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TABLE, Showing the dimensions of the Common Links, Weights and Scale

of Proofs for Chain Cables supplied for Her Majesty's Navy.

a diam.

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54 69


Weight of Diam.

Stay Pins 100 fathoms in Weight Which is Mean length Mean width weight of

8 lengths, to be equal to 6 diam. of Iron.

36 diam.

not to
I swivel,


lbs. per Iron not to not to ex exceed

8 shackles,

to circular exceed 1'e of ceed io of a

not to exceed diam.

a. part. in. in. in.

02. cwt. qr. Ib. Tons. lbs.

318 937
972 0


378 4 24 144 224

768 0


176°4 504

120148 507



72 789

363 0 1293 598 5





33 584 216




585 15




4'og 4983 60


3'15 2344


131 27




3 0









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7.00 NO +


1 26

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0 21

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ADMIRALTY CRANE CHAIN. Close linked sor Rigging, Cranes, &c., extreme length of link not to

exceed 5 diam., and to be proved by a Proving Machine. in. in.

in. is diam. 314 tons. 'I diam.

tons. diam. 21 tons.

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D = Diam. in fths of an inch.

W=Safe Load in tons.

W=D ?
Thus in i in. Chain, D=6

W=6* = 36

=41 tons.

8 D= N 8.W or V 8:4} = V 36 = 4) tons

or fths of an inch.


REMOVAL OF WRECKS. The "Wrecks Removal Act,” 1877, gives powers to the Local Harbour Authority at every port to clear away any wreck forming an obstruction, in default of the owner's proceeding to do so, and to re-imburse itself from the sale of any materials recovered, either of the ship or of its cargo. Where there is no local authority, the lighting and buoying authority is to have jurisdiction, and the same powers of removal, re-imbursing itself in the same manner.

As, however, the expenses of recovery of the materials of an iron ship greatly exceed the value of the materials when recovered, certain of the principal harbour authorities have applied for, and have obtained, further powers, and the Thames and Humber Conservancies, the Mersey Harbour Board, the Clyde Lighthouse Trust, and the Commissioners of Cork and of Waterford Harbours, have, with some others, power to enforce payment by the owners of a wrecked ship of all expenses incurred in the removal of the obstruction.

The “Wrecks Removal Act," 1887, has been aniended by the “ Wrecks Removal Amendment Act,” 1889, which extends the meaning of the word “obstruction” in the former Act.

In France, the measure of liability is now limited to the value of the ship and cargo. By abandonment orthese the owner of a vessel wrecked in French waters'escapes all further liability to the Government.


Officer of the Watch to keep his look-out on the Bridge, not leaving it except when necessary. At night he will be careful to see, from time to time, that the side and masthead lights are burning brightly, and kept trimmed ; that the look-out man is at his post, and that the Ship is steered her course. Where an order book is not kept, the course given to be marked on the Log-slate (which should always be kept in the Chart-room), the Officer relieving to examine same before taking charge. The bearing of the North Star to be noted frequently and entered in the Log, with the direction of the Ship's bead at the time of observation. Amplitudes never to be neglected. All courses given are by the Bridge or Standard Compass. The Officer in charge of the Deck to observe if any change or difference takes place between any or either of the Compasses, i.e., more than usual, if so, call the Master Log to be hove every two hours, if Patent Log is towing it should be verified by common Log. Barometer registered every four hours, and to be frequently noted during unsettled weather. Masters and Officers are respectfully requested NEVER to forget the three L's-LATITUDE, LOOK-OUT, and LEAD. No Chart-room ought to be without Celestial Maps hung up.

The Master, when leaving the Deck for rest, shall see that Chart is on the table for the use of the Officer in charge, with instructions to be called on all occasions of doubt.

Pump wells to be sounded by Carpenter at 8 a.m. and at 8 p.m., and to be reported to Chief Officer who reports same to Captain previous to making eight bells; and wells to be sounded not less than once in four hours during bad weather, any unusual quantity of water to be reported to Captain and Engineer of watch. Carpenter to note soundings on the board (where one is kept) in addition to verbal report. Officer of the watch to report changes of weather, particularly so in cases of fog, heavy rains and haze, a large number of Ships, or anything unusual connected with the Ship, such as thick volumes of smoke going right ahead, so that the course may be altered is prudent to do so.


Watch on deck to be kept round the wheel-house, so as to be ready for Officer's orders, and save him from leaving the Bridge to look for the hands.

Master, Officers, and Carpenter to see that all Steering Gear is in working order.

Chief Officer to see that the Forecastle is cleaned out at proper times; also to see the Winches are always in working order.

Carpenter to work all Sluice Valves once a week, and as a rule keep them closed at sea, except when wanted to run water to Engine-room.

Carpenter to look after all Tarpaulins and Wedges for Hatchway Battens, and during fine weather the ventilator covers are to be taken off, and one hatch from each hatchway, and to be closed again before dark. Chief Officer to see that the coal trimmers keep the grating on bunker holes, and put covers on every evening coming in dark; any neglect of this to be reported to the Chief Engineer. The Ash Shoot is to be used for the purpose of keeping the Ship clean. GENERAL RULES TO BE OBSERVED ON BOARD

SHIP IN PORT OR AT ANCHOR. The Officer to see that the Anchor Lamp is burning brightly before leaving the deck. Deck never to be lest without a look-out.

Chief Officer has general charge, and will see that a proper account of Cargo and Stores is kept both in taking in and discharging, and also see that the Carpenter looks at limbers, and sees that the pumps are all clean and tank cocks in working order, and all scuppers clear in 'tween decks before cargo is stowed there; the Chief Officer to see the Shackles of Chain Cables are in working order (White Lead will be found the best thing for this purpose). Wood Pins (American Elm is good for pins).

Second Officer, and also Third, will be under directions of Chief, either to tally cargo or to look after holds, and, if necessary, to keep a hold book. Ship never to be left without an Officer on board except in llarbour or Dock, and not then until the Watchman takes charge, and Watchman not to leave until one of the Officers comes.

Any suggestions for further information will be appreciated. jas. HENDERSON, 45, West Sunnyside, Sunderland,

British Shipmasters' & Officers' Protection Society.

By Thomas Gray, late Assistant Secretary, Board of Trade.
Two Steamships, When all three lights I see ahead,

Meeting I port my helm and show my Red.
Two Steamships(Green to Green or Red to Red-
Passing Clear. (Perfect safety- go ahead !

Tivo Steamships Crossing. Note. - This is the position of greatest danger; there is nothing for it but good look-out, caution and judgment, with prompt action.

All ships must keep a good look-out, and steamiships must stop and go astern if necessary.

Il to my Starboard RED appear,
It is my duty to keep clear--
To act as judgment says is proper-
To Port--or Starboard--Back-or Stop hier.
But when upon my Port is seen
A Steamer's Starboard light of GREEN,
There's naught for me to do but see
That GREEN to Port keeps clear of me.




The Board of Trade have received the report of the Loadline Committee, and the tables and rules annexed thereto.

The Board of Trade accept the conclusions of that Committee as to loadlines as shown in the report and in the tables and rules, and have furnished their officers with copies. Copies can be obtained by the public at large from the agents for the sale of Stationery Office publications, and through any bookseller.

The Board of Trade do not propose that their officers shall detain as overloaded any cargo ship on which the loadline is marked so as to give the freeboard assigned to her by those rules and tables, and which is not loaded beyond the limits prescribed therein.

As proof that the loadline on a ship is marked in accordance with these rules and tables, the Board's staff at the outports will receive the certificate of Lloyd's Register Committee where a loadline has been assigned by that committee, or the certificate of the Board of Trade where a loadline has been assigned by the Board of Trade. In future, the Board of Trade do not intend to assign a loadline for any ship classed Lloyd's Register Book. In the case of ships not classed, or classed elsewhere, the Board will continue for a time, as heretofore, to assign loadlines on the application of the owner in due course, and accompanied by full particulars of the ship.

The Board of Trade, in making this announcement, desire to point out, for the information of all persons having the command or management of ships, that those rules and tables give minimum freeboards applicable for ships of the highest class only, and that no ships other than ships of the highest class are to be loaded so deeply as those rules and tables admit.

Ships to which a freeboard has been assigned by the Committee of Lloyd's Register, or by the Board of Trade, will, like other ships, be liable to detention, if, having regard to the time of the year, and the voyage, they are loaded more deeply than the rules and tables admit, and ships to which freeboards are not assigned will receive the particular notice of the staff so far as is possible.

Whilst the Board of Trade staff will by this arrangement be greatly relieved of the responsibility for the depth of loading of ships generally, it will be the duty of the Board itself in each case submitted to the Wreck Courts to instruct their solicitor to raise the question of loading whenever it may appear that deep loading may have contributed to the loss of the ship, and it will also be the duty of the Board of Trade if in any such case it should hereafter appear that a ship was loaded more deeply than the tables allow, looking to the age, character, class, and employment of the ship, to make the owner and the person responsible for the loading of the ship a party to the case, and to ask for the opinion of the court on his conduct.

T. H. FARRER, Secretary,

THOMAS GRAY, Assistant Secretary, Board of Trade, Marine Department, August, 1885.



[EXTRACT.) To His Grace the Duke of Richmond and Gordon, K.G., &c.,

President of the Board of Trade.
My LORD DUKE. The questions put to us were-

Whether it is now practicable to frame any general rules concerning freeboard which will prevent dangerous overloading without unduly interfering with tin ne.

62. If so, whether any, and which of the existing tables, vith any, and what alterations, or any other, and what tables should be adopted.

"3. How far any such tables can be adopted as fixed rules, and what amount of discretion must be left to the Officers who

have to see that they are complied with.” As the result of our prolonged consultations and labours we have unanimously arrived at the following replies to the questions before recited, viz. :

1. We are of opinion that it is now practicable to frame general rules concerning freeboard which will prevent dangerous overloading without unduly interfering with trade.

2. We have the pleasure to submit herewith tables which we consider should be adopted.

3. We are of opinion that these tables can be adopted, at least for all existing types of cargo vessels, and for some years to come, without the exercise of any other discretion on the part of the officers who have to see that they are complied with, than that which concerns the quality and condition of the ship. The freeboards assigned by the tables herewith are suitable for vessels of the highest class in Lloyd's Register or of strength equivalent thereto, and should be increased for ships of inferior strength.

To the responsible authorities a large discretion must be allowed, viz. : that of applying the tables themselves with reasonable modifi. cations to any very exceptional vessels which may now exist or may hereafter be constructed.

For, careful as we have been to give full consideration to all actual types and sizes of vessels, we cannot but admit that undue interference with trade might occasionally arise were the tables to be applied henceforth to all ships, present and future, without any exception whatever. We are well aware that the discretion which we thus regard as necessary is such as should be exercised with very great skill, care, and judgment, but we see no reason why those charged with the responsible duty of preventing the overloading of merchant ships should not have at their command all needful assistance.

The tables submitted herewith are of the same general form as those hitherto adopted by Lloyd's Register Office, and, like them, involve the reservation above water of a regulated minimum percentage of the total buoyancy. At the same time these tables secure a sufficient height of deck above water to which the Board of Trade advisers have justly attached much importance. The views of the Board of Trade advisers concerning the value of fore. castles, poops, and like deck erections, and the necessity for a liberal amount of freeboard in flush-decked vessels which are

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