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Coefficient

of Fineness.

Corresponding Height of Freeboard Amidships, measured from Top of Deck at Side.

Moulded Depth and Length.

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A. Correction in inches for a change of 10 ft. in the length. TABLE D.--(Continued.) Table of Reserve Buoyancy and Freeboard for First-class Sea-going Iron and

Steel Sailing Vessels (in Salt Water).

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[From the Annual Report of the British Iron Trade Association.]

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RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS AMÖNG ENGLISH-SPEAKING COMMUNITIES OF THE WORLD. Episcopalians 21,305,000 Congregationalists

5,750,000 Methodists 16,000,000 Unitarians

900,000 Roman Catholics 14,600,000 Free Thought

1,250,000 Presbyterians

10,650,000
Minor sects

2,500,000 Beptis:s

8,195,000 Of no particular religion 10,000,000

SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE NON-OFFICIAL MEMBERS OF THE LOADLINE COMMITTEE.

(EXTRACT.] If a compulsory loadline should be resolved upon, it will be necessary to apply the same limitations to vessels under foreign flags as to our own vessels when loading in this country or in the Colonies of Great Britain. We allude to this, which would seem indeed to be an obvious necessity, because it has been brought be: fore us in evidence that foreign vessels are frequently grave offenders in respect to over loading. It will be for your Grace's consideration whether it may be possible to establish an understanding with the leading maritime powers on this subject, but at all events it will, in our opinion, be impossible to enforce compulsory loadlines on the merchant ships of this country without at the same time requiring their application in British and colonial ports to ships under other flags competing with them.

It will be essential, if a compulsory loadline is to be enforced, to constitute a public authority competent to administer such a measure in a manner that will command the fullest confidence. It has been carefully pointed out in the report of the Committee that the tables which are now submitted must be applied with very great skill, care, and judgment.” It will therefore be necessary to secure some system of administration capable of giving due and well-considered effect to the principles embodied in these tables, not only by a just application of such principles to the many and various types of ships which at present exist, but also by their adaption to future changes and development which are certain to ensue from the progress of naval architecture.

In our judgment, it would only tend to failure to entrust the task which we describe to any purely official administration, however excellent. The duty of assigning compulsory loadlines, if it is to be undertaken, must, we consider, be entrusted to some body of a more representative character, which should consist not only of officials, but also of gentlemen who as shipowners, naval architects, seamen, and perhaps underwriters would bring to bear on this work great knowledge and experience, and who, by reason of that knowledge and experience, and also of their high standing in their several professions, would ensure such a fulfilment of the duty confided to them as would command the confidence of the country. We do not intend to imply that the authority or council which we suggest should be independent of the Minister responsible to Parliament. E. J. Reed, F. Elgar, B. Martell, W. Denny, W. Gray, T. B. Royden, R. Duncan, J. Laing, T. Sutherland, J. Dunn.

ANTIQUITY OF THE MARINER'S COMPASS.
The earliest mention of the Compass in Europe is in the work of Guigit de
Povins, a French Poet, written in 1180, and quoted by Claude Fauchet in his
Recuil de l'origine de la langue et poesie Francois.'

“Par le virtue de la manete
Ou'il fers volenter se joint,
Quant il nuis est tenebre et brune,
Con ne voit estoile ne lune,
Parce sont il mariner ceinte,

De la droit voit tenir." Which would appear to dispose of the claim of the Venetians--that it was introduced from China by their countryman, Marco Polo, A.D. 1260, and the claims of the Neapolitans, who assert that it was discovered by John de Gioga, of Amalfi, about the year 1302.

RELATIVE PRICES OF COALS. The Ton of 20 cwt.-The Imperial Chaldron of 251 cwt.-The Newcastle

Chaldron of 53 cwt.

Per Per NewPer

castle Imperial Ton.

Chaldron Chaldron

Per Per New-
Per

castle
Imperial
Ton.

Chaldron Chaldron

Per Per New
Per
Ton.

Imperial castle
Chaldron Chaldron

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5 3.60 99 12 57 | 25 Ioo5 2 1042 5 1155 10 O 12 9'00 26 6'00

17 9 3 2'25

IO 3 13 0·82 27 I'95
3 6*07 7 3'45 IO 6 13 465 27 9.90
3 9'90 7 11 40

13 8:47 28 5985) 18 6
4 172
8 7:35
II O 14 0'3029

180
4 5'55 9 3.30

14 4'12 29 975 19 O 4 9'37 91'25

14 795 30 5*70 19 3 5 120 10 7'2011 9 14 1177 31 1'65 19 6 5 5'02 | 11

3'15 12 O 15 3.60 31 9'60 19 9 5 8.8511 III

12 3

15 742 32 555 20 O 6 0 67 12 7'05 1 2 6 15 11'25 33 150 20 3 6 4.50 13 3'00

16 3'07 33 9:45 20 6 6 8*32 13 10 95

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16 6990 34 5'40 20 9
7 0'15 14 690 13 3 16 10'72 35 1935 21 O
7 3'97 15 2085 13 6 17 2'55 35 9'30

21 3
7 7'80 | 15 10'80 13 9 17 6'37 36 5'25 21 6
7 1162 16 6*75 14 0 17 10'20 37 120
8 3'45 17 270 14 3 18 2'02 37 9'15 22 O
8 727 17 10'65 14 6 18 5*85 38 5*10 22 3
8 11'10 18 6*60 14 9 18 967 39 1'05 22 6
9 2'92 19 255 15 o 19 1'50 39 9'00 22 9
9 6975 19 10 50 15 3 19 5'32 40 4'95 23 o
9 TO'57 20 6'45 15 6 19 9'15 41 0'90 23 3
10 2'40 21 2'40 15 9 20 0'97 41 8*85 23 6
10 622 21 10835 16 о 20 4.80 42 4*80 | 23 9
10 10'05 22 6'30 16 3 20 8 62 43 0*75 24 O
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S. d.

S. d. 22 3'75 46 4'50 22 757 47 0'45 22 11'40 47 8.40 23 3'22 48 4'35 23 7'05 49 0'30 23 10*87 49 8:25 24 270 50 4'20 24 6'52 51 0'15 24 10'35 | 51 810 25 217 52 4'05 25 6'00 53 o'oo 25 982 53 795 26 1.65 54 3'90 26 5'47 54 1185 26 9*30 55 780 27

11256 375 27 4'95 56 11.70 27 8.77 57 765 28 0'60 58 3660 28 4'4258 11'55 28 8'25 59 7'50 29 0'07 00 3945 29 3'90 60 11.40 29 772 61 7'35 29 11°55 62 3.30 30 3'37 62 11-25 30 7.20 63 7'20 30 1I'02 64 3:15 31 285 64 11 10 31 6*67 65 7'05 31 10*50 66 3'00

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6

QUANTITIES OF COALS, CINDERS, AND Patent Fuel ExPORTED

FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND) BRITISH SETTLEMENTS ABROAD IN 1887, 1888, AND 1889. 1887

1888

1889 Tons.

Tons

Tons. Total 24,460,967

26,968,462

28,956,445

COAL OUTPUT

UNITED KINGDOM.

Year.

No. of
Collieries.

Total of the

United
Kingdom.

Year.

No. of
Collieries.

Total of the

United Kingdom.

1871 1872 1873 1875 1877 1880

2,760 3,001 3,527 3,933 4,112 3,904

117,264,028 123,492,316 127,011, 747 131,867,105 134,610,000 146,818,522

1884 1885 1887 1888 1889

3,554 3,488 3,382 3,354 3,389

160,757,779 159, 351,418 162,119,812 169,935,219 176,916,724

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PRODUCTION OF STEEL RAILS.

UNITED KINGDOM.
[BESSEMER.]

Percentage
In United

of Production
On West Coast. on West

Quantity Kingdom.

Coast.

Exported.

Year.

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ANNUAL INCREASE SINCE 1878 IN THE USE OF STEEL FOR
STEAMERS AND SAILING VESSELS BUILT UNDER LLOYD'S

SURVEY.
APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF MATERIAL.

Steel.

Iron.

Year.

Steam,

Sailing.

Steam.

Sailing

Tons.

1878

Tons.
2,682

1,002
1,900

7,486

1879 1280 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887

21,895 41,019 69,269 84.931 65,386 92,549 96,583 195,907

Tons, 243,717

78,411 268,433 354,301 403,644 445,375 274,189 89,104 49,320 24,052

Tons. 66,897 25,603 24,cog 41,190 67,711 68,818 78,011 96,020 58,627 28,150

8,515 8,016 18.431 18,352 14,433

1888
1889

1,209,361
1,215,276

109,526
72,975

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