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TIME, AT FULL AND CHANGE, WHEN THE FOLLOWING LIGHTSIIPS SWING FROM FLOOD

то EBB.

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51 16

O

h. m Bahama Bank

54 20
ON 4 12

OW II 45 and high water.
Caishot
50 48 40 N I 16 45 W 10 25 ist high water.

o and high water. Cardigan Bay

52 24 30 N 5 0 30 W 10 30 Carnarvon Bay

53 S 40 N 444 30 W 10 30 Cockle

52 41 2CA I 46 20 E 10 20 Corton

52 31 30 N 49 30 E 10 45 (then N.N.E. at 8 Dudgeon

53 15 ONO 56 OE 7

o Turns Eastward at 7, East Goodwin

51 13 ONI 36 25 E 9 10 Uncertain. English & Welsh Ground. 51 26 30 N 2 58 OW 6 56 and high water. Galloper

51 45 ONI 55 50 E 12 Gull

ON'T 28 25 E 913 Hasbro

52 58 ONI 36 O E 10 30 Helwick

51 31
ON 4 24

6 o and high water.
Inner Dowsing
53 19 20 NO 34 20 E 7

o Turns Eastwd. at 7, N.E. 1 !

at 9. N. N.W. at 12. Kentish Knock.

51 39 30 I 41 O E II 20' Slack lasts about 20 min. Leman and Ower..

53 8

30 N 2 O 20 EI Lynn Well

53 I 25 NO 25 IO E 6 20 Morecombe Bay

53 54 03 31 OW TO 30 and high water. Nab

50 42 IS NO 59 25 W 12 o About. Newarp

52 45
ONI 53 O E 10 30

(out from Sheerness. Nore.

51 29 ONO 48 O E 12 30 The last 2 hours ebb, seis North Goodwin.

51 19 30 N I 35 20 E 10 13 Uncertain. Outer Dowsing

52 28 15 NI

2 40 E 8

o Turns Eastward at 8, Owers 50 38 35 NO 41 OW TO 35 About.

(then N. at 9. Royal Sovereign

50 42 40 NO 26 50 E 10 45 Swings about 15 mins. bé. Seven Stones..

50 3 50 N 6 4 30 W 5 o and high water. [fore H.W Shambles

50 30 50 N 2 20 OW 10 20 Shipwash

52 I 30 N I 23 O EN 10 Slack lasts about 40 mins. South Sand Head

51 9 12 N I 28 10 E 9 o Uncertain. Spurn

53 34 ONO 13 OE 6 20 Sunk 51 50 40 N I 30 30 E 11 40 Slack lasts about

40 mins. Tongue

51 29 ONT 19 20 E 12 15 Varne

50 56 10 N I 16 50 E 8 20 Uncertain.

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SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES,

COMPARED WITH WATER.

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SPHEROIDAL TABLES,
SHOWING THE LENGTH OF EACH DEGREE OF LATITUDE IN STATUTE MILES

AND OF LONGITUDE IN MINUTES OF LATITUDE OR NAUTICAL MILES
UNDER EACH PARALLEL OF LATITUDE.

LATITUDE.

Length of one Degree in Statute Miles.
Lat.
Lat.
Lat.

Lat.
23
68.810

69067 69 69 318
24
68 819

69 079

70

69*326 25 68.828

72

69 333 26° 68 838

69 104

72

69'341 68 848

69116 73 69 348 28 68 858

бо'128

74

69 335 68.868

69.140

75

69 361 68 879

53
69 152

69 367
68 889
69*164

69'373 9

69-176

69 378 69'187

69'383 It

63 923

69 198 80 69 387

69 210 81° 69 391 13

68.946

59

69'221 82 69'395 60

69 231 83 69398 15

61
69.242

84 69401 16

69 252 85 69 403 179

63° 69-263 86 69 405 18

бо "ооб

64 69 272 87 69.407 19 68778

69018 65 69'282 88 69 408 43 69'o30

69'291

89°

69 409 44 69042 67° 69 300

69 409 22 68.80

45
69'055

689

69'309
LONGITUDE.
Length of one Degree in Nautical Miles.
Lat.
Lat.
Lat.

Lat.
23 55'550

41817 69 21'521 24 55 125 41050

20.538 25 54'684

40'270

19 548 3 60*326 54 225 39 479

18:553 60 261

27
53751

38.676

73

17.553 28° 53'259

74 29 52751

37'035

15.536 59'954

36-198

14'521 59 814

54 35'350

13'502 9

51 133
34'492

12 478 33 50 562

33-623

I1451 59 285 34

32 745

10'421 12 59'072 49'375 31856 81°

9388 13 58841

48 758

30'958 82 14 58 592

48-127
30'051 83

7313 15 58 325

61
29'135

84 6'272 16 58040 46.821 62

28211 85 5 230 17 57 737

46146 63° 27 278 86° 57'416

45459

64 26'337 87 3140 19 57'077

44 757

65
25'388 88

2'094 20 56 722

44042

24'432 89° 1'047 21 56 348

44
43313 67°
23 468

o'o
22
55 958

45
42'571 68°

22'498

LIGHTHOUSES. To find the height at which a Light should be put above the sea level to show a given number of miles :

Multiply the number of miles by itself, and by 4, and divide

the product by 7. Thus, a lamp required to show ten miles- 10 X 10=100 x 4=400

7)

55; feet.
Should be 55% feet high above the sea level.

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FOR
ONE
MAN.

Lime Juice

Water.

SUBSTITUTES.

Days.

Gall

or

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1 lb. per week.

oz. per week.

pint per week

i oz. per day when crew have been on salt provisions 10 days.

2

2

SCALE FOR VICTUALLING MERCHANT VESSELS AT SEA.

Without
With Butter.
Butter,

Rice
Tea and

T
Bread Flour. Peas.
Ot Molasses.

Coffee. Sugar. Mustard. Vinegar,

Tobacco
Salted Salted Salted Salted
Butter. Beef | Pork. Beef, i l'ork.

Bariey
OZ, Ibs. Ibs. lbs. lbs. Ibs. Ius. Pint lbs.

OZ.
OZ.
ΟΣ,

02.

Punt,
I

1
2
2

it 1 }
2
1
14
1

3
1
it I

$
2
1
1}

I
it I

3
I

!
14
2} 6

7 1

I lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs Ibs. Ibs. lbs. Pints lbs. lbs

Ils. Ibs. lbs.

OZ
18
91 26 16
30 4

4

2
75 36

52 32

60
9
6

1

8
4

4
111 54 298

77
90 13 IO 13

13
7

7
15 72 39

103
64 120 17 13 17

2

17
9

9
187

129 80 150 22 16 22

53

22 It

II 221 108 581

154 96 180 26

19
26

26
13

13
26
126 681180 113 210 30 22 30

30 15

15
30 144

78
206
129 240 34

26
34
9
33
34 17

17
337 162 871 232 145 270 39 29 39

IO

39 19

19
375
975 257 IÓI 300 43 32 43

II

43 21

21 198 1071 283 177 330 47 35 47

12 5 47 24

24 45 216

309 193 360 52 38 52 13

I 52 26

26

For I wk.

For

7 Pints.

Pints.

i oz. of Coffee,

Cocoa,
Chocolate
may be sub-
stituted for
* oz. Tea.
Oz.

Butter
equal to 1b.
Salt Beef, or
Pork, or Pre-
served Roast

Beef.
Peas, Rice and

Flour equal

to each other
i oz. Sugar for

2 oz. Molasses
} lb. Preserved

Potatoes equal to 1 lb. raw.

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31
Galls.

15
30
45
60
75
go
105
I 20

1 20 ) 150 )

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180

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135

180

240, 270 » 300 , 330 ) 360 »

16 18 19 21

150 165

411

117

180

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DIETARY SCALE (WITH FRESH BEEF) FOR CREW.

Without Butter
Bld Beef
Salted Salted Bread. Flour, Peas Rice, Tea, Cotiee. Sugar. Molasses. Fruit.

Preserve

Potatoes & Bouilli.

Beef. Pork, lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.

OZ. OZ.

OZ.

ΟΣ,
2

I
1

2
i

2

2 3

2 i}

}

2
it

2

1 1} 41 2 7 11 I

It 34 14

1

1

I

With Butter.
FOR

Bld. Beef
OXK

Salted Salted
Butter, and Soup
MAN

& Bouilli.

Beer. Pork.
Dys.

OZ, lbs. lbs. Ibs.
2

1
2
2

A
2

I
2

3
2

I
2

3 14 를 3 i

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THE VICTUALLING OF SHIPS.

(THOMAS GRAY, ESQ., C.B.) 1. Scurvy has been on the increase in British ships since 1873.

2. Lime juice, of itself, will not prevent scurvy, and too much reliance is placed on it, to the neglect of varied food scales.

3. Lime-juice, in connection with fresh or preserved meat and vegetables, may prevent scurvy.

4. The dietary scale of ships should therefore include a fair proportion of fresh and “preserved ” meats, as distinguished from “salted” meats.

5. More fresh vegetables should be carried, notably raw potatoes. No satisfactory reason is given why fresh potatoes cannot be carried on board British ships. The allegation that they will not keep good on board ship is clearly disproved by the fact that they do keep on board United States ships, and will keep for a fair time anywhere else.

6. It is not at present desirable to insert a statutory scale of diet in the articles of agreements with crews serving on long voyages ; though it may possibly be necessary hereafter, unless the shipowners themselves move in the matter.

a

LIST OF PORTS AND PLACES WHERE SHIPS

ARE SWUNG. Names of Firms at each Port who arrange for Adjustment of Ships'

Compasses for Deviation.

ABERDEEN. Berry & Mackay, Marischall.st., Aberdeen.

In Bay.

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BRISTOL.

CARDIFF.

W. Langford & Son, 53, Broad Quay, Bristol. In Dock or in King Roads
C. W. Price,
H. J. Blair,"45, Princes-street,'
T. L. Ainsley, James street, Docks, Cardiff. In any Dock available, by
B. Biggs, 64, Bute-street,

permission of Dock Mas. H. J. Thatcher, 107, Bute-st., ,,

ter, or in Penarth Roads. w. Weichert, Vienna Chambers, Bute-st. T. J. Williams, 2, Bute-place, Docks,

Cowes.

P. Atkey & Son, 29, High-st., West Cowes,

In Solent if under steam, or

at private Buoys ; see, 10/6 to Harbour Master.

DUBLIN
AND OTHER J. Eshelby, 5, Eden Quay, Dublin.
IR. PORTS. F. M. Moore, 23,

Pond, and at Kingston,

CT. YARM'TH. Mayston & Son, South Quay, Gt. Yarmouth. In Roads.

Day & Hawkins, Broad Quay,

CRIMSBY.

C.H. Bogen, Hamilton-st., New Clee, G.Grimsby At Sea or in Roads.
J. F. Lundy, Fish. Dockord., Grimsby Docks.
10. T. Olsen,

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HARTLE- G. Berry & Son, 63, Church-st., W. Hartlepool In Dock available or al sea. POOLS. A. Harris, 3, Church-street,

Emerson, 5, George-street,

G. F. Berry, Northgate, HUMBER B. Cooke & Son, 44, Saville-street, Hull. In River, White Boote Rds., DISTRICT. Castle & Pagan, Commercial-road,

Grimsby Rds., or at sea. Newton Brothers, Princes Dock,

Weather or ship's draught W. T. Parrott, Albert Dock,

renders tug necessary. LIVERPOOL. T. Bassnett & Co., 10, Bath-street, Liverpool. In River or any Dock avail. J. Bruce & Son, 26, Wapping,

able. The outer walls of Chadburn & Son, Waterloo road,

the Docks were marked Frodsham & Keen, St. George's-crescent , about 1368 with the de. Graham & Parkes, 43, Canning.place

grees for vessels adjusting W. Gerrard, 25, South Castle-street,

in the River. Allowance D. M'Gregor & Co., 72,

now to be made for the

difference in variation. LONDON Bryer & Son, 104, Minories,

London. At Greenhithe. Three sets
(THAMES T. Hemsley & Son, King-st., Tower-hill, of Buoys placed by the
DISTRICT). Henry Hughes & Son, 59, Fenchurch-st., , Thames Gonservancy.
J. Imray & Son, 89. Minories,

No charge for Buoys.
Lilley & Son, London-street,

Tug usually er.ployed, but
D. M'Gregor & Co. 57, Fenchurch-st.,

not always necessary.
Norie & Wilson, 156, Minories,
J. D. Potter, King street, Tower-hill,
James Pyott, 74, W. India Dock-road,
Reynolds & Son, 32, Crutched Friars,
W. H. Rosser, 14, America.square,

F.Wiggins & Sons, 10, King-st., Tower-hill",
MIDDLESBRO', W. Pickering & Co., Docks, Middlesbro'. In River or at Sea.
NEWPORT. C. & E. Williams, 56, Dock-st., Newport, Mon. In Dock or in Newport Rds.
PLYMOUTH. F. Smith, 48, South-side-street, Plymouth. In the Sound or in Dock.
SOUTH- J. B. Thomas, High-street, Southampton. In River, at Sea, or any
AMPTON. John Grose, 32, Oxford-street,

place available. SUNDERLAND C. Hutchinson & Co., Norfolk-st., Sunderland. Generally at Sea, or in Dock J. Morton, Savill-place, East,

when weather is too heavy J. W. Plumb, Bridge-crescent, J. J. Wilson, 19, Hudson-road,

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SWANSEA. B. R. Cousens, 20, Wind-street, Swansea. In any Dock available or in

J. Webber & Son, 104, Oxford-street, the Bay. Nocharges in Dock THE CLYDE A. Dobbie & Son, 24, Clyde-place, Glasgow.' In Gourock Bay or Tail of DISTRICT. D. M'Gregor & Co., 37, Clyde-place,

the Bank. Usually done M. Walker & Son, 44, Clyde-place,

at Garelochhead, where Sewill, 126, Broomielaw,

Buoys are placed by Clyde
Whyte & Co., 144, Broomielaw,

Trustees. Charge for use
R. Love, 17, West Blackhall-street, Greenock. of Buoys. Tug usually.
D. M'Gregor & Co., 36, Brymner-st.,
M. Walker & Son, 32, Cathcart-street

A. Christie, 27, Clyde-place,
THE FORTH. Matheson, 47, Shore,

Leith. In Granton Harb'r or Leith D. Stalker, 6, Commercial-street,

Roads. Power on board.

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THE TAY.

P. A. Feathers & Son, 43, Dock-st., Dundee.

In any Dk.available. Notug

THE TYNE. T. L. Ainsley, Mill Dam, South Shields. At sea off Tyne entrance.

C. & W. Hutchinson, Corstorphinetown, Bearings from objects on
J. Morton. Mill Dam,

shore, or by sun.
Wilson & Gillie, New Quay, North Shields.
W. H. Moralee, Union-street,
G. Lowther, Quay, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

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