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GEOGRAPHY, ASTRONOMY,
MECHANICAL ARTS, &c.

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Account of CAPTAIN PARRY's Third Voyage for the Discovery of a

North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific; performed in the years 1824-25, in his Majesty's Ships Hecla and Fury.

THE unusual severity of the sea- than former ones; there was a Li soni

on the passage outwards; total absence of all human creatures and the change, which could not besides themselves; and, almost be anticipated, that had taken of every object of animated nature. place in the position of the float- It was not till the 20th of July, ing fields of ice that permanently that the disruption of the ice aloccupy some part of Baffin's Bay, lowed the ships to remove from retarded the progress of the ships their winter-quarters, and enabled so long, that it was with much them to stretch across towards the difficulty they were enabled to western shore of Prince Regent's reach Port Bowen, on the eastern Inlet, where, after some slight obshore of Prince Regent's Inlet, struction, they succeeded in making before all further navigation, for favourable progress along the land. that season, became impracticable, This however did not continue 'on account of the formation of long; the ice was perceived to apyoung ide on the surface of the proach the land, till at length it sea. Had captain Parry been reached the ships and drove thein fortunate enough to have reached both on shore, and the Fury was this point three weeks or a month found to be so very seriously dasooner, -as from former experience maged as to make it impossible for he l had every reasonable ground her to proceed farther without to expect, he would in all proba repairs, and probably without, as bility have crossed the southern captain Parry calls it, the portion of the Polar sea, and win- ruinous necessity" of heaving the tered on some part of the coast of ship down. sist','',' America.

». There being no harbour, it was si The winter in Port Bowen was necessary to form a sort of basin passed nearly in the same manner by means of the ice for the peras former winters in the Polar seas. formance of this operation; the ». Perhaps, indeed, this third win- process was tedious and laborious, ter y was somewhat i more dreary and various impediments occurred

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from the movement and pressure stance of stupor amounting to a of the ice. They succeeded, how- certain degree of failure in intelever, after immense exertions, in lect, rendering the individual so heaving the Fury down : but this affected quite unable at first to had scarcely been accomplished comprehend the meaning of an

of securities of the basin, which ren- ever to obey it." dered it necessary to tow the Fury Whatever expectations captain out, to re-equip the Hecla, and for Parry might have rested on the the latter to stand out to sea. result of heaving down and reThe Fury was once more driven pairing the Fury, these were now on shore, and it now appeared on at an end. “ With a twelvemonth's a close examination, that it was provisions for both ships' compahopeless, circumstanced as they nies (says the captain), it would were, to make her sea-wo hy, have been folly to hope for final and that it was therefore necessary success, considering the small proto abandon her. The incessant gress we had already made, the labour which every one underwent, uncertain nature of this navigaupon

this disastrous occasion, had tion, and the advanced period of a curious effect on the mind. the present season. « The officers and men,” says cap

therefore," he adds,“ reduced to tain Parry, “were now literally the only remaining conclusion, so harassed and fatigued, as to be that it was my duty, under all scarcely capable of further exer- the circumstances of the case, to tion without some rest; and on return to England, in compliance this and one or two other occasions, with the plain tenor of my instrucI noticed more than a single in- tions."

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Account of the Voyage of CAPTAIN WEDDELL into the Antarctie Seas.

brona The object of this voyage was visioned for two years. Mr. Wed. to procure cargoes of the fur-bear- dell made the best of his way to ing seal-skins on the Sandwich the South Orkneys, a group cof Land, which was considered to be islands - which he had discovered the projecting cape of a southern the year before, lying to the eastcontinent, stretching from it east ward of the South Shetlands, than and west, behind the recently re- which they were representedias covered islands of Gerritz, which being more rugged, peaked and have assumed the new name of terrific in their appearancedit, Here South Shetland. in me

they captured a few large sea The two vessels employed on leopards, a new species of phoca, this voyage were, the brig Jane, which professor Jamieson, from its of 160 tons, commanded by captain spotted skin, has named the leoWeddell, and the cutter Beaufoy pardine seal. of 65 tons, by Mr. Brisbane, the Finding no appearance of a conformer having a crew of twenty- tinent, Mr. Weddell determined two officers and men, and the lat- to continue standing to the southter of thirteen, both ships fitted ward. : " I accordingly," says he, out in the ordinary way, and pro

“informed Mr. Brisbane of my in

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tention, and he, with a boldness could not be ascertained, but we which greatly enhanced the re- are told it was fully as mild as in spect I bore him, expressed his the Tatitude 61°, in the month of willingness to push our research in December (340 to 36') and they that direction, though we had were now near the parallel of been hitherto so unsuccessful." 73. The sea was literally covered

Proceeding, therefore, to the with birds of the blue peterel kind, southward, in about the latitude but nothing like land indi65°, they thought they had dis- cation of land appeared. The weacovered land, which showed itself ther continued mild and serene, in the shape of a black rock; but, and “not a particle of ice of any on a nearer approach, it proved to description was to be seen;" and be only an ice-island, covered on this absence of ice continued till one of its sides with black earth. the 20th of February, when in Their disappointment, however, latitude 74° 15', longitude 34° 17', was somewhat soothed by the three ice-islands were in sight from consideration that it must have dis- the deck, and one more from the engaged itself from some high mast-head. land possessing a

considerable Having attained this high latiquantity of soil, and the possibility tude, which is three degrees and that this land might not be far five minutes farther south than capdistant. From this place, however, tain Cook, or any preceding navitill their arrival in latitude 699, de- gator had reached ; and th

the wind tached islands of ice were constantly blowing fresh from the south, the occurring, so

numerous indeed, season too fast advancing, captain about the latter point, as almost Weddell deemed it prudent to reto impede and prevent their pas- turn. sing further. “Sixty-six,” says “I would willingly (says he) captain Weddell, were counted

have explored the S. W. quarter, around us; and for about fifty but taking into consideration the miles to the south, we had seldom lateness of the season, and that we fewer in sight."

had to pass homewards through one Arrived at 70° 26' S., the wind thousand miles of sea strewed with became moderate, the sea tolerably ice-islands, with long nights, and smooth, thị weather pleasant, and probably attended with fogs, I the ice-islands had almost disap- could not determine otherwise than peared. Unfortunately the two to take advantage of this favourable thermometers had been broken, wind for returning." and the temperature from this time

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CAPTAIN Parry's New EXPEDITION, A new expedition is projected the ice from Spitzbergen to the for captain Parry. It has for its Pole, and this plan had been adoptobject to reach the Northern Pole; ed by captain Parry, who, in addi, to make known to us what the tion to his own ardent expectations inmost point of the ice-bound' Arc- of success, procured the sanction of tic circle is. Captain Franklin had the Royal Society to the practicabioffered to undertake a journey over lity of the enterprise. The Hecla is to be prepared for captain Parrying the long-desired pole, and reearly in the ensuing spring; and turning to the Hecla at Cloven in that vessel he is to proceed to Cliff

. Dogs or reindeer (the former “ Cloven Cliff," in Spitzbergen, in preferable for drawing the sledges, lat. 79 degrees 52 minutes (or when necessary, but the latter about 600 miles from the pole), better for food, in case of accident which he is expected to reach to- or detention) are to be taken on wards the end of May. From this the expedition. It is known that point he will depart with two the summer temperature is far from vessels, which are capable of being being severe; there is perpetual used either as boats or sledges, as light, with the sun continually water or ice is found to prevail

. above the horizon; and he knows, They are to be built of light, tough, from experience, that the men on and flexible materials, with cover

such occasions are always very ings of leather and oil-cloth;

the healthy. During his absence, the latter convertible into sails. Two boats of the ship are to be engaged officers and ten men are to be ap- in exploring the eastern side of pointed to each, with provisions for Spitzbergen ; and the officers and ninety-two days, which, if they men of science in making philoonly travelled on the average sophical experiments with the pen, thirteen miles per day, and met dulum, on magnetism and meteorowith no insurmountable obstacles, logy, in natural history, &c. would be sufficient for their reach

RESULTS OF THE ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS.

Periui Dr. Jamieson has observed, nental parts of America ; and that that the four Arctic Expeditions, in the plains and hollows of this viz. that under captain Ross, and land were deposited the secondary the three under captain Parry, limestones, sandstones, gypsum, and afford the following general facts coal, and upon these again the terand inferences:-1. That the re- tiary rocks. 3. That, after the gions explored abound in primitive deposition of these secondary and and transition rocks; and that, al- tertiary rocks, the land appears to though the secondary rocks occupy have been broken up, and reduced considerable tracts, still their ex- either suddenly or by degrees, or tent is more limited than that of partly by sudden and violent action, the older formations; that the al- and partly by the long-continued luvial deposites are not extensive ; agency of the atmosphere and the that true or modern volcanic rocks ocean, into its present insular and were nowhere met with ; and that peninsular forin; and that, consethe only traces of tertiary strata quently, the secondary and tertiary were found in the sandstones and formations were formerly, in those clays connected with the secondary regions, more extensively distri. traps of Baffin's Bay. 2. That the buted than they are at present, primitive and transition islands 4. That, previously to the deposiwere, in all probability, at one time tion of the coal formation, as that connected together, and formed a of Melville island, the transition continuous mass with the conti- and primitive hills and plains supported a rich and luxuriant vegeta- east, in Old Greenland, to form an tion, principally of cryptogamous interesting and important feature plants, especially tree ferns, the in the geognostical constitution prototypes of which are now met of Arctic countries. 10. That the with only in the tropical regions red sandstone of Possession Bay, of the earth. The fossil corals of &c., renders it probable that rockthe secondary limestones also inti- salt may occur in that quarter. mate that, before, during, and after, 11. That although no new metalthe deposition of the coal forma. liferous compounds have occurred tion, the waters of the ocean were to gratify the curiosity of the mis so constituted as to support poly, neralogist, yet the regions explored paria, closely resembling those of by captain Parry have afforded vathe present equatorial seas. 5. rious interesting and highly useful That previously to and during the ores-such as octahedral or magdeposition of the tertiary strata, netic iron ore, rhomboidal or red these now frozen regions supported iron ore, prismatic or brown iron forests of dicotyledonous trees, as ore, and prismatic chrome ore or is shown by the fossil dicotyledo- chromate of iron ; also the common nous woods met with in connexion ore of copper, or copper pyrites; with these strata, in Baffin's Bay, molybdena glance, or sulphurate and by the fossil wood of Melville of molybdæna; ore of titanium; and island, Cape York, and Byam that interesting and valuable mine Martin island. 6. That the boul- ral, graphite or black lead." 12. ders or rolled blocks met with in That the gems, the most valued different quarters, and in tracts and most beautiful of mineral subdistant from their original locali- stances, are not wanting in the ties, afford evidence of the passage Arctic Regions visited by the exof water across them, and at a pes peditions, is proved by the great riod subsequent to the deposition abundance of the precious garnet, of the newest solid strata, namely, which we doubt not will be found, those of the tertiary class. 7. That on more particular examination of nowhere are there any discover the primitive rocks, to presenti all able traces of the

the beautiful colours and elegant dern volcanoes ; and we may add, forms for which it is so much adthat in the Arctic regions the only mired. Rock-crystal, another of known appearances of this kind are the gems, was met with ; and also those in Jan Mayen's island de beryl and zircon. 13. That these scribed by Scoresby. 8. That the newly-discovered lands exhibit the only intimations of older volcanic same general geognostical arrangection are those afforded by the ments as occur in all other extenpresence of secondary trap rocks, sive tracts of country hitherto exsuch as basalt, greenstone, trap-tufa, amined by the naturalist; a fact and anygdaloid. 9. That the which strengthens that opinion black bituminous coal, the coal of which maintains that the grand the oldest, coal formation, which features of nature, in the mineral some speculators maintained to be kingdom, are every where similar, confined to the more temperate and and, consequently, that the same warmer regions of the earth, is general agencies must have prenow proved, loy its discovery in vailed generally during the formaMelville island, far to the west, tion of the solid mass of the earth. and in Jameson's land, far to the

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