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months, after either of the high sel trading to the possessions held contracting parties shall have given by the British East India Comnotice to the other of its intention pany in the East Indies, under the to terminate the same; each of 8th article of the convention of the high contracting parties reserv- this date, may find it expedient ing to itself the right of giving to dispose of the whole or part of such notice to the other at the end her cargo, on her homeward-bound of the said term of ten years; and voyage, in other ports than those it is thereby agreed between them, of Sweden and Norway, it is that, at the expiration of twelve hereby agreed, that any such vess months after such notice shall have sel may proceed with such cargo been received by either party from to any foreign place or port whatthe other, this convention, and all soever, not being within the limits the provisions thereof, shall altor of the East India Company's chargether cease and determine.

ter, and excepting the United XIII. The present convention Kingdom of Great Britain and shall be ratified, and the ratifica- Ireland, and its dependencies. tions shall be exchanged at London, The present additional article within six weeks from the date shall have the same force and vahereof, or sooner if possible. lidity as if it were inserted word

In witness whereof, the respec. for word in the convention signed tive plenipotentiaries have signed this day. It shall be ratified, and the same, and have affixed thereto the ratifications shall be exchanged the seals of their arms.

at the same time. Done at London, the 18th day In witness whereof, the respecof March, in the year of our Lord tive plenipotentiaries have signed 1826.

the same, and have affixed thereto (L.S.) GEORGE CANNING. the seals of their arms. (L. S.) WILLIAM HUSKISSON. Done at London, the 18th day

of March, in the year of our Lord Additional Article.

1826. As it may sometimes happen (L. S.) GEORGE CANNING. that a Swedish or Norwegian ves- (L. S.) WILLIAM HUSKISBON.

The Act of ABDICATION of the THRONE of PORTUGAL by the

EMPEROR of Brazil in favour of his Daughter. Don Pedro, by the grace of God, should continue to be king of Porking of Portugal and the Algarvestugal and the Algarves, and their beyond sea in Africa, lord of dominions, and desiring, by all the Guinea, of the Conquest, Naviga- means in my power, to render those tion, and Commerce of Ethiopia, states happy, I think fit, of my own Arabia, Persia, and India, &c. &c., accord, and by my own will, to do make known to all my Portu- abdicate and cede all the indisguese subjects that it being incom- putable and incontestable rights patible with the interests of the which I have to the crown of the empire of Brazil, and with those of Portuguese monarchy, and to the the kingdom of Portugal, that I sovereignty of those kingdoms, to my beloved, esteemed, and dear all the authorities who have a right daughter, the princess of Grand to be made acquainted with my Para, Donna Maria da Gloria, in present Carta de Lei to cause it order that as reigning queen she to be published, in order that my may govern them independently present determination may be of this empire, and by the consti- known to my Portuguese subjects. tution which I thought fit to den I order the regency of my said cree, grant, and cause to be sworn kingdom to have it printed and to, by my Carta de Lei, of the published in the most authentic 23rd April, of this year; and I am manner, that its contents may be farther pleased to declare, that my actively executed ; and it shall said daughter, the reigning queen have the same force as an ordinance of Portugal, shall not leave the passed in chancery, though it be empire of Brazil, till I am officially not so, on account of a contrary informed that the oath shall have ordinance that it shall not be passa been taken to the constitution, con

ed there, from which I have thought formably to what I have ordered, fit, for this purpose, to deviate, and before the ceremony of be- though it remains in vigour, nottrothing, preparatory to the union withstanding the want of the which I intend she shall contract countersign, and other usual formwith my most beloved and esteem- alities, with which I am also ed brother, the Infant Don Miguel, pleased to dispense. shall have taken place, and till the Given at the palace at Rio de marriage has been concluded. And Janeiro, the 2nd of May, the year my abdication and cession shall not of our Lord one thousand eight be carried into effect if either of hundred and twenty-six. these two conditions is not per- (Signed) THE KING. formed. For these reasons, I order

SPEECH of the INFANTA REGENT, at the Opening of the Sessions

of the PORTUGUESE CORTES, Oct. 30. The Session of the Cortes was throne of my august brother and opened on the 30th of October, at king, Senor Don Pedro the Fourth, the palace of Ajuda.

I rejoice with you and with the A deputation of twelve peers, whole nation, that it hath pleased and twelve deputies, having been Divine Providence, in a manner so nominated by the president to re

authentic and so solemn, to conceive the Infanta Regent, her solidate these wise institutions, royal highness took her seat on a which, at different periods, have chair which had been prepared for constituted the happiness of many the purpose, before the throne, nations, and which will speedily when she pronounced the following lead to the prosperity of our dear discourse :


You are well aware, “Worthy Peers of the King- that the country which is now dem

dom, and Gentlemen Depu- nominated Portugal has never reties of the Portuguese na- cognized, even in the most remote

ages, any other government than “In beholding you assembled on that of a representative monarchy; this memorable day around the 'but the prelates and the grandees of the kingdom formed the repre- moderate disposition, and from the sentative body; the people had no strong affection which they bear to voice and no share in its institu- their lawful kings, can never tions, which were almost feudal. cherish long such differences of It was the kings of Portugal, that, opinion, much less push them to some time after the origin of the fatal results. There have 'arisen monarchy, conceded to the third amongst us, it is true, some perestate, those rights and that dig- verse and traitorous individuals, nity which barbarous ages had de- who are neither true to their nied them. Portugal then flourish- ancient valour and loyalty, nor to ed, for the first time, under the themselves; yet with difficulty protection of a purely representa- have they succeeded in drawing tive government. There existed, away from the path of honour and however, no laws to give stability duty, a few of their weak and imto institutions adopted by usage, prudent countrymen, by the diffuand handed down by tradition ; sion of misrepresentations the most they fell, in consequence, into des- gross, and the practice of imposiuetude, and the Cortes were for- tions the most criminal. Happily, gotten by the nation which they the number, whether of the seonce represented. It has been re- duced or of the seducers receives served for our days to revive them no increase ; the great majority of by wise and stable rules. Such the Portuguese nation remain firm was the design contemplated by in their fidelity to their country: the royal -mind of my august and their king. I can augur nofather, whose memory will be ever thing but what is favourable, from dear to Portugal --such is the de- the dispositions shewn by foreign sign which, to his immortal honour, nations towards us, and time, I am myaugust brother has consummated, assured, will confirm this augury. by conferring upon this nation the United by the faith of treaties, and boon of the constitutional charter. by the most undoubted proofs of We are called to the highest des friendship to one of the great tinies, to work out the happiness European powers, and at peace of our country. Such a prospect with all the rest, I calculate upon should conduet us on our way with the decided support of the first, hope, and smooth the ruggedness and upon the kindness and fratera of a journey, of which honour and nal reciprocity of the others. All glory vare the noble termination. of them will speedily learn from The opinion of the vast number of experience, that the representative individuals who compose a nation, government of Portugal is truly can never be expected to be uniform just and moderate, and that it seeks respecting the principles upon not to carry disquiet into any other which the art of governing states state on account of diversity of inis founded, nor upon the choice stitutions, but limits its intentions of the means for securing their to the energetic and steady defence happinessdı 1" This presses most of its own. Already have facts strongly upon our observation at a more forcibly than words, shewn time when successive political re- the prudence and good faith of volutions are taking place in the this government. These have, in nations yet the Portuguese people, a great measure, diminished the from their naturally quiet and apprehensionsof aneighbouringra

tion :

tion. The government of that nation gave him birth, and where his are now convinced, that difference august ancestors reigned. Your of political institutions ought not attention will doubtless be directed to diminish that friendship and with very particular care, 'to edumutual confidence which the so- cation and the publie instruction lemnity of treaties, the ties of of the community, which contribute blood, and vicinity of territory, so efficaciously in purifying the have so long consolidated. But morals of the people, which times one circumstance was wanting to of trouble have corrupted. Nor confirm our hopes of future felicity, will the re-establishment of educait is wanting no longer. A very tion bottomed upon the principles few hours ago, I received from of the holy religion which we proVienna, intelligence, that my fess, and which we shall ever de dearly beloved and much esteemed fend, less contribute to the stability brother had taken the oath to the of the monarchy, -and to the proconstitutional charter, without con- duction of that perfect harmony in dition or qualification, on the fourth which all the members of this of this present month; and that, great family ought to dwell. s. immediately after that act, he had Worthy Peers of the realm ! addressed his holiness for the pur- in your capacity of legislators, you pose of obtaining the necessary dis- are called upon to take part in pensation for solemnizing his mar- those important labours; but you riage with iny august niece and are also called to exercise the high sovereign Queen Donna Maria the functions of the magistracy. By Second. Our legislative enactments the wisdom, firmness, and patriot will eminently concur to the main- ism, which shall distinguish your tenance of public tranquillity, and efforts, you will serve as an exam in giving stability to the political ample to those who may succeed to system established by the Charter. your hereditary dignities. It is They will establish, on the solid with you, gentlemen, deputies of basis of justice, the civil and cri- the Portuguese nation, that all meaminal codes of the empire; they sures with respect to the recruiting will give regularity to our muni- the army, and the taxes (two "sub_ cipal bodies, and to our provincial jects which may most efficaciously tribunals; and add, at the same concur in consolidating our public! tine, a new impulse to commerce happiness, as well as our inde and agriculture, the sources of our pendence and safety, upon which national prosperity. In mention- that happiness absolutely depends) ing commerce, I cannot refrain from will of right originate. The regui communicating to you the very tablishment of our public credit, flattering hopes I entertain of seer also demands' your most serious ing its activity doubled, both in attention. The ministers of State Portugal and Brazil. The treaties will furnish you with all the exei concluded between that empire and planations which the charter rede some of the powers of Europe, quires from them. Finally, from! give additional strength to this all of you conjoined, worthy peers hope, and we have a still more of the realm, and gentlemen deut assured pledge of it in the well puties of the Portuguese nation, TV known affection of the emperor of expecty, and the whole nation Brazil, towards the country which hopes, the accomplishment of our

brilliant destinies. To you the then nominated the councillors of throne looks for its firmest support; state for life in the following and you have placed before you, order: The Cardinal Patriarch as the great recompense of the ina of Lisbon, vice-president of the teresting labours which you are Chamber of Peers ; the duke de about to enter upon, the delightful Cadaval, president of the Chamber; satisfaction of being able, one day, Pedro de Mello Breyner, minister to say to your countrymen - We of Justice; Ignatius Da Costa found Portugal weak and languish- Quintella, minister of Marine; and ing; we leave het vigorous and major-general Frederic de Caula. flourishing.'

The members of the Ancient The Princess Regent, in terms Council of State are to retain their of the 107th article of the charter, honorary title."


The undersigned Ambassador mercial, of both countries, Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary their geographical position, that from his Most Faithful Majesty, it might be regarded as virtually cannot, after the news which has existing, though it had not been just arrived, of the invasion of the consecrated, as it in fact is, by Portuguese territory, with force diplomatic acts, and become, as it of arms, by a corps of troops asa were, habitual to both nations: sembled and organized in Spain; This alliance is coeval (to say noa delay a moment in addressing to thing of more ancient relations) his excellency Mr. Canning, his with the establishment of the royal Britannic majesty's principal se- House of Braganza on the throne cretary of state for the Department of Portugal, and afterwards with of Foreign Affairs, a formal dea that of the House of Bourbon on mand, in the name of her highness the throne of Spain ;~those twò the Infanta Regent of Portugal, great events having concurred to for the support and aid of British induce the Portuguese, on the one troops, in virtue of the treaties of hand, to regard England as their alliance and guarantee which have natural ally, and the English on existed in full force between the the other, to consider the indetwo crowns, without interruption, pendence of Portugal one of the for more than a century and a half. essential conditions of the political

It is in pursuance of the express balance of Europe. In fine, those orders of his government, that the ties, formed by mutual relations of undersigned claims the fulfilment compatibility, have too often been of the stipulations of the said cemented on the field of battle to treaties; and that he has now the render it necessary to refer to honour to repeat in writing, the facts, of which some are not only representations he has already recent but gloriously memorable. officially made in several confer- The undersigned, however, does ences with Mr. Canning.

not confine himself to a mere apThe defensive alliance between peal to the general spirit of the Portugal and Great Britain is so numerous treaties existing between directly founded on the permanent the two crowns.

He annexes to interests, political as well as com this note textual copies of some of

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