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putting into port through stress of weather, for water or provisions, or to refit, are to be exempt from pilotage, except when the services of a pilot are actually made use of.

PALAMOS, Spain. Lat. 41° 51' N; long. 3° 6' E. Accn.

At the end of the mole there are 20 to 21st and inside 12 to 18ft of water. Pilotage. Voluntary, 16/8. PALERMO, Sicily. Lat. 38° 8' 15" N ; long. 13° 22' 12" E.

Pop. 250,000. Tr,-1. Cotton, woollen, silk, and linen goods, coals, cereals, hides and skins, animals, and animal produce, petroleum, metals, colonial products, &c. ; E. Green and dried fruit, shumac, sulphur, oils, manna, tartar, lemon juice, rags, wine, &c. Accn. 9 to 10 fms of water in bay. Vessels drawing 18ft can anchor at the mole. There is a a hydraulic dock 287 feet in length, and three graving docks. Charges. Port charges. on a vessel 275 tons, £15 165 8d. Pilotage. Optional, but if a pilot is required, only an authorised one can be called. From 12/8 for vessels up to 50 tons to £2 3s 6d for vessels of 401 to 500 tons. For every 100 tons over 500, 2/45 extra. PANAMA, U.S. Columbia. Lat. 8° 56' 56" N ; long. 79° 3L

12" W. Pop. About 13,000. Tr.-I. Coal, confectionery, olive oil, clothes, candles, wheat, salt meat, iron manufactures, perfumery, &c. ; E. Mother-of-pearl, pearls, leather, skins, caoutchouc, tortoiseshell. Accn. The inner anchorage is in 2 fms, about a mile off the shore, the outer is in 31 to 4 fms, about 2 miles off, bottom of mud. Vessels drawing 2oft can coal at Perico, an island in the bay. Pilotage. No pilot is necessary. PARA (or BELEM), Brazil. Lat. 1° 30' S. ; long. 48° 23'

W. Pop. 35,000. Tr.-I. Provisions, petroleum, furniture, lumber, dry goods, hardware, wines, &c.; E. Indiarubber, annatto, nuts, balsam, hides, cocoa, sugar, piassaba, sarsaparilla, &c. Accn. The port is about 70 miles from the mouth of the river, but is accessible to the largest ships. Vessels moor about of a mile from the town in 12 to 22ft. of water. At the wharves there is a depth of 6 to 7st. at low water. There is a gridiron for vessels. up to 600 tons. Cranes to lift up to 20 tons. Charges. Expenses of a vessel 335 tons, cargo in and ballast out, about £80. Pilotage. Compulsory both ways. In, about £7, out £9. PARAIBA, Brazil. Lat. 7° 06' S; long. 34° 53' W. Pop.

13,000. Tr.-E. Cotton, sugar, hides, cotton-seed, &c. Accn. 18ft can be carried over the bar at LW. Vessels drawing not more than 143ft when loaded can load alongside wharf, In extra springs vessels drawing 15}ft can leave the wharf. Pilotage. For a vessel of 200 reg. tons; 12ft dft. £4 145 6d, and for every fraction of 50 tons or foot of water increase, e.g., a vessel of 205 tons, 12ft rin dst. pays £5 3s 6d. Charged both in and out. Vessels remaining in quarantine at Cabedello pay one-third less, and vessels going up to the Bridge of Sanhana one-third more. PARRSBORO, N.S. Lat. 45° 23' N; long. 64° 20' W. Tr.

-E. Lumber. Accn. Safe port for a vessel drawing 16ft at ST. Vessels load alongside wharves on a mud bottom. A pilot should be engaged. Charges. Dues and charges. on a vessel of 400 reg. tons about £10 8s 4d. Wharfage 2/1 day.

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PASAGES, Spain. Lat. 43° 19' 20" N ; long. 1° 55' 20" W.

Pop. 3,000. Tr.-I. Coals, cotton, &c. ; E. Ore, cider, wine, minerals, fruit, &c. Accn. Anchorage depth of 3oft at LW. Vessels of 1,000 tons can discharge alongside of quay. Pilotage. Compulsory for coming in, but not for going out. For coming in at San Sebastian and Pasages :

rst Boat. and Boat. Pilot Dues.

s. d. 6 s. d. S. d.
Under 50 tons
From 50 to 100 tons

4 45

Above 200 tons
From the anchorage to the wharf :-
Under 50 tons

o 9 7

o 9 7
From 50 to 100 tons
Above 200 tons

1 13 63 For going out during the day

ist Boat.

Pilot Dues. £ s. d.

S. d.
Under 50 tons

8 51 8 4
From 50 to 100 tons ...........

Ι τον u 100 to 200

8 4 Above 200 tons


8 4 For going out during the night :

Under 50 tons
From 50 to roo tons............

I 5 To
100 to 200
Above 200 tons

1 17 81 Towage. The first boat reaching the vessel must be employed, each man in her is paid 2/6 sterling. The employment of other boats is optional, and the pay only 1/10 man. PATRAS, Greece. Lat. 38° 14' 47" N ; long. 21° 44' 47" E.

Pop. About 40,000. Tr:-1. Woollen and cotton manufactures, grain, sugar, timber, staves and hoops. sulphur, iron, hides and leather, coffee, codfish, rice, and coals; E. Currants. Accn. There is a mole about Sooft long, at the extremity of which the depth is about 4 fms. Charges. Vessels under 5 tons are free of dues. Port dues jd ton if cargo only landed, ifd if landed and shipped. Water plentiful, 1/6 per 60 galls. Com. and brokerage 5%. Pilotage. From 8/8 to 20) for bringing the vessel to her anchorage. PENANG, India. Lat. 5° 24' 30" N ; long. 100° 21' E.

Pop. 111,000. Tri-1. From England various kinds of piece goods, iron, cutlery, &c. ; E. Pepper, arrow. root, cassava flour, cloves, coffee, fish-maws, hides, horns, sugar, tapioca, tortoiseshell, betel nuts, rattans, gutta percha, indiarubber, tobacco, and some gold brought by the Malay proas from the main Sumatra, Java, and other islands to the eastward, and for which they receive opium, piece goods, arrack, dollars, &c. Accn. The anchorage is considerably sheltered. Charges. Light dues, there is a small charge for lights, but no anchorage dues, or other port dues. Pilotage. No pilot dues when vessels enter by the north channel, but by the south channel they pay 3/14d per foot. On a vessel of 268 tons leaving Penang with a miscellaneous cargo of pepper, sugar, rattans, &c., in or out (optional) £1.

PENCO.-See Concepcion Bay.
PENSACOLA, U.S. Lat. 30° 20' N ; long. 87° 16' W. Pop.

11,000. Tr. - I. Salt, beer, coal, sugar, molasses, and West Indian fruits ; E. Pitch pine, sawn and hewn timber, and lumber. The timber is principally exported to Great Britain. The charters are usually made in England, vessels carrying coals to the West Indies and Mexico, and from thence in ballast to Pensacola. Lumber is largely exported to Cuba and other West Indian islands, Mexico, Brazil, and the river Plate. Accn. At mean HW. depth on bar is 22ft near the channel, from the bar to the dockyard average depth is 28st, and from the latter to town 3rft ; alongside the wharves at Pensacola the depths vary from 16ft to 20ft. Charges. On vessel of 636 reg. tons, ballast in and cargo out £404. Pilotage. 6 to cost dft. 12/81; 10 to 14ft dft. 16/11; 14 to 20ft dft. £l is lid ; 20 and upwards £1 55 44d foot. Towage. From outside bar 7$d, inside bar 5d, to sea, loaded rod ton. PERNAMBUCO, Brazil. Lat. 8° 4'S; long. 52° W. Pop.

120,000. Tr.-I. Cotton and linen clothes, hardware, cutlery, silks, wine, flour, salt fish, &c.; E. Cotton, sugar, rum, hides, and dyewoods. Accn. No vessel drawing more than 14}ft can enter at NT., or more than 18jft at ST. The great bar has 2oft over it at HWST. Immediately northward of the "Recife," outside the harbour, is a basin called the “Poço,” or Well, having a depth of 2oft at LW. Here vessels of more than 14ft dft. lighten to go inside and take in the last part of their cargoes. Charges. Average on vessel with cargo, in and out, about 2 i 2s 6d reg. ton. Cost of victualling and repairing vessels is heavy. Dues and charges on vessel drawing 13 ft £180. Pilotage. On vessel of 237 reg. tons, cargo of fish in and sugar out, 13}ft dft., pilotage inwards and mooring £12 16s 6d, outwards £11 8s. Towage. Inward and outward the same, but not compulsory. For the first English or American 100 tons 63.75 6d ; and for each ton in excess about 2 d. For the use of hawser, if furnished by the tug, 20 per cent. is added to the above. For towing a lighter to where the vessels usually anchor and bringing it back £5 125 6d. PESARO, Italy. Lat. 43° 55' N ; long. 12° 54' E. Pop.

20,854. Tr.-E. Wine, olives, silk, and glass bottles. Accn. Vessels of oft draught anchor inside entrance, between two jetties ; vessels of larger draught in 5 to 6 fms. in fine weather. Charges. Port dues 8d ton. PHILADELPHIA, U.S. Lat. 39° 57' N ; long. 75° 10' W.

Pop. About 1,000,000. Tr.-I. All kinds of general merchandise; E. Breadstuffs, provisions, petroleum, cotton, tobacco, oilcake, staves, &c. Accn. Has an excellent harb. capable of receiving the largest vessels afloat ; 27ft of water at HT. Three graving docks 462st, 220st, and 125ft long respectively, and three patent slip railways. Shears to lift 90 to 100 tons. Charges. Wharfage dues 167, (ship) barque, &c. 12/ per day. Pilotage. Varies according to distance and dít. Minimum: inwards izst dft. £8 ios 9d; outwards 12ft dft. £7 125 3d. Maximum : inwards 27st dft. £26 2s 6d ; outwards 27ft dft. £17 25 7d. Every pilot detained by master, owner, or consignee, or by the ice, is entitled to 12/84 day. Every pilot obliged by the ice or stress of weather to proceed to another port is entitled to pilotage, and if there discharged to 4d for every mile he has to travel home. Every vessel obliged to receive a pilot is required to pay £2 25 34d winter pilotage from Nov. I to April 1, both days inclusive, except such vessel is towed by steam to or from the buoy of the Brown. Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Russian and South American ships pay 10/8 in addition to other pilotage. Towage. Varies according to distance and

tonnage, for 164 miles, 70 tons 9d ton, to 1,300 tons and apwards 510 ton; to 103 miles, 70 tons, 2/2 ton, to 1,300 tons and upwards, 1/51 ton. PHILIPPEVILLE, Algiers. Lat. 36° 53' N; 6° 54'. E.

Pop. 28,000. Tr.-I. Coal, timber, manufactured goods ; E. Barley, wheat, wool, wine, fruits. Accn. Vessels of 16 st dft. can load alongside quays. Pilotage. Sailing ships about id per ton, steamers half

. Eng. Broker. A. Ricoux. PICTOU, N.S. Lat. 45° 41'_25" N ; long. 62° 39' 26"

W. Pop. 4,000. Tr.-E. Coals, produce, &c. Accn. There are three good loading places at which steamers of 1,700 to 1,900 tons load. The harbour is a good and safe one, easy of access to strangers. Vessels drawing 22ft can cross bar at HW. Charges. Labour 5/24 to 6/3 day. Ballast 2/1 ton. Harb. dues Id ton. Hospital id ton. Water d gall. Coals cheap. Wharfage on goods landed fd barrel bulk. No light dues. Pilotage. 80 and under 150 tons, in £i 5s, out 16/4 ; 150 and under 300, in £2 is 8d, out to 55; 300 and under 400, in 62 ios, out £I 135 40 ; 400 and under 500, in £2 185 4, out kl 17s 6d ; 500 and under 600, in £3 2s 6d, out £2 is 80 ; 600 and under 800, in £3 6s 8d, out £2 55 rod; 800 and under 1,000, in 63 tos rod, out £2 ros; 1,000 and upwards, in id, out id ton. All steamers rated at net tonnage. After coming to in the harb., all vessels requiring pilots in going up to the loading wharves at the east or middle rivers pay an additional sum of 1/04d foot dft., and the same down the said rivers. Vessels bound in and spoken to by a pilot pay half pilotage, if his services are not required. Vessels bound out and not requiring a pilot pay half pilotage to the Pilotage Authority. Steamers in or out pay the same as sailing vessels. Vessels making the harbs. are free from compulsory pilotage inside an imaginary line drawn from Cole's Point to McKenzie's Head. The Pilotage Authority may remit compulsory pilotage dues to steamers carrying Her Majesty's mails, in whole or in part. Towage. Ifd ton from outside. In harb. for mooring £l os rod, or by agreement. PILLAU, Germany. Lat. 54° 33' 39" N ; long. 19° 52' 30° E.

Pop. 4,000. Accn. About poft on the Pillau bar. The depth in the channel from Pillau to Königsberg is from II to 13ft. Pilotage. See Königsberg. Towage. See Königsberg. PIRÆUS, Greece. (Athens.) Lat. 37° 56' 10'_N; long.

23° 38' 40° E. Pop. 35,600. Accn. The port is capable of holding the largest vessels. A floating dry dock. Charges. Moderate. Pilotage. In and out and mooring 60/. There is no fixed tariff, and an agreement should be made. PISAGUA, Peru. Lat. 19° 32' S. ; long. 70° 15' W. The

bay is deep, and vessels can anchor close inshore in 20 to 30 fathoms. The anchorage is good, and, as a rule, there is little swell in the bay. Vessels are discharged and loaded by launches, which in their turn are unloaded by boats or balsas. Charges. Mooring about id. per ton. Ballast about 60 per ton. POINT DE GALLE, Ceylon, Lat. 6° 1' N; long. 80° 14' E.

Pop. 10,000. Tr.-I. Rice, coal, &c. ; E. Coffee, cinnamon, cocoanuts, cocoanut oil, arrowroot, curry, stuffs, glue, dried and salted fish, hides, elephants, plumbago, pearls, &c. Acen. There is sufficient water for the largest ships, bat the harb. is plentifully dotted with rocks. Small vessels drawing 6ft of water can anchor at the end of the pier at LW. Charges. There is no charge for tonnage or harb. dues for vessels coming to the port seeking or sailing in ballast. Pilotage. In and out 600 tons and upwards £3; 400 and under 600, £ 2 58; 200 and under 400, £i ros. ; 100 and under 200, £ 1 25. Pilots detained on board any vessel longer than 48 hours are entitled to claim 8/ for every day's detention after that time. POINTE-A-PITRE, Guadaloupe, W.I. Lat. 16° 20' N;

long. 61° 20' W. Pop. 18,380. Accn. Spacious harb., 36ft, in the channel. Vessels drawing 26ft may lie close to the town; vessels drawing 14ft can discharge at the quay. Charges. Vessels trying the markets may come in free of all charges. Pilotage. On three vessels as follows:-In and out, 190 tons 65 145 3d ; 291 tons £7 163 ; 449 tons £9 175 6d. Towage. By steamer, minimum 64 ; up to 1,000 reg. tons 4fd ton; every ton over, 21d. By rowboat and four hands, £1.Eng. Brokers, Ferlande, Maillard, Thionville. POMERON, Portugal. Lat. 37° 10' N; long. 7° 15' W.

Pop. 4,000. Tr.-E. Sulphur,ore, &c. Accn. Vessels drawing 16ft have reached Pomeron. Charges. Port charges on a vessel of 414 tons reg. (including pilotage over the bar up and down river) about £u. Total expenses of a vessel of 400 tons loading sulphur-ore (including pilotage and towage both ways) POKBICHERRY, India. Lat. 11° 56' N ; long. 79° 50' E.

Pop. 60,000. Tr.-E. Indigo, rice, tobacco, cotton. Accn. Anchorage in 6 or 8 fms, 4 mile from town. Charges. Tonnage dues ad per ton ; light dues idd per ton ; anchorage dues 1/ per ton. PONTA DELGADA, St. Michaels, Azores. Lat. 37° 45'

N; long. 25° 41' W. Pop. 23,000. Tr.-I. Coals, dry goods, hardware; E. Oranges, emons, wheat, Indian corn, wines, beans, potatoes. Accn. Anchorage in 15 to 30 fms. There is a mole, inside of which vessels of any size can lie in comparative safety. Floating dock, capable of raising a vessel of 1,400 tons. Charges. On a vessel of 100 tons about £30. Pilotage. Vessels of less than 200 tons, 10/10; less than 400 tons, 13/6; less than 800 tons, 1616; less than 1,200 tons, 17/10; over 1,200 tons, £i 25. 6d. PORT ADELAIDE, South Australia. Lat. 34° 56' S;

long. 138° 36' E. Pop. 30,000. Tr. -E. Wool, wheat, bark, gold, copper and lead ores, salted hides, tallow, gums, wine, fruit, &c. Accn. 22ft on the outer bar at LWOŠT., and 2oft on the inner bar. Average rise and fall at ST. 8 ft. The wharves at Port Adelaide are about two and a half miles long, the depth alongside varying from 18ft to 24ft at LW. Charges. Light dues id reg. ton, in or out. Wharfage 3d reg. ton. Expenses of a vessel of 1,000 tons reg. £102, including light dues, wharfage dues, pilotage in and out, and harb. pilotage (optional). Dft. of water has nothing to do with these charges. Pilotage. Compulsory : Every vessel taking a pilot, not ex. 100 tons, in or out £2 ios, for every reg. ton above 100 tons, in or out ifd, provided that in any case the pilotage of any vessel does not exceed 29, reduced by one-fourth with steam vessels or sailing vessels towed by steamtugs, or part of distance

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