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This treatise is dedicated as a token of unqualified admiration of their heroism, self-sacrifice, and splendid achievements, which have deservedly gained the highest eulogies of the civilised world. These pages are a tribute to the memory of those who were the victims of a treacherous and barbarous enemy, and written with the hope that they will stimulate a greater interest in the science and practical development of appliances intended to secure the

measure of safety for those who voyage across the great seas.






Permissios was given the Author, during the period of his association with the Marine Department of the Board of Trade, to proceed with the publication of this text-book ; but in fairness to the officials of that Department it should be stated that they have not had the opportunity to express an opinion on the subject matter previous to publication, owing to professional duties taking me to the United States of America.

All matters of controversy have been carefully avoided ; the sole purpose in writing the treatise being to circulate information with the object of intensifying the interest of its readers in the important subject of the equipment of lifesaving appliances on cargo and passenger vessels. tion for the help and encouragement given me by my former

Opportunity is now taken to express my personal appreciachiefs, and the Committee of Lloyd's Register, during the

The Author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to many of the leading steamship companies, shipbuilders, engineers, and boatbuilders, for their valuable and generous assistance; to Mr. W. Mitchell, Ship Surveyor to the Marine Department of the Board of Trade, Glasgow, for his co-operaBennett, B.Sc., MIN.A., Ship Surveyor to Lloyd's Register of tion in checking the manuscript; also to my colleague Mr W. Shipping, New York, for reading through the proofs, and for

preparation of the work.

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have remained unbroken.

Of all things, living or lifeless, upon this strange earth, there is but one which, having reached the mid-term of appointed human endurance on it, I still regard with unmitigated amazement. I know, indeed, that all around me is wonderful --but I cannot answer it with wonder; a dark veil, with the foolish words, Nature of Things, upon it, casts its deadening folds between me and their dazzling strangeness. Flowers open,

and stars rise, and it seems to me they could have done no less. The mystery of distant mountain blue only makes me reflect that the earth is of necessity mountainous; the sea wave breaks at my feet, and I do not see how it should

But one object there is still, which I never pass without renewed wonder of childhood, and that is the bow of a boat. Not of a racing-wherry, or revenue cutter, or clipper yacht, but the blunt head of a common, bluff, undecked sea-boat, lying aside in its furrow of beach sand. The sum of Navigation is in that. You may magnify it or decorate as you will, you do not add to the wonder of it. Lengthen it with complex tracery of ribs of oak-carve it and gild it till a column of light moves beneath it on the sea- you have made no more that can breast its way through the death that is in the deep sta, has in it the soul of shipping. Beyond this, we may



of the things

For there is first, an infinite strangeness in the perfection that Manches, which is perfect, but that; all his other doings

as work of human hands. I know nothing else


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