of success, procured the sanction of tic circle is. Captain Franklin had the Royal Society to the practicabioffered to undertake a journey over lity of the enterprise. The Hecla is to be prepared for captain Parrying the long-desired pole, and reearly in the ensuing spring; and turning to the Hecla at Cloven in that vessel he is to proceed to Cliff. Dogs or reindeer (the former “Cloven Cliff," in Spitzbergen, in preferable for drawing the sledges, lat. 79 degrees 52 minutes (or when necessary, but the latter about 600 miles from the pole), better for food, in case of accident which he is expected to reach to- or detention) are to be taken on wards the end of May. From this the expedition. It is known that point he will depart with two the summer temperature is far from vessels, which are capable of being being severe; there is perpetual used either as boats or sledges, as light, with the sun continually water or ice is found to prevail. above the horizon; and he knows, They are to be built of light, tough, from experience, that the men on and flexible materials, with cover

such occasions are always very ings of leather and oil-cloth; the healthy. During his absence, the latter convertible intò sails. Two boats of the ship are to be engaged officers and ten men are to be ap- in exploring the eastern side of pointed to each, with provisions for Spitzbergen ; and the officers and ninety-two days, which, if they men of science in making philoonly travelled on the average sophical experiments with the pen, thirteen miles per day, and met dulum, on magnetism and meteorowith no insurmountable obstacles, logy, in natural history, &c. would be sufficient for their reach

Tap

[ocr errors]

RESULTS OF THE ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS. hoqiti

cul 2012 Dr. Jamieson has observed, nental parts of America ; and that that the four Arctic Expeditions, in the plains and hollows of this viz. that under captain Ross, and land were deposited the secondary the three under captain Parry, limestones, sandstones, gypsum, and afford the following general facts coal, and upon these again the terand inferences : -1. That the re- tiary rocks. 3. That, after the gions explored abound in primitive deposition of these secondary and though the secondary rocks occupy have been broken up, and reduced

or ansition rocks; and that, ale tertiary rocks, the land appears to considerable tracts, still their ex- either suddenly or by degrees, or tent is more limited than that of partly by sudden and violent action, the older formations; that the al- and partly by the long-continued luvial deposites are not extensive; agency of the atmosphere and the that true or modern volcanic rocks ocean, into its present insular and were nowhere met with ; and that peninsular forin, and that, consethe only traces of tertiary strata quently, the secondary and tertiary were found in the sandstones and formations were formerly, in those clays connected with the secondary regions, more extensively distritraps of Baffin's Bay. 2. That the buted than they are at present. primitive and transition islands 4. That, previously to the deposiwere, in all probability, at one time tion of the coal formation, as that connected together, and formed a of Melville island, the transition continuous mass with the conti- and primitive hills and plains supported a rich and luxuriant vegeta- east, in Old Greenland, to form an tion, principally of cryptogamous interesting and important feature plants, especially tree ferns, the in the geognostical constitution prototypes of which are now met of Arctic countries. 10. That the with only in the tropical regions red sandstone of of the earth. The fossil corals of &c., renders it probable that

hot De the secondary limestones also inti- salt may occur in that quarter. mate that, before, during, and after, 11. That although no new metalthe deposition of the coal forma- liferous compounds have occurred tion, the waters of the ocean were to gratify the curiosity of the miso constituted as to support poly- neralogist, yet the regions explored paria, closely resembling those of by captain Parry have afforded vas the present equatorial seas. 5. rious interesting and highly useful That previously to and during the ores-such as octahedral or mag. deposition of the tertiary strata, netic iron ore, rhomboidal or red these now frozen regions supported iron ore, prismatic or brown iron forests of dicotyledonous trees, as ore, and prismatic chrome ore or is shown by the fossil dicotyledo- chromate of iron; also the common nous woods met with in connexion ore of copper, or copper pyrites; with these strata, in Baffin's Bay, molybdena glance, or sulphurate and by the fossil wood of Melville of molybdæna; ore of titanium; and island, Cape York, and Byam that interesting and valuable mineMartin island. 6. That the boul- ral, graphite or black lead. 12. ders or rolled blocks met with in That the gems, the most valued different quarters, and in tracts and most beautiful of mineral subdistant from their original locali- stances, are not wanting in the ties, afford evidence of the passage Arctic Regions visited by the exof water across them, and at a pea peditions, is proved by the great riod subsequent to the deposition abundance of the precious garnet, of the newest solid strata, namely, which we doubt not will be found, those of the tertiary class. 7. That on more particular examination of nowhere are there any discover- the primitive rocks, to present all able traces of the agency

the beautiful colours and elegant dern volcanoes ;, and we may add, forms for which it is so much adthat in the Arctic regions the only mired. Rock-crystal, another of known appearances of this kind are the gems, was met with 9 and also those in Jan Mayen's island den beryl and zircon. 13. That these scribed by Scoresby. "8. That the newly-discovered lands exhibit the only intimations of older volcanic same general geognostical arrangeaction are those afforded by the ments as occur in all other extenpresence of secondary trap rocks, sive tracts of country hitherto exsuch as basalt, greenstone, trap-tufa, amined by the naturalist; a fact and amygdaloid. 9. That the which strengthens that opinion black bituminous coal, the coal of which maintains that the grand the oldest coal formation, which features of nature, in the mineral some speculators maintained to be kingdom, are every confined to the more temperate and and, consequently where similar,

the same warmer regions of the earth, is general agencies must have prenow proved, by its discovery in vailed generally during the formaMelville island, far to the west, tion of the solid mass of the earth. and in Jameson's land, far to the

of moa

[ocr errors]

is to be prepared for captain Parrying the long-desired pole, and re-
early in the ensuing spring; and turning to the Hecla at Cloven
in that vessel he is to proceed to Cliff. Dogs or reindeer (the former
“ Cloven Cliff," in Spitzbergen, in preferable for drawing the sledges,
lat. 79 degrees 52 minutes (or when necessary, but the latter
about 600 miles from the pole),' better for food, in case of accident
which he is expected to reach to- or detention) are to be taken on
wards the end of May.' From this the expedition. "It is known that
point he will depart with two the summer temperature is far from
vessels, which are capable of being being severe; there is perpetual
used either as boats or sledges, as light, with the sun continually,
water or ice is found to prevail. above the horizon; and he knows,
They are to be built of light, tough, from experience, that the men on
and flexible materials, with cover-

such occasions are always very ings of leather and oil-cloth;

the healthy. During his absence, the latter convertible intò sails. Two boats of the ship are to be engaged officers and ten men are to be ap- in exploring the eastern side of pointed to each, with provisions for Spitzbergen; and the officers and ninety-two days, which, if they men of science in making philoonly travelled on the average sophical experiments with the pen, thirteen miles per day, and met dulum, on magnetism and meteorowith no insurmountable obstacles, logy, in natural history, &c. would be sufficient for their reach

[ocr errors]

RESULTS OF THE ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS. Dr. Jamieson has observed, nental parts of America ; and that that the four Arctic Expeditions, in the plains and hollows of this viz. that under captain Ross, and land were deposited the secondary the three under captain Parry, limestones, sandstones, gypsum, and afford the following general facts coal, and upon these again the terand inferences :--1. That the re- tiary rocks. 3. That, after the gions explored abound in primitive deposition of these secondary and and transition rocks; and that, ala . tertiary rocks, the land appears to though the secondary rocks occupy have been broken up, and reduced considerable tracts, still their ex- either suddenly or by degrees, or tent is more limited than that of partly by sudden and violent action, the older formations; that the al- and partly by the long-continued luvial deposites are not extensive; agency of the atmosphere and the that true or modern volcanic rocks ocean, into its present insular and were nowhere met with ; and that peninsular förin, and that, consethe only traces of tertiary strata quently, the secondary and tertiary were found in the sandstones and formations were formerly, in those clays connected with the secondary regions, more extensively distritraps of Baffin's Bay. 2. That the buted than they are at present. primitive and transition islands 4. That, previously to the deposiwere, in all probability, at one time tion of the coal formation, as that connected together, and formed a of Melville island, the transition continuous mass with the conti- and primitive hills and plains sup

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

salts to which these substances may with less expenditureof fuel---March 14. serve as a basis. Communicated by a N. H. Manicler, of Great Guilfordforeigner.--February 11.

street, Southwark, chemist; for a new J. Higgins, of Oxford-street, Lon- preparation of fatty substances, and the don ; for improvements in the construc- application thereof to the purposes of tion of the masts, yards, sails, rigging affording light.-March 20. of ships, and smaller vessels, and in the J. Billingham, of Norfolk-street, tackle used for working or navigating Strand; for an improvement or im. the same. February 11.

provements in the construction of cookB. Newmarch, of Cheltenham, aud ing apparatus.--April 18. C. Bonner, of Gloucester, for a mecha- J. Rowbotham, of Great Surrey-street, nical invention to be applied for the Blackfriars-road, and R. Lloyd, of the purpose of suspending and securing Strand; for a method of preparing, windows, gates, doors, shutters, blinds, forming, uniting, combining, and putand other apparatus.Februáry 18. ting together, certain materials, sub

T. Walter, of Luton; for improve- stances, or things, for the purpose of inents in the manufacture of straw plat, being made into hats, caps, bonnets, for the purpose of making bonnets, hats, cloaks, coats, trowsers, and for weari and other articles.-February 18. apparel in general, and various other

C. Whitlaw, of Bayswater Terrace; purposes.--April 18. for an improvement or improvements in W. Wood, of Summer-Hill Grove, adminiştering medicines by the agency Northumberland; for an apparatus for of steam or vapour.- February 18. destroying the inflammable air (which "A. Buffum, late of Massachusetts ; is commonly known by the name of frefor improvements in the process of mak- damps) in mines.-April 22. ing or manufacturing and dyeing hats. J. Gillespie, of Grosvenor street, Communicated partly by certain fo- Newington, Surrey; for a new spring, veigners.--February 18.

or combination of springs, for the purJ. Fraser, Houndsditch, London, en- pose of forming an elastic resisting meigineer; for an improved method of con- dium.-April 25. structing capstans and windlasses.“ S. Brown, of Eagle Lodge, Old BrompFebruary 25.

ton ; for improvements on his former 2. B. Newmarch, Cheltenham, gentle- patent, dated Dec. 4, 1823; for an ren. finan; for certain inventions to preserve gine or instrument for effecting a

vessels and other bodies from the dan- vacuum, and thus producing powers by sgerous effects of external or internal which water may be raised, andı ma. violence on land or water, and other chinery put in motion.-- April 25. improvements connected with the same. F. Halliday, of Ham, Surrey, for an February 25.

apparatus or machine for preventing The same, for a preparation to be the inconvenience'arising from smoke used either in solution or otherwise, for in chimneys, which he denominates a preventing decay in timber or other wind guard.April 25. T. substances, arising from dry rot or other J. Williams of the Commercial-road ; causes.-February 25.

for improvements on ships' hearths; and J. Frazer, Houndsditch, London, en- apparatus for cooking by steam. gineer; for a new and improved method 27.

of distilling and rectifying spirits and W. Choice, of Strahan Terrace, and strong waters. --March 4.

R. Gibson, of White Conduit Terrace, 93 R. Midgley, Horsforth, near Leeds, Islington; for improvements in ma

gentleman ; -for a method, machinery, chinery for making bricks. April 27. or apparatus, for conveying persons and C. Kennedy, of Virginia Terrace, goods over or across rivers or other Great Dover-road, Surrey, for improvewaters, and over valleys or other places, ments in the apparatus used for cupMarch 4.

ping --April 29. G. Anderton, Chickheaton, York- J. Goulding, of America, but now reshire, worsted spinner; for improve- siding in Cornhill, London ; for improvements in the combing or dressing of ments in the machines used for carding, wool and waste silk.--March 4.

stubbing, slivering, roying, or spinning J. Neville, New Walk, Shad Thames, wool, cotton, waste silk, short stapled engineer; for a new and improved hemp and flax, or any other fibrous boiler or apparatus for generating steam materials or mixture thereof-May 2.

3

[ocr errors]

- April

« EdellinenJatka »