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DIETARY SCALE (WITH FRESH BEEF) FOR CREW.

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Salted Salted Bread. Flour. Peas Rice Tea. Cotfee. Sugar. Molasses. Fruit.
Salted Salted
Butter. and Soup
MAN

Beef. Pork,
Dys.
OZ, Ibs. lbs. Ibs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. OZ. OZ.

OZ.

OZ. 1 1

I

2
2

2
1

2
2

1
}

2

1
2
I
I

2
2

3 1

2
2
I

it
I
3

2
2
3

I }

2

I 3 15

2

I

34 14

2

With Butter.

Without Butter
FOR
Bld. Beef

Bld. Beef
ONE

Beef, & Bouilli.

and Soup Pork. & Bouilli.

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THE VICTUALLING OF SHIPS.

(THOMAS GRAY, ESQ., C.B.) 1. Scurvy has been on the increase in British ships since 1873.

2. Lime-juice, of itself, will not prevent scurvy, and too much reliance is placed on it, to the neglect of varied food scales.

3. Lime-juice, in connection with fresh or preserved meat and vegetables, may prevent scurvy.

4. The dietary scale of ships should therefore include a fair proportion of fresh and "preserved ” meats, as distinguished from “salted ” meats.

5. More fresh vegetables should be carried, notably raw potatoes. No satisfactory reason is given why fresh potatoes cannot be carried on board British ships. The allegation that they will not keep good on board ship is clearly disproved by the fact that they do keep on board United States ships, and will keep for a fair time anywhere else.

6. It is not at present desirable to insert a statutory scale of diet in the articles of agreements with crews serving on long voyages; though it may possibly be necessary hereafter, unless the shipowners themselves move in the matter.

LIST OF PORTS AND PLACES WHERE SHIPS

ARE SWUNG. Names of Firms at each Port who arrange for Adjustment of Ships'

Compasses for Deviation.

ABERDEEN. Berry & Mackay, Marischall.st., Aberdeen.

In Bay.

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BRISTOL.

91

CARDIFF.

W. Langford & Son, 53, Broad Quay, Bristol. In Dock or in King Roads
C. W. Price,
H. J. Blair, 45, Princes-street,"'
T. L. Ainsley, James-street, Docks, Cardiff. In any Dock available, by
B. Biggs, 64, Bute-street,

permission of Dock Mas. H. J. Thatcher, 107, Bute-st.,

ter, or in Penarth Roads. W. Weichert, Vienna Chambers, Bute-st. ", T. J. Williams, 2, Bute-place, Docks,

Cowes.

P. Atkey & Son, 29, High-st., West Cowes.

In Solent if under steam, or

at private Buoys; fee, 10/6 to Harbour Master.

DUBLIN
AND OTHER J. Eshelby, 5, Eden Quay, Dublin.
IR. PORTS. F. M. Moore, 23,

Pond, and at Kingston,

CT. YARM'TH. Mayston & Son, South Quay, Gt. Yarmouth. In Roads.

Day & Hawkins, Broad Quay,

CRIMSBY.

C.H. Bogen, Hamilton-st., New Clee, G.Grimsby At Sea or in Roads.
J. F. Lundy, Fish Dock-rd., Grimsby Docks.
10. T. Olsen,

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HARTLE G. Berry & Son, 63, Church-st., W. Hartlepool In Dock available or at sea. POOLS. A. Harris, 3, Church-street,

Emerson, 5, George-street,

G. F. Berry, Northgate, HUMBER B. Cooke & Son, 44, Saville-street, Hull. In River, White Boote Rds., DISTRICT. Castle & Pagan, Commercial-road,

Grimsby Rds., or at sea. Newton Brothers, Princes Dock,

Weather or ship's draught W. T. Parrott, Albert Dock,

renders tug necessary. LIVERPOOL. T. Bassnett & Co., 10, Bath-street, Liverpool. In River or any Dock availJ. Bruce & Son, 26, Wapping,

able. The outer walls of Chadburn & Son, Waterloo road,

the Docks were marked Frodsham & Keen, St. George's-crescent , about 1368 with the de. Graham & Parkes, 43, Canning-place

grees for vessels adjusting W. Gerrard, 25, South Castle-street,

in the River. Allowance D. M'Gregor & Co., 72,

now to be made for the

difference in variation. LONDON Bryer & Son, 104, Minories,

London. At Greenhithe. Three sets (THAMES T. Hemsley & Son, King-st. Tower-hill, of Buoys placed by the DISTRICT). Henry Hughes & Son, 59,

Fenchurch-st., 1

Thames Gonservancy.
J. Imray & Son, 89. Minories,

No charge for Buoys.
Lilley & Son, London-street,

Tug usually employed, but
D. M'Gregor & Co., 57, Fenchurch-st.,

not always necessary.
Norie & Wilson, 156, Minories,
J. D. Potter, King-street, Tower-hill,
James Pyott, 74, W. India Dock-road,
Reynolds & Son, 32, Crutched Friars,
W. H. Rosser, 14, America-square,

F.Wiggins & Sons, 10, King-st., Tower-hill",
MIDDLESBRO'. W. Pickering & Co., Docks, Middlesbro'. In River or at Sea.
NEWPORT. c. & E. Williams, 56, Dock-st., Newport, Mon. In Dock or in Newport Rds.
PLYMOUTH. F. Smith, 48, South-side-street, Plymouth. In the Sound or in Dock.
SOUTH- J. B. Thomas, High-street, Southampton. In River, at Sea, or any
AMPTON. John Grose, 32, Oxford-street,

place available. SUNDERLAND C. Hutchinson & Co., Norfolk-st., Sunderland. Generally at Sea, or in Dock J. Morton, Savill-place, East,

when weather is too heavy J. W. Plumb, Bridge-crescent, J. J. Wilson, 19, Hudson-road,

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SWANSEA. B. R. Cousens, 20, Wind-street, Swansea. In any Dock available or in

J. Webber & Son, 104, Oxford-street, the Bay. Nocharges in Dock THE CLYDE A. Dobbie & Son, 24, Clyde-place, Glasgow. In Gourock Bay or Tail of DISTRICT. D. M'Gregor & Co., 37, Clyde-place,

the Bank, Usually done M. Walker & Son, 44, Clyde-place,

at Garelochhead, where Sewill, 126, Broomielaw,

Buoys are placed by Clyde
Whyte & Co., 144, Broomielaw,

Trustees. "Charge for use
R. Love, 17, West Blackhall-street, Greenock. of Buoys. Tug usually.
D. M'Gregor & Co., 36, Brymner-st.,
M. Walker & Son, 32, Cathcart-street

A. Christie, 27, Clyde-place,
THE FORTH. Matheson, 47, Shore,

Leith. In Granton Harb'r or Leith D. Stalker, 6, Commercial-street,

Roads, Power on board.

THE TAY. P. A. Feathers & Son, 43, Dock-st., Dundee. In any Dk.available. Notug
THE TYNE. T. L. Ainsley, Mill Dam, South Shields. At sea off Tyne entrance.

C. & W. Hutchinson, Corstorphinetown, Bearings from objects on
J. Morton. Mill Dam,

shore, or by sun.
Wilson & Gillie, New Quay, North Shields.
W. H. Moralee, Union-street,
G. Lowther, Quay, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

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TABLE, Showing the dimensions of the Common Links, Weights and Scale

of Proofs for Chain Cables supplied for Her Majesty's Navy.

lbs. per

16'2

2187

768

378 441 504

21

126

1458

72 789

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COMMON LINKS.

Weight of Diam.

Stay Pins 100 fathoms in Weight which is Mean length Mean width weight

8 lengths, of

to be

equal to 6 diam, of 36 diam.

I swivel, Iron.

not to

proved Iron not to not to ex- exceed

8 shackles,

to circular . exceed ta of ceed of a

not to exceed
a diam.
diam.

na part. in. in.

in.

OZ. cwt. qr. Ib. Tons. lbs. 43 27

318-937

972
24
144 224

2016
150'
588 0

1764
19! II7 120-148

507

1616

535'5 18

108
945
432

567
161
9'9

363 0

1293

598 5 15

90
5469
300

112 630 ° 141

47'5
270

IOTS
13

81
40
243

91
12
7.65 33 584 216

811
12
72 280

192

72
ut
575

168

63} 104

147

55%
97
5.85 15

126

47
9
54

108
495 9

go 4'5 6-836

75
4'05 4.983 60
35

18
3'15
2'344

3

13
27

27
2'475 I'137
2'25

18

3 0 2'025

*622

15
3
1.8

437
1'575 293

9 021

NOWOWOO000000000000000*

230

63

18 76

1181

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ADMIRALTY CRANE CHAIN. Close linked for Rig Cranes, &c., extreme length of link not to

exceed 5 diam., and to be proved by a Proving Machine. in. in.

in. 1 diam. 315 tons. i diam.

9. tons. diam.
225
18
151

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FORMULA FOR SAFE LOAD ON CHAINS (WORKING

LOAD).
D = Diam. in fths of an inch.
W=Safe Load in tons.

D=V8.W

W=D
Thus in i in. Chain, D=6

8 Then

W=6?=36

8 -=41 tons. D= V 8.W or V 8:45 36 = 45 tons

or ths of an inch.

REMOVAL OF WRECKS. The “Wrecks Removal Act,” 1877, gives powers to the Local Harbour Authority at every port to clear away any wreck forming an obstruction, in default of the owner's proceeding to do so, and to re-imburse itself from the sale of any materials recovered, either of the ship or of its cargo. Where there is no local authority, the lighting and buoying authority is to have jurisdiction, and the same powers of removal, re-imbursing itself in the same manner.

As, however, the expenses of recovery of the materials of an iron ship greatly exceed the value of the materials when recovered, certain of the principal harbour authorities have applied for, and have obtained, further powers, and the Thames and Humber Conservancies, the Mersey Harbour Board, the Clyde Lighthouse Trust, and the Commissioners of Cork and of Waterford Harbours, have, with some others, power to enforce payment by the owners of a wrecked ship of all expenses incurred in the removal of the obstruction.

The “Wrecks Removal Act," 1887, has been aniended by the “ Wrecks Removal Amendment Act," 1889, which extends the meaning of the word "obstruction” in the former Act.

In France, the measure of liability is now limited to the value of the ship and cargo. By abandonment ofthese the owner of a vessel wrecked in French waters escapes all further liability to the Government.

STANDING RULES FOR STEAM VESSELS AT SEA. Officer of the Watch to keep his look-out on the Bridge, not leaving it except when necessary. At night he will be careful to see, from time to time, that the side and masthead lights are burning brightly, and kept trimmed ; that the look-out man is at his post, and that the Ship is steered her course. Where an order book is not kept, the course given to be marked on the Log-slate (which should always be kept in the Chart-room), the Officer relieving to examine same before taking charge. The bearing of the North Star to be noted frequently and entered in the Log, with the direction of the Ship's head at the time of observation. Amplitudes never to be neglected. All courses given are by the Bridge or Standard Compass. The Officer in charge of the Deck to observe if any change or difference takes place between any or either of the Compasses, i.e., more than usual, if so, call the Master. Log to be hove every two hours, if Patent Log is towing it should be verified by common Log. Barometer registered every four hours, and to be frequently noted during unsettled weather. Masters and Officers are respectfully requested NEVER to forget the three L's—LATITUDE, LOOK-OUT, and LEAD. No Chart-room ought to be without Celestial Maps hung up.

The Master, when leaving the Deck for rest, shall see that Chart is on the table for the use of the Officer in charge, with instructions to be called on all occasions of doubt.

Pump wells to be sounded by Carpenter at 8 a.m. and at 8 p.m., and to be reported to Chief Officer who reports same to Captain previous to making eight bells; and wells to be sounded not less than once in four hours during bad weather, any unusual quantity of water to be reported to Captain and Engineer of watch. Carpenter to note soundings on the board (where one is kept) in addition to verbal report. Officer of the watch to report changes of weather, particularly so in cases of fog, heavy rains and haze, a large number of Ships, or anything unusual connected with the Ship, such as thick volumes of smoke going right ahead, so that the course may be altered if prudent to do so.

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