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FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
UNDER THE ACT.
WITH REGARD TO
THE EXPULSION OF ALIENS.
For the Year 1906.
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty.
BY DARLING & SON, LTD., 34-40, BACON STREET, E.
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FIRST ANNUAL REPORT
H.M. INSPECTOR UNDER THE ALIENS ACT.
TO THE RIGHT HON. HERBERT J. GLADSTONE, M.P.,
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE HOME DEPARTMENT.
I HAVE the honour to submit a report on the Aliens Act for the
RETURNS UNDER THE ACT.
Under section 5 (1) of the Act the Secretary of State is empowered by order to direct the master of any ship landing or embarking passengers at any port in the United Kingdom to furnish a return giving such particulars as may be required for the time being with respect to any such passengers who are aliens.” The returns which have been prescribed under this section and are now in operation may be divided into two classes (1) Those giving details of the traffic to and from ports in Europe or within the Mediterranean Sea, or more briefly, the European traffic; and (2) Those giving details of the traffic to and from ports not in Europe or within the Mediterranean Sea, or more briefly, the extra-European traffic. The returns giving details of alien passengers from ports in Europe or within the Mediterranean Sea have been in operation since January 1st, 1906, and the tables appended to this report are practically confined to these returns. As the statistics under the Aliens Act, 1905, are furnished in an entirely different manner from the statistics previously furnished under the Registration of Aliens Act, 1836, and published hitherto by the Board of Trade, I have not attempted any comparison between the figures for 1906 and the figures for previous years.
IMMIGRATION AND NON-IMMIGRATION PORTS.
Immigration ports are those at which Immigration Officers and Medical Inspectors have been appointed under section 6 (1) of the Act. These ports are Cardiff (including Barry Dock), Dover, Folkestone, Grangemouth, Grimsby, Harwich, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London (including Queenborough), Newhaven, Southampton, and Tyne Ports (including Newcastle, and North and South Shields). All other ports are known as non-immigration ports.
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IMMIGRANT AND NON-IMMIGRANT SHIPS.
Section 8 (2) of the Act provides as follows :—“The expression "'immigrant ship' in this Act means a ship which brings to the United “ Kingdom more than 20 alien steerage passengers, who are to be landed in “the United Kingdom, whether at the same or different ports, or such number “ of those passengers as may be for the time being fixed by order of the
Secretary of State, either generally or as regards any special ships or ports.' By an order dated December 19th, 1905, the Secretary of State fixed the number at 12, but by a further order dated March 9th, 1906, the first order was withdrawn. In the appended tables therefore, the expression “ immigrant
ship” means during the period between January 1st and March 10th, a ship which brought to be landed in the United Kingdom more than 12 alien steerage passengers, and after March 10th a ship which brought to be so landed more than 20 alien steerage passengers.
Under section 8 (3) the expression steerage passenger” includes all passengers except such persons as may be declared by the Secretary of State to be cabin passengers either by a general order or as regards any special ships or ports, and by an Order dated December 19th, 1905, the Secretary of State declared “ all such passengers as are entitled
to use the cabin, state rooms, or saloons, where the accommodation is superior " to that provided in any other part of the ship devoted to the carrying of passengers, to be cabin passengers for the purposes of the said Act.”
All ships other than immigrant ships are known and described non-immigrant ships.
The importance of the distinction between the two classes of ships lies in the provisions of section 1, which subjects only immigrant ships to inspection.
ALIEN PASSENGERS FROM EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN Ports.
Table I. gives a general summary of the alien passengers landed in the United Kingdom during 1906 from ports in Europe and within the Mediterranean Sea, distinguishing ports of arrival and of departure. Table II. gives additional particulars of certain of these passengers and Table III. elaborates the figures in Table I., dealing separately with the passengers arriving at each immigration port and at the non-immigration ports. The total number of passengers was 465,500, of whom 347,862 arrived on 4,110 immigrant ships, and 117,638 on 8,971 non-immigrant ships. It will be seen that of the total passengers all, except 4,214, landed at the immigration ports. The principal ports of arrival were Hull (92,058), Dover (80,587), London (72,314), Harwich (51,630), and Newhaven (44,059); and of departure, Calais (54,294), Scandinavian ports (51,348), Dieppe (43,922), Russian Baltic ports other than Finnish (38,946), Flushing (32,189), Finnish ports (30,228), and Antwerp (30,155).
Table I. divides the passengers into four categories, cabin, exempted second class, transmigrants, and other alien passengers, and each category must be separately considered.
(I)-Cabin Passengers. Alien cabin passengers as defined by the Order of December 19th, 1905, are not subject to inspection under the Act, and consequently for present purposes they have only a statistical importance. Table I. shows that during the
year 137,692 alien cabin passengers arrived from European and Mediterranean ports, of whom 114,747 (Table III., B, C, F, K, L, and M) landed by the cross channel routes at Dover, Folkestone, Harwich, Newhaven, Queenborough, and Southampton.
Except the ports at which they arrived and from which they came nothing is known of alien cabin passengers.
(II.)— Exempted Second Class Passengers.
All passengers except cabin passengers are regarded for the purposes of the Act as steerage passengers, and as such they are liable to inspection, provided that they are aliens and that they arrive on immigrant ships. Section 1 (4), however, provides that the “ Secretary of State may, subject " to such conditions as he thinks fit to impose, by order exempt any immigrant
ships from the provisions of this section if he is satisfied that a proper system is being maintained for preventing the embarkation of undesirable
immigrants on those ships, or if security is given to his satisfaction that " undesirable immigrants will not be landed in the United Kingdom from those
ships except for the purpose of transit”; and exemptions have been granted under this section to several shipping companies, principally those engaged in the cross-channel service, so conditioned as to exempt from inspection only alien second class passengers, security being given by bond by the owners of the ships that they will not allow to land from amongst these passengers undesirable immigrants. Such passengers are described in Table I. as exempted second class passengers. They numbered 93,707 during the year, of whom 89,381 landed at the cross-channel ports mentioned above.
No information is available as to the intentions or movements of exempted second-class passengers on arrival in the United Kingdom, except in the case of a small number who landed during the year as transmigrants, and who are not included in the figures just given, but are entered under the head of transmigrants.
(III.)—Transmigrants. Section 8 (1) of the Act provides that “The expression “immigrant' in “this Act means an alien steerage passenger who is to be landed in the “ United Kingdom, but does not include.
(6) Any passengers holding prepaid through tickets to some such destination (i.e., outside the United
Kingdom), if the master or owner of the ship by which they are brought “ to the United Kingdom, or by which they are to be taken away from * the United Kingdom, gives security to the satisfaction of the Secretary “ of State that, except for the purposes of transit or under other circumstances “ approved by the Secretary of State, they will not remain in the United
Kingdom, or, having been rejected in another country re-enter the United
Kingdom, and that they will be properly maintained and controlled during " their transit." Alien steerage passengers who come within the terms of this section are known as transmigrants, and the names of the companies who have given the required statutory security will be found in Appendix IV. It will be observed that all these companies are engaged in taking the transmigrants away from the United Kingdom.
It appears from Table I. that the number of transmigrants who arrived from European and Mediterranean ports during the year was 169,788, of whom 42,316 came from Scandinavian ports, 34,340 from Russian Baltic ports other than Finnish, 28,937 from Finnish ports, 19,771 from Antwerp, 14,252 from Havre, 10,757 from Esbjerg, 7,468 from Hamburg, 6,311 from Bremen, and 4,579 from Rotterdam. More than half (85,274) of the total number arrived at Hull, and the other principal ports of arrival were Grimsby (31,890), London (17,208), Southampton (14,322), Harwich (11,814), and Tyne ports (4,742)
Table VI. gives particulars of the nationalities and destinations outside the United Kingdom of transmigrants, grouped according to ports of arrival and of departure in the United Kingdom. The total number accounted for in this table is slightly larger than the number given in Table I as transmigrants from extra-European ports are included.