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Credit, Letter of.- A letter written by one party to another,

requesting the party addressed to advance the bearer or

person named a certain sum of money. Days of Grace.-Days allowed by law or custom for payment of

Bills of Exchange (except those payable at sight or on demand) after specified day of payment ; thus, when three days are allowed, as usual in England, a bill due on the

5th of the month is payable on the Sth. Dead Freight.-The damage payable by one who engages to load

a ship fully, and fails so to do. Debenture.-An instrument of the nature of a bill or bond, by

which a debt is claimable. May bear interest or conser some peculiar advantage. It is given at the Custom

House to claim a drawback. Derelict.-Goods cast away or relinquished by wreck or otherwise.

Reductions in duty are also made proportionate to the

damage on them. Deviation is a divergence from the voyage insured which may

release the underwriter from his risk. Drawback.--An allowance granted by Government to encourage

exportation of an article, or a return of duties paid upon

certain articles on exportation. Discount,- An allowance made for money paid before it is due.

To discount a Bill is to buy from the holder the right

to receive the money upon it when due. Dunnage. —Articles used in stowing a cargo or trimming a ship. Embargo.—An order issued by Government to prevent vessels sailing. Flotsam.-Goods floating after a wreck, Jetsam are those sunk.

Lagan are those sunk but secured by a buoy. Groundage. —Money paid in some parts for permission to anchor. Insurance.-A contract whereby, for a stipulated consideration,

called a premium, one party undertakes to indemnify the

other against certain risks. Invoice.-A document enumerating goods sold from A to B.

Where the goods are exported by A to be sold on his own account, the document is a specification, and not,

strictly speaking, an invoice. Lay Days.-Days allowed by charter for loading or unloading ships. Lighterage.--The expense of a lighter or barge. Manifest.-The specification of a cargo made out and signed by

the master of a ship. Policy, -A document containing the contract of insurance. A Valued

Policy is when the interest insured is valued. An Open Policy is one in which the amount is left for subsequent proof. In an open policy, where the value shipped does not equal the value insured, the difference is termed over insurance ; and the proportionate amount of premium re

turnable to the insurer is called a return for short interest. Frimage.-A small allowance for the shipmaster's care of goods

now generally included in the freight. Pro ratå. Payment in proportion to the interests concerned. Quid pro quo.-Giving one thing for another. Respondentia.-A contract of loan by which goods in a ship ar

hypothecated to the lender, as in bottomry. Super Cargo. -A person sent with a vessel to dispose of its cargo

to the best advantage.

EDUCATIONAL STANDARD REQUIRED BY VARIOUS MARITIME POWERS FOR MASTERS AND MATES.

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AIR.
In its pure state air is composed as follows:--
Nitrogen........

...........
Oxygen .............................
Other components .......

...... ......

77 per cent.
21 do.
2 do

100

......................

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The percentage of oxygen varies as follows :---
Sea-shore ........

21 per cent.
Mines .......

20'50 do. Confined Houses...... Air travels in England in healthy years at the rate of about 41 miles per hour, and in unhealthy years about 31 miles per hour. Each adult inhales a gallon of air per minute, and consumes daily 30 oz. of oxygen. For the conversion of this oxygen a certain amount of food is required--say 13 oz. of carbon for a male and 11 oz. for a female-equivalent to 3lb. and 2 lb. of bread respectively.

THE POWER OF THE WIND.

Figures
to denote
POWER OF THE WIND

Rate of

the Wind the Force Description of of the Wind.

| as regards a well-conditioned Man-of-War per Hour Wind. or First-class Clipper Ship.

in Miles,

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.......

WO

Just sufficient to give steerage way .....

With which the above Ship
Light Breeze .ll with all sail set and clean )

I to 2 knots..
Gentle Breeze ..
I

h
full would go in smooth
Moderate Breeze

3 to 4
3

,

(5 to 6 , water..............

.. 21

Royals, &c. ........
Fresh Breeze,

Single Reefs and
Strong Breeze ..! In which she could! T.G. Sails........
Moderate Gale.. just carry in chase Double Reefs and
Fresh Gale .... full and by...... Jib, &c. ..........
Strong Gale ...

'Triple Recfs, &c. .. 45

(Close Reefs & Courses 53
Whole Gale ..... In which she could just bear close-reefed]"

Main Topsail and reefed Foresail ...... 61 -
Storm ...... Under Storm Staysail.
Hurricane ...... Bare Poles ......

... Jabove

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FORMULA FOR RECORDING STATE OF THE

WEATHER. B denotes Blue Sky, i.e. clear or 1 u denotes Ugly, with a heavy hazy atmosphere.

appearance of the Cloudy – detached

weather.
opening clouds. | v , Visibility of distant
Drizzling Rain.

objects.
Fog-FF Thick Fog. w , Wet dew.
Gloomy-dk. weather .Dot under any letter, an extra-
Hail.

ordinary degree.
Lightning.

By the combination of these Misty or Hazy-so as letters all the ordinary pheno

to interrupt the view mena of the weather may be Overcast-i.c., whole recorded with certainty and sky covered with an brevity. impervious cloud. I BCM —- Blue sky, with detached Passing Showers.

opening clouds, but hazy round Squally

the horizon. Rain-continuous rain. GV-Gloomy dark weather, but Snow.

distant objects remarkably Thunder.

visible.

USE OF INSTRUMENTS IN FORETELLING

WEATHER. On Barometer Scales the fol- ' And the following summary lowing contractions may be use- || may be useful generally :ful in North Latitude: RISE FALL

RISE

FALL
FOR
FOR
FOR

FOR
N.Ely.

S. Wly. Cold, Dry, Warm, Wet, N.W.-N.-E. | S.E.-S.-W.

or Dry or Less Wet or More

Less

More
Wind.
Wind.
Wind.

Wind. Except WetExcept Wet | Except Wet | Except Wet from from

from

from N.Eward. | N.Eward. | Cold Side. Cold Side. In other Latitudes substitute South or Southward for North, &c.

or

Much inequality of atmospheric pressure or temperature, great depression or elevation of the barometer, sudden or rapid alternations, great falls of rain or snow-indicate more or less change, more or less wind, with its usual accompaniments, either in some places only, or throughout an extensive area of hundreds of miles, if not thousands.

Speaking generally, there is far less occasion to give warning of southerly storms by signal than of northerly, because those from the southward are preceded by notable signs in the atmosphere, by a falling barometer, and by a temperature higher than usual to the season ; whereas, on the contrary, dangerous storms from a polar quarter (N.W. to N.E.) are sometimes sudden, and usually are preceded by a rising barometer, which is often misleading, especially when accompanied by a temporary lull, of perhaps a day or two, with an appearance of fine weather.

THERMOMETER.
Fahrenheit, Réaumur, and the Centigrade Scales.

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IMMERSION IN SALT AND FRESH WATER. To find the difference of immersion or draught in salt and fresh water. If from salt to fresh, multiply the draught of salt water by 36, and divide the product by 35. If from fresh to salt, multiply the draught of fresh water by 35 and divide the product by 36.

Example :--Required the draught of a vessel in fresh water when drawing 20ft in salt water : 20ft x 36 = 720 + 35ft. = 20 5; in. Table of draughts worked out by the above formula :Fresh to Salt.

Salt to Fresh. Water Mark in Would Draw in | Water Mark in į Would Draw in Fresh. Salt. Salt.

Fresh.

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DEPTH OF THE SEA,
Yards depth.

Yards depth,
Average. Max.

Average. Max. Atlantic ..........

4,026

7,750
Irish .........

240 Pacific... .. 4,252 9,310

English Channel.. I10

300 Indian .....

3,658 6,040 German ......... Arctic ...... 1,690 5,300 Levant ....

72 Antarctic .....

Adriatic... Mediterranean ...1,476 2,860 | Baltic..

The Southern Ocean below Cape Horn reaches a depth of 5,500 yards, and off Cape of Good Hope, 5,700 yards. The average depth of the Bay of Biscay is 1,200 yards.

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3,000

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BEAUFORT NOTATION, FORMULA, AS USED FOR

INDICATING THE DISTURBANCE OF THE SEA.

o Calm.
1 Very Smooth,
2 Smooth.
3 Slight.
4 Moderate.

5 Rather Rough.
6 Rough.
7 High.
8 Very High.
9 Tremendous

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