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1 F, 2 F, 3 F, Lloyd's Register Class for foreign vessels not constructed accord

ing to Lloyd's rules, but surveyed by Lloyd's. LLOYD'S REGISTER FOR IRON SHIPS AND STEAMERS.- and subject to survey every 4 years ; every 3 years. The above class was formerly given, the following are now in use :- 100 A, 95 A, 90 A, subject to survey every 4 years; 85 A, 80 A, 75 A, every 3 years.

LIVERPOOL IRON Book.- Iron ships and steamers are classed in red (for periods varying from 10 to 20 years) that have been inspected by the Liverpool Association Surveyor during construction. Vessels not surveyed as above are classed in black. Twenty years red, survey every 4 years, less than 20 years red, every 3 years ; 20 years black, every 4 years, less than 20 years black, every 2 years.

LIGHTS. Regulations as to Lights to be carried when ships are under way. SAILING-SHIP.-Green light starboard side ; red light port side.

STEAMSHIP.--Green light starboard side ; red light port side ; white light before foremast, not less than twenty feet, nor less than breadth of ship above hull.

SHIP BEING OVERTAKEN BY ANOTHER SHIP.-White light or fare up at stern.

STEAMER TOWING ANOTHER SHIP.-Green light starboard side ; red light port side ; two white lights vertically before foremast.

SAILING-SHIP BEING TOWED.—The same as another sailingship.

SHIP LAYING OR PICKING UP A TELEGRAPH CABLE.—Three vertical lights before foremast six feet apart, the highest and lowest red, the middle white.

Ship Not UNDER COMMAND.—Three vertical red lights before foremast, three feet apart.

Pilot VESSEL ON PilotAGE Duties.—White light at masthead, and at intervals, not exceeding 15 minutes, a flare up light.

PILOTAGE VESSEL WHEN NOT ON PILOTAGE DUTIES. The same lights as other ships.

OPEN FISHING AND OTHER OPEN Boats.-In lieu of sidelights, a lantern, showing green on one side and red on the other, to be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent a collision. They may also use a flare up in addition.

FISHING VESSELS EMPLOYED IN DRIFT NET FISHING OR TRAWLING. —Two white lights from any part of the vessel whence they can best be seen. Lower light to be forward not less than six nor more than ten feet from the higher light. They may also use a fare up in addition. All flare up lights exhibited when trawling, dredging, or fishing, shall be shown from the after part of the vessel, excepting that if the vessel is hanging by the stern to her trawl, dredge, or net, they shall be exhibited from the bow.

Lights ordered to be carried when at anchor. ALL Ships, Vessels, BOATS AND FISHING Vessels.-A bright white light.

If a fishing vessel becomes stationary in consequence of her net fouling a rock or other obstruction, she shall show the light and make the fog signals for a vessel at anch or.

BRITISH SHIPS' PAPERS. THE FOLLOWING ARE THE PAPERS GENERALLY FOUND ON BOARD

A MERCHANT VESSEL (UNDER DIFFERENT NATIONALITIES THIS LIST MAY VARY):

Every merchant vessel should carry on board some official voucher of her nationality, issued by the authorities of the country to which she belongs.

The official voucher of a vessel which belongs to a country possessing a register of its mercantile marine, is a certificate of her Registry: in other cases its form varies, and is called “ Passport," “ Sea-brief,” &c.

The Certificate of Registry is a document signed by the registrar of the port to which the vessel belongs, and usually specifies the name of the vessel and such port ; her tonnage, &c. ; the name of her master ; particulars as to her origin ; and names and description of her registered owners, &c.

The Passport purports to be a requisition on the part of a Sovereign Power or State to suffer the vessel to pass freely with her company, passengers, goods and merchandise without any hindrance, seizure, or molestation, as being owned by citizens or subjects of such State. It usually contains the name and residence of the master ; together with the name, description, and destination of the vessel.

The Sea-letter, or Sea-brief is issued by the civil authorities of the port where the vessel is fitted out; and it entitles the Master to sail under the flag and pass of the nation to which he belongs ; and also specifies the nature and quantity of the cargo, by whom it is owned, and its destination.

The Charter-party is the written contract by which a vessel is let, in whole or in part; the person hiring being called the charterer. It is executed by the owner or master, and the charterer.

Amongst other things it usually specifies the name of the master, the name and description of the vessel, the port where she was lying at the time of the execution of the charter, the name and residence of the charterer, the character of the cargo to be put on board, the port of loading, the port of delivery, and the freight which is to be paid.

The Charter-party is almost invariably found on board a vessel which has been chartered.

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The Official Log-book is the log-book which the master is compelled to keep in the form prescribed by the municipal law of the country to which the vessel belongs.

The Ship's Log is the log kept by the master or mate for the information of the owners of the vessel.

The Builder's Contract is found on board a vessel which has not changed hands since she was built. It sometimes serves, in the absence of the pass or sea-letter or certificate of registry, for verification of a vessel's nationality.

The Bill of Sale is the instrument by which a vessel is trans. ferred to a purchaser. It should be required whenever a sale of a vessel is alleged to have been made either during the war or just previous to its commencement, and if there is any reason to suspect that the vessel is liable to detention, either as an enemy's vessel or as a British or allied vessel trading with the enemy.

Bills of Lading usually accompany each lot of goods.

A Bill of Lading on board a vessel is a duplicate of the document given by the master to the shipper of goods on the occasion of the shipment; it specifies the name of the shipper, the date and place of the shipment, the name and destination of the vessel, the description, quantity, and destination of the goods, and the freights which are to be paid.

The Invoices, which should always accompany the cargo, contain particulars of each parcel of goods, with the amount of the freight, duties, and other charges thereon, and specify the name and address of the shippers and consignees.

The Manifest is a list of the vessel's cargo, containing the mark and number of each separate package, the names of the shippers and consignees; a specification of the quantity of goods contained in each package, as rum, sugar, &c., and also an account of the freight corresponding with the bills of lading. In many cases packages are signed for “contents unknown.”

The Manifest is usually signed by the ship-broker who clears the vessel out at the custom-house, and by the master.

The Clearance is the certificate of the custom-house authori. ties of the last port from where the vessel touched, to show that the custom duties have been paid. The clearance specifies the cargo and its destination.

Shipping Articles are the agreements for hiring seamen. They should be signed by every seaman on board, and should describe accurately the voyage and the terms for which each seaman ships, and specify the provisions to be given.

Crew List and Shipping Articles.-Upon arriving in a foreign country the master of a vessel deposits these papers with The Consul representing the flag which covers the vessel, and takes a receipt therefor: these papers are returned to the master when clearing from his Consul.

The Bill of Health is a certificate that the vessel comes from a place where no contagious distemper prevails, and that none of her crew were infected at the time of her departure, and is endorsed if any sickness was prevalent.

TIME AND KNOT TABLE.
The figure in this table which corresponds to the time in which a vessel

passes cver the measured knot is her rate of speed per hour in knots.

2 min. 3 min. 4 min. 5 min. 6 min. 7 m. 8 m., m. io m. 11 m. 12 m. 13 m. 14m.

[graphic]

o 30'000 20*000 15000 12.000 10'000 8.571 7*500 6*667 6*000 5455 5'000 415154286 1 29*752 19890 14'938 114960 9972 8.5517 484 6'654 5'990 5 446 4 993 4609 4281 2 29*508 19*780 14876 11°921 9 945 8.531 7.469 6642 5*980 5 438 4 986 4'6044 275 3 29'268 19672 140815 11.881 9*9178.511 79453 6630 5970 5.430 4.9794 5984 270 4 29032 19*565 14754 11 842 9'890 8·491 7'438 6 618 5'960 5422 4 972 4'5924'265 5 28'800 19.459 14694 11*803 9*863 8 471 7.423 6.606 5950 5'414 4 965 4586 4*260 6 28.571 19*355 14 634 11.765 9*836 8.451 7407 6 593 5941 5 405 4'959 4*580 4'255 7 28°346 19-251 14*575 11°726 9*809 8431 7 392 6*581 5931 5*397 4952 4 574 4'250 8 28*125 19*149 14 516 11688 9*783 8.411 7'3776.569 5'921 5*3894 945 4 5684 245 9 27 907 19.048 14'458 116650 9756 8·392 7*362 6'557 54911 5381 4 938 4 563 4*240 10 27'692 18.947 14.400 11613 9730 8·372 7*347 6.545 5 902 5*373 4931 4.557 4 235 11 27°481 18.848 14'343 11'576 *704 ·363 7*332 6 534 5892 5 365 4'925 4'551 4230 12 27'273 18.750 14'286 11°538 9677 8.333 7 317 6.522 5*882 5357 4 918 45454 225 13 27.068 11653 14'229 11.502 9'651 8·314 7'3026-510 5-8735*349 4911 4'540 4.220 14 26-866 18.557 14'173 11.465 9'626 8.295 7'287 6'498 5-8635*341 4.905 4 5344-215 15 26.667 18.461 14'118 11.429 9'600 8.276 7*2736-486 5*854 5'333 4898 4 528 4.210 16 26471 18-367 14*062 114392 9-574 8·257 7*258 6475 5*844 5*325 4 891 4.523 4 206 17 26°277 18 274 14'008 11'356 9.549 B'238 7.2436.463 5-835 5*318 4:885 4-517 4'201 18 26'087 18*182 13'953 11-321 9*524 8:219 7*229 6.452 5-825 5*310 4-8784 511 4'196 19 25'899 18.090 13.900 11.285 9499 8.200 7*214 6:440 5'816 5*302 4-871 4.5064-191 20 25*714 18.000 130846 11.250 9.474 8°182 7*2006-429 5*806 5*294 4:865 4.500 4 186 21 25'532 17'910 13*793 17.215 9 449 8163 7'1866.417 5797 5 286 4858 4 494 4'181 22 25-352 17.822 13*740 17"180 99424 3'145 7*171 6.406 5 788 5*271 4.852 4-4894-176 23 25°175 17*734 13°688 11146 9*399 8.126 7*157 6-394 5 778 5.271 46845 4 483 4'171 24 25'000 17.647 13:636 II°111 9.375 8*108 7'143 6.383 5 769 5*263 46839 4478 4 167 25 24*828 17'561 13*585 11.077 9*351 80go 7.1296*372 5*760 5'255 4:832 4 472 4'162 26 24:658 17°476 13'534 11'043 9*326 8.072 7'115 6-360 5 751 5248 48264-466 4'157 27 24 490 17*391 13.483 11'009 9'302 8°054 7*101 6*349 5*742 5*240 48194.461 4152 28 24 324 17 308 13'433 10'976 9'278 8.036 7*087 6'338 5732 5 233 4.813 4 455 4147 29 24'161 17*225 136383 10.942 9'254 8 018 70736327 57235*225 4806 4 450 4'143 30 24'000 17*143 13333 10*909 9231 8'000 7*059 6-316 5 714 5'217 4800 4-444 4'138 31 23*841 17'062 13.284 10-87699207 7982 7'045 6'305 5 703 52104794 4.4394 133 32 23684 16'981 13*235 10.843 9*184 7 965 7*031 6'294 5 696 5-2024*787 4.433 4 129 33 23 529 16.901 13'187 10 811 9*160 7*947 7.0186-283 5'687 51954 781 4 428 4 124 34 23-377 16-822 13-139 70*778 9*137 7'930 7*004 6*272 5678 5*187 4.774 4423 4'119 35 23'226 16*744 13*091 10*746 9*114 7'912 6.990 6.261 5'669 5*180 4 768 4'4174114 36 23'077 16:667 13.043 10*714 9:091 7*8956-977 6'250 5'660 5*172 4762 4 413 4 110 37 22.930 16.590 12.996 10-682 9 068 768776.963 6'239 5.652 5*165 40756 4 406 4'105 38 22785 16'514 12'950 10651 9045 7*8606-9506-228 5*643 5'15847494 401 4100 39 22-642 16 438 12'903 10'619 9'023 7*843 6.9366-218 5*634 5*150 47434396 4'096 40 22 500 16 364 12857 10*588 9000 7*8266.923 6'207 5'625 5'143 4*737 4 390 4'091 41 22'360 16'290 12 311 10'557 8.978 70809 6.910 6*196 5'616 5*136 4 731 4 385 486 42 22222 16:216 12'766 10-526 8.955 7*792 6*897 6'166 5*607 5*128 4724 4'379 4082 43 22'086 16'143 12721 10°496 89933 7*7756-8836*175 5'599 5*121 4718 4'3744 077 44 21'951 16*071 12'676 10 465 8911 7*7596-870 6*164 54590 5*114 4712 4 3694'072 45 21 818 16'000 12632 10'435 88897-742 6-857 6'154 5*581 5*106 4 706 4 364 4'068 46 21*687 15*929 12*587 10.405 8.867 7.725 6-844 6'143 5 573 5'099 4700 4 358 4063 47 21 557 15859 12 544 10*375 8*845 7*7096-831 6-133 5 564 5'092 4.6934 353 4059 48 21429 15'78912 500 10*345 8.824 7 692 6.818 6*122 5*556 5'085 4 687 4'348 4054 49 21*302 15721 12 457 10-315 8.802 7676 6.805 6'112 5 547 5*078 4681 4 343 4*049 50 21*176 15'652 12414 10*286 8.780 7.660 6792 6*102 5 538 5*070 4 675 4'337 4'045 51 21053 15.584 12*371 10*256 8759 7'643 6780 6*091 5*530 5'063 4669 4*332 4040 52 20.930 15 517 12'329 10'227 8.738 7*6276.767 6081 5 531 5*056 4'663 4'327 4*035 53 206809 15°451 12.287 10*198 8717 7611 6754 6*071 5 513 5'049 4657 4 322 4*031 54 20*690 15*385 12*245 10'169 8:696 7.595 6.742 6061 5*505 5042 4.651 4 316 4*027 55 20*571 15'319 12 203 10 141 8.675 7579 67296 050 5496 5'035 4 645 4°311 4'022 56 20 455 15*254 12'162 10'112 8.654 7 563 671660405-488 5028 4639 4306 4'018 57 20*339 15*190 12'121 10.084 8.633 75476-704 6030 5 479 5'021 4633 4 301 4'013 58 20-225 15*126 12*081 10'056 8.612 7531 6691 6 020 5*471 5*014 4627 4 296 4'009 50 20 11215063/12 040 10'028l 8'502 751666796 010 51463/5*007 4'621 4 291 4*004

BRITISH NAVAL SERVICE. ADMIRALTY OFFICE (£203,400). NAVAL DEPARTMENT.

Whitehall. Hours 11 to 5. LORDS COMMISSIONERS (£15,900). First LORD, Right Hon. Lord

G. F. Hamilton, M.P. (with house), £4,500. Naval Secretary, Capt. A. T. Dale, £500 (in addition to pro

fessional pay). ASSISTANT SECRETARY AND PRINCIPAL CLERK, Richard D.

Awdry, £1,000. CONTROLLER OF Navy, Rear-Admiral John O. Hopkins, £1,700

(in addition to professional pay). DIRECTOR OF NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, W. H. White, £2,000. DIRECTOR OF VICTUALLING DEPARTMENT, Henry F. R. Yorke,

£800. DIRECTOR OF NAVY CONTRACTS, John Collett, £1,200. MEDICAL DIRECTOR-GENERAL, Sir John W. Reid, K.C.B., M D.

£1,300. ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL AND COMPTROLLER NAVY PAY, Sir

Gerald FitzGerald, K.C.M.G., £1,500. DIRECTOR OF TRANSPORTS, Captain Harry W. Brent, £1,900. DIRECTOR OF Works, Colonel Percy G. L. Smith, R.E., £1,300. HYDROGRAPHER, Captain William J. L. Wharton, F.R.S., £1,000. SUPERINTENDENT OF NAVAL RESERVES, Rear-Admiral Sir George Tryon, K.C.B., £1,596.

THE BOARD OF TRADE. ORGANISATION AND DIVISION OF LABOUR. In the Civil Service, the Board of Trade, over which Sir Michael Hicks Beach at present presides, is usually termed the “Big Board,” more because of the numerous matters dealt with by the Board than from the large number of membersnominal for the most part-of which it really consists. The Board practically consists of the president, the permanent secretary (Sir H. G. Calcraft, C.B.), and an assistant secretary attached to the Marine Department, Finance Department, Harbour Department, Railway Department, Statistical Department, and Fisheries Department respectively.

Marine Department. (Assistant Secretary, Mr. GEORGE J. SWANSTON, C.B.)

SUBJECTS.-Admiralty Courts. Albert Medal. Chains, Cables, and Anchors Act. Crew Spaces. Discipline. Distressed Seamen, Relief of (Rules and Principles). Examinations of Masters, Mates, and Engineers. International Code of Signals. International Questions concerning Shipping: Life-Saving Apparatus. Lights and Fog Signals. Lime and Lemon Juice, and Anti-Scorbutics. Medical Scale for

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