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Credit, Letter of.-A letter written by one party to another,
requesting the party addressed to advance the bearer or
person named a certain sum of money. Days of Grace. - Days allowed by law or custom for payment of
Bills of Exchange (except those payable at sight or on demand) after specified day of payment ; thus, when three days are allowed, as usual in England, a bill due on the
5th of the month is payable on the 8th. Dead Freight. The damage payable by one who engages to load
a ship fully, and fails so to do. Debenture.-An instrument of the nature of a bill or bond, by
which a debt is claimable. May bear interest or conser some peculiar advantage. It is given at the Custom
House to claim a drawback. Derelict.—Goods cast away or relinquished by wreck or otherwise.
Reductions in duty are also made proportionate to the
damage on them. Deviation is a divergence from the voyage insured which may
release the underwriter from his risk. Drawback.--An allowance granted by Government to encourage
exportation of an article, or a return of duties paid upon
certain articles on exportation. Discount.- An allowance made for money paid before it is due.
To discount a Bill is to buy from the holder the right
to receive the money upon it when due. Dunnage. —Articles used in stowing a cargo or trimming a ship. Embargo. -An order issued by Government to prevent vessels sailing. Flotsam.-Goods floating after a wreck. Jetsam are those sunk.
Lagan are those sunk but secured by a buoy. Groundage. — Money paid in some parts for permission to anchor. Insurance.-A contract whereby, for a stipulated consideration,
called a premium, one party undertakes to indemnisy the
other against certain risks. Invoice.-A document enumerating goods sold from A to B.
Where the goods are exported by A to be sold on his own account, the document is a specification, and not,
strictly speaking, an invoice. Lay Days. --Days allowed by charter for loading or unloading ships. Lighterage.—The expense of a lighter or barge. Manifest.— The specification of a cargo made out and signed by
the master of a ship. Policy.-A document containing the contract of insurance. A Valued
Policy is when the interest insured is valued. An Open Policy is one in which the amount is left for subsequent proof. In an open policy, where the value shipped does not equal the value insured, the difference is termed over insurance ; and the proportionate amount of premium re
turnable to the insurer is called a return for short interest. Frimage. -A small allowance for the shipmaster's care of goods
now generally included in the freight. Pro ratå. - Payment in proportion to the interests concerned. Quid pro qui.-Giving one thing for another. Respondentia.-A contract of loan by which goods in a ship ar
hypothecated to the lender, as in bottomry. Super Cargo. -A person sent with a vessel to dispose of its cargo
to the best advantage.
EDUCATIONAL STANDARD REQUIRED BY VARIOUS MARITIME POWERS FOR MASTERS AND MATES.
The percentage of oxygen varies as follows :--
21 per cent.
20*50 do, Confine: Houses.
20*75 do. Air travels in England in healthy years at the rate of about 41 miles per hour, and in unhealthy years about 3} miles per hour. Each adult inhales a gallon of air per minute, and consumes daily 30 oz. of oxygen. For the conversion of this oxygen a certain amount of food is required-say 13 oz. of carbon for a male and 11 oz. for a female-equivalent to 3lb. and 23lb. of bread respectively.
THE POWER OF THE WIND.
Figures to denote the Force Description of of the Wind. Wind.
POWER OF THE WIND
the Wind as regards a well-conditioned Man-of-War per Hour or First-class Clipper Ship.
oto 2 Just sufficient to give steerage way
3-10 With which the above Ship with all sail set and clean
1 to 2 knots.. 11 - 15 3 to 4
16 full would go in smooth
5 to 6
.. 21-25 Royals, &c.
30 Single Reefs and In which she could T.G. Sails
31 36 just carry in chase- Double Reefs and full and by..
Jib, &c. ..
37 - 44 Triple Reefs, &c.
..145 - 52
Close Reefs & Courses 53 - 60 In which she could just bear close-reefed
Main Topsail and reefed Foresail 161 69 Under Storm Staysail
170 - 80 Bare Poles
FORMULA FOR RECORDING STATE OF THE
WEATHER. B denotes Blue Sky, i.e. clear or U denotes Ugly, with a heavy hazy atmosphere.
appearance of the Cloudy detached
weather. opening clouds.
Visibility of distant Drizzling Rain.
By the combination of these
sky covered with an brevity.
Passing Showers. opening clouds, but hazy round
the horizon. Rain-continuous rain. GV-Gloomy dark weather, but Snow.
distant objects remarkably Thunder.
USE OF INSTRUMENTS IN FORETELLING
WEATHER. On Barometer Scales the fol. And the following summary lowing contractions may be use- may be useful generally :ful in North Latitude: RISE FALL
S. Wly. Cold, Dry, Warm, Wet,
Wind. Except Wet Except Wet Except Wet Except Wet from from from
from N.Eward. NgEward. Cold Side. Cold Side. In other Latitudes substitute South or Southward for North, &c.
Much inequality of atmospheric pressure or temperature, great depression or elevation of the barometer, sudden or rapid alternations, great falls of rain or snow-indicate more or less change, more or less wind, with its usual accompaniments, either in some places only, or throughout an extensive area of hundreds of miles, if not thousands.
Speaking generally, there is far less occasion to give warning of southerly storms by signal than of northerly, because those from the southward are preceded by notable signs in the atmosphere, by a falling barometer, and by a temperature higher than usual to the season ; whereas, on the contrary, dangerous storms from a polar quarter (N. W. to N.E.) are sometimes sudden, and usually are preceded by a rising barometer, which is often misleading, especially when accompanied by a temporary lull, of perhaps a day or two, with an appearance of fine weather.
Fahrenheit, Réaumur, and the Centigrade Scales.
CNT. Fahr. RMR. Cnt, Fahr. Rur. (CNT. Fahr. Rur. CNT. Fahr. Rur.
Zero Fahrenheit corresponds with minus 17.74 Centigrade, and minus 14:22 Réaumur.
IMMERSION IN SALT AND FRESH WATER.
To find the difference of immersion or draught in salt and fresh water. If from salt to fresh, multiply the draught of salt water by 36, and divide the product by 35. If from fresh to salt, multiply the draught of fresh water by 35 and divide the product by 36.
Example :-Required the draught of a vessel in fresh water when drawing 20ft in salt water: 20ft X 36 720 = 35ft. = 20 5 in.
Table of draughts worked out by the above formula :
DEPTH OF THE SEA,
Average. Max. Atlantic 4,026 7,750
710 4,252 9,310 English Channel.. Indian
45 Mediterranean .... 1,476 2,860
43 The Southern Ocean below Cape Horn reaches a depth of 5,500 yards, and off Cape of Good Hope, 5,700 yards. The average depth of the Bay of Biscay is 1,200 yards.
BEAUFORT NOTATION, FORMULA, AS USED FOR INDICATING THE DISTURBANCE OF THE SEA. o Calm.
5 Rather Rough. 1 Very Smooth.
6 Rough. 2 Smooth.
7 High. 3 Slight.
8 Very High. 4 Moderate.