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ELEVATION OF CONTINENTS.
AVERAGE HEIGHT ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

Feet.
Europe......

670 North America Asia.

1,140 South America

Feet. 1,150 1,100

THE GULF STREAM
is equal to a river 50 miles wide, 1,000 feet deep, current four miles
an hour, with a temperature of 65° Fahrenheit, cooling down to 40°
as it gets north.

MOUNTAINS.
Height ABOVE THE SEA LEVEL.
Feet.
Feet.

Feet.
Ararat..
17,266 Gibraltar

1,432 Pic Blanc

10,205 Ben Nevis. 4,358 Hindoo Koosh .. 20,800 Puy-Dome. 4,750 Bighorn 14,430 Illimani

24,450 St. Bernard Chimborazo

11,006
21,440
Kaa-Mowna

18,400 Sinai Cotopaxi

7,500
19,600 Lebanon.
9,520 Snowdon

3,571 Dawalagiri 26,862 Mont Blanc

15,781 Sorata.

25,250 Egmont 11,433 Olympus 6,500 Teneriffe.

12,036 Everest 29,002 Orizaba 17,371 Vesuvius

3,978

sod 23m

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HIGHEST LATITUDES ATTAINED BY ARCTIC

EXPLORERS.
Year. Explorers.

N. Latitude.
1607–Hudson
1773-Phipps (Lord Musgrove)

8od 48m Oos
1806-Scoresby

81d

12m 425 1827–Parry

30s 1874-Meyer (on land)

82d ogm Oos 1875-Markham (Nares' expedition)

83d 20m

265 1876-Payer

83d 07m 1884--Lockwood (Greely's party)

83d 24m

82d 45m

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A SHIP'S BELLS.

I Bell

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TIME, A.M.

TIME, P.M. 1 Bell

......... 12.30 1 Bell 2 Bells

.......12.30 ......... 1.0 2 Bells

1.0 3 ...... 1.30 3

1.30 4

.... 2.0
4

2.0
2.30 5

2.30
3.0
6

3.0
3.30 7

3.30 4.0

8 (ist dog watch) i Bell

4.0 ...... 4.30 2 Bells

4.30 5.0 2 Bells

5.0 3

5.30
3

5.30 4

6.0
4 (and dog watch)

6.0
6.30 1
6

6.30 7.0 2 7

... 70 7.30 3 8

....... 7.30 8.0

4 i Bell

....., 8.0 8.30

I Bell 2 Bells

8.30 ... 9.0

9.0 3

9.30 3 4

... 9.30
.......... 10.0
4

......10.0 5

...10.30 5 6

... 10.30
....... II.O
6

...II.O
........11.30 7

....11.30
Noon 8

Midnight
One Sailing Knot, 6,174 ft. One Statute Mile, 5,280 ft. (5-6 knot).
A sailor's day commences at 12 noon.

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2 Bells

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RATES OF FREIGHTS ON CERTAIN ARTICLES, AT THE FOLLOWING DATES, IN THE

UNDERMENTIONED TRADES.
(Extracted principally from the Circulars of Messrs. Galbraith, Pembroke & Co.
Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. 29 J'ly Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan. Jan.
1876. 1877. 1878.

1879.

1879. 1880. 1881. 1882. 1883 1884. 1885. 1886. 2887. 1888. 1889. 1890. Grain Freights. --- New York to 7 5. d. S. d. s. d. S. d. s. d. s. d. S. d.

s. d. s. d. s. d. S. d. s. d.

s. d. s. d. United Kingdom or Conti- 8 6 6 6 6

6 6 6 o 6 0

4 9 5 9 4

5 o 3 101 »

4 3 3 3 5 3 5 0
nent (steamer) per quarter..

to 5/
Philadelphia to ditto
8 6 6 6 6

6
6 4/9 to 5/6 5 94 4 9 3 9 4. o 3

4
San Francisco to United King-

o 5 3

9
35
35

47
61 62 6
70

71 40 O

40 о 30 о 31 3 27 dom or Havre (iron sailing

6 42 6 40
to

to
ship) per ton, wheat

37
6

65 o
San Francisco to Continent..

40

52 67

70 71 0

40

36 3 47 6 45 Odessa to United Kingdom 326 to 40 o 37/6 to 18/ to 20/ 22 6 20' to

25 22 6 16/ to 15

ΟΙΙ
6 16 6 to 18

9.21 3 20
and Continent (steamer).. 35/ (Azofi) 40

22 6

18/ Guano Freights.-Chinchas to 267 6 65 o 55

45 45 0 401 to

35/ to

30 0 32 6 United Kingdom.......

52 6

40/
Rice Freights.-Rice ports,
62 6 52 6 50 to 526 40 o 50 to 50 to 526

45 0 40
Rangoon, &c., to United

small small

small

small

0 32 6 35 0 35
iron
Kingdom (sailing ship)

45 0
42/6 to 45

37

6 ship large

large

large Coal Freights (outward ss.)

14/6 to 20 Wales to Aden, per ton weight

27 6 29/30 19 6 16 6 13 6 16 0 17 0 16 6 14 0

19 17 Bombay

3 0 19/ to 23

27 6 30

18 14 6 16 6 17 6 18 015

16 O 22 019 3 15

6
20/
Lisbon

8

8 9 8 6 to

8 3 7 6 6

3 6 6 6 8 6

7
6

7
9/
Gibraltar

10 6
86 to 9 0
93 9 6 96 ΙΟ 6

6 97 7 6

8 6 8 o 8 6
9/
Odessa
14 6 14 6
136 to 14 11 o 15

15 0 13 6

II O 9 3 10 6 8

6 II

O II 6
Coal Freight (sailing vessel).
Wales to Aden,per ton weight 24
21 o 23/24/ 27 o 25 025

19 6
Bombay

23
o 23 o 26/6 to 27/ 25
6 25 6 21

20 0 18 6 18 6

17 o 21 Lisbon

9 0 8 o

9 6

8 0 Madeira

ro 6 to 8 6 9 o 8/6 to 9/ 10

6 12 6

9
6
9

0 10 6 12
11/
Mauritius

25 0

o 28 23 6 6 22 6 22 6 21 017

18

o 23 6 28 0 24 6 Demerara

o 15 o 14 0 15

o 14 6 16 o

12 6 14 015 6 18 Barbadoes 8 6 *

6 * No quotations.

| Equal to about 10/ per quarter.

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TABLE OF COAL CONSUMPTION IN TONS, PER DIEM.

Lbs. per Hour per Indicated Horse Power.

1.H.

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12,000 11,000 10,000 9,000 8,coo 7,000 6,000 5,000

2314 212'1 1928 173'5 154'2 1350 1157 964 77'1 57'9 38'5 1993 17'3 15.4 13 5 n6

3214 2946 267*8 241'o 2142 187.5 160*7 1134'0 107'1 80'3 53'5 26.8

85'7 68 5 514

47'r

910 728 546

2957 271'o 246'4 221 7 197'1 1725 1478 1232 98 5 73'9 49'2 24-6 22'2 1997 172

814

35'3 23'5 11'8

2718 13'9

270'0 247'5 225'o | 202's 18o'o 157'5 1370 112'5 go'o 670 45'0 22'5 20'2 18'0 15.7 135 II2 g'o 6.7 4'5

36 4

2570 2356 2142 1927 171'4 150'0 128-5 107'1 857 642 42-8 214 193 17'1 15'o 12'8 107 806 6'4 43 21

34'2 17'1 154

47'r 236 212

182 164

9'6

24'1

12,000 1285
11,000 11718
10,000 1071
9,000 964
8,000 857
7,000 750
6,000 64'2
5,000 53's
4,000 42'8
3,000 32'1
2,000 214
1,000 1097

900
800 86
700 7'5
600 64
500 5'3
4001 4'3
300 3'2
2001 2'I
100 I'1

'964
80 *857
701

750
60 643
50 *535
40 .428
30 *321
20
10
5)

9.01 1.6 2.8

103

12'8 II2

61'o 40'7 20'3 183 163 14'2 12'2 10'2 81

9'o 77 64 51

12'5 II'I 97 8'3 6'9 5-6 4'2 28

14*8

0.6

1466 127 10'9 91 7'3 5'4

8.81 9.91 1.1 8.11 1.6

3,000
2,000
1,000

900
800
700
too
500
400
300
200
IOO

71 5'9 4'7 3'5 23 12 Io

308-5 282'8 257'1 2314 20597 18o'o 1542 128'5 1028 71'1 51'4 257 23'1 20'6 18'0 154 128 103 77 5 I 26 2'3 2'o 18 I'5 I'2 i'o *771 514 *257 128

9.6

12'3

3'8

77 5'8 38

6'1

214 187 16'1 134 107 80 53 27 2'4 2'1

75 6'o 4'5 3'o I'5 I'3

73

26

71 47

3'6

1.1 2.1

13'7
12'o
10'3
86
6.8
5'1
34
17
I'5
I'3
1.2
I'o

*857
685

514
*342
171

8.1 9.1

2'3

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€,1 II

0.1 006.

1'9

2,2 0,2 8.1

21

2.1

*942 *825 *707

6.1

2'4 2'2 I'9 17 14

0.1

9.1

80 70

8.1 9.1

771

15 I'3

ir '975 835 *696 '557 418 *278 '139

*589 *471 353 235 '118 59

*642

514
385
*257
*128

1'9
17
1'5
13
I

y64
771
*578
385
192

I'I '964 *804 .643 *482 *321

1'4 12 I'o '910 *728 *546 *364 *182

'900 *750 *600 450 '300 '150 75

2.1 S86.

2'o 18 16 I'4 12 i'o *814 610 407 *203 101

006.

17 1'5 I'2 T'o *857 642 *428 214 '107

14 1:1 '942 707 471 *235 '118

*675 *450 *225 '112

I'3 I'o *804 *536

*214 *107 '053

*739 492 *246

40 30 20 TO 5

ogr. og.

*268

19.

69.

S8.

16.

96.

'123

'133

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Note.--To find the consumption of a vessel, say, of 5,500 1.H.P. at 1'4 lb. per I.H.P. per hour, take the 5,000 in the first column, which gives 75'0 tons then take the soo in the same. column, which gives 7'5 tons, and add the two together = 82'5 tons per 24 hours; or, for example, 5,500 I.H.P.X14 lb. X 24 hours +2,240=82's per day.

TABLES OF DISTANCES.

332 Hull

440 Shields
513 Leith

317 Alloa

210

NORTH SEA, ENGLISH AND ST. GEORGE'S CHANNELS, ETC.
SUNDERLAND to M.
SUNDERLAND to M. GLASGOW to

M. Hartlepool. 16 (South about) Londonderry

.........143 Whitby 37 Swansea

690 Sligo Flambro' Head 68 Cardiff

.249 -720 Limerick

4.30 Hull 126 Queenstown 720 Dublin

197 Yarmouth, Norfolk ...180 Dublin

776 Milford

.292 London 310 Limerick .887 Cork

347 Dungeness

300
LONDON to

Swansea

346 Beachy Head.

233 Liverpool

222 St. Catherine (I.W.). 393 Middlesborough

..295 Cardiff

..375 Portland

315 Falmouth

435 Plyn:outh

418 Plymouth

468 Falmouth -545 Dundee

420 Southampton 582 Hamburg 413 Aberdeen

433 | London Nieu Diep

..765 .252 Sheerness

.43 Leith, by Channel ...1063 Amsterdam Canal 258 Dover.....

87 Rotterdam Canal .266 Southampton

214

LEITH to Antwerp

327 Plymouth Ostende 279 Cardiff 526 Dundee

48 Havre -378 Liverpool.. 660 Aberdeen

.85 Brest outside Ushant 627 Glasgow by Channel...766 Inverness... Bordeaux ..896 Amsterdam Canal. 188 Wick

185 Bilbao Bar

...198 Berwick

52 Oporto

1120
LIVERPOOL to

Newcastle

.....115 Lisbon 1295 Holyhead.....

.68 Hartlepool Cadiz 1516 Douglas..

70 Middlesborough Huelva

.138 1496 Dublin

120 Hull Leith

235 114 Cork... 254 Lynn

266 Aberdeen. 137 Dundalk

135 Yarmouth Lerwick

291 314 Belfast North Cape

..140 Ipswich 1230 Londonderry

217

Dover Archangel .. 1877 Barrow

46 Southampton

506 Hammerfest 1205 Whitehaven

-73 Falmouth Drontheim .695 Stranraer.

146 Hamburg Christiansund

489 -590 Ardrossan 170 Stettin

-782 Bergen, N. Channel.. Milford

188 Rotterdam Canal

- 370 SUNDERLAND TO

Swansea
237 Amsterdam Canal.

353 Cardiff

.266 Ostende (North about) Bristol

.285 Antwerp

445 Greenock ...639 Falmouth

322 Troop ...608 Plymouth

..352

HULL to Ardrossan .610 Southampton 470 Christiania

-558 Belfast

...602
GLASGOW to

Hamburg

387 Dublin .690 Ardrossan ...

.45 Rotterdam Canal

195 Liverpool -720 Campbelton

74 | Amsterdam Canal..

.198 Cardiff 880 Stranraer

87 Ostende

.203 Limerick

.808 Belfast ........116 | Antwerp ..........263

...915 Havre

.... 128

348 386

...646

431

-386

SLEEVE, CATTEGAT, BELTS, BALTIC, GULFS OF FINLAND

AND BOTHNIA, SUNDERLAND or SUNDERLAND or

SUNDERLAND or SHIELDS to M. SHIELDS to

M. SHIELDS to M Naze of Norway

.435 Copenhagen

586 Christiansand. 365 Gothenburg

.480 Malmo

592 Arendahl 400 Elsinore -563 Kiel.......

664 Christiania -520 Landscrona

576 | Travemunde .689

-330 Skaw

M.

-720 Skaw

.712

SUNDERLAND Or
Leith to

HULL to

M. SHIELDS to M. Skaw

.465 Uleaborg

.1458 Wismar

.690 Gothenburg -510 Haparanda ...1450 Rostock .684 Elsinore

593 LIVERPOOL to Stralsund .656 Landscrona.

.606 (North about) Stockholm 998 Copenhagen .616 Naze of Norway

...810 Hernosand

1190
Malmo
622 Christiansand

845 Karlscrona -738 Kiel .694 Arendahl

.880 Norkeping. .958 Travemunde

-719 | Christiania

1000 Bornholm N. end. .683 Wismar

.915 Swinemunde

Rostock

-714 Gothenburg .960 Dantzic 860 Stralsund

686 Elsinore.

.1043 Pillau .862 Stockholm.. 1028 Landscrona

1056 Memel

.893 Hernosand .1220 Copenhagen 1066 Libau .903 Karlscrona -768 Malmo

1072 Windau .933 Norkæping .988 Kiel

1144 Riga

,1053
Bornholm N, end
-713 Travemunde.

1169 Dagerort 1003 Swinemunde

742 Wismar..

1170 Port Baltic .1076 Dantzic

890 Rostock

1164 Revel

..1104
Pillau
Eg2 Stralsund

1136 Narva

1209
Memel
.923 Stockholm

.1478 Helsingfors

.II20
Libau
..933 Hernosand

.1670 Wyborg.

1234
Windau
.963 Karlscrona

1218 Cronstadt 1254 Riga

1083 Norkoping .1438 Gefle 1113 Dagerort

.1033 Bornholin N. end ...1163 Vasa .1245 Port Baltic 1106 Swinemunde

1192 Uleaborg

1423
Revel
.1134 Dantzic

.1340 Haparanda

.1415
Narva
.1239 Pillau

.1342 LONDON to

Helsingfors
1150 Memel

1373 Naze of Norway -486 Wyborg

1264 Libau

1383 Christiansand. 511 Cronstadt. 1284 Windau

1413 Arendahl 542 Gefle ...1143 Riga

.1533 Christiania 056 Vasa .1275 Dagerort

1483 Skaw -564 Uleaborg .1453 Port Baltic

1556 Gothenburg .609 Haparanda

..1445 Revel

1584 Elsinore

.692
Hull to

Narva

1689 Landscrona. 705 Naze of Norway 365 Helsingfors

1600 Copenhagen -715 | Christiansand,

400 Wyborg

1714 Malmo

721
Arendahl
435 Cronstadt

.1734 Kiel 793 Christiania

.1593 Travemunde .818 Skaw...

470
Vasa

...1725 Wismar

819 Gothenburg -515 Uleaborg Rostock 813 Elsinore

-598 Haparanda .1895 Stralsund. .786 Landscrona..

.611 GLASGOW to Stockholm.. .1127 Copenhagen

621 (North about) Hernosand 1319 Malmo

627 Naze of Norway 740 Karlscrona .867 | Kiel .699 Christiansand

775 Norkæping .. 1087' Travemunde

:72 Arendahl

.810 Bornholm N. end ...812 Wismar

725 Christiania

930 Swinemunde .841 Rostock

.845 Dantzic .989 Stralsund 691 Gothenburg

850 Pillau .991 Stockholm

1033 Elsinore

...973 Memel 1022 Hernosand 1225 Landscrona

986 Libau IO22 Karlscrona

773 Copenhagen .996 Windau 1062 Norkæping.. .993 Malmo

1002 Riga 1182 Bornholm N. end

-718 Kiel

...1074 Dagerort 1132 Swinemunde

-747 Travemunde.

..1099 Port Baltic 1205 Dantzic

.895 Wismar

IIQ Revel 1233 Pillau

897 Rostock

1094 Narva... 1338 Memel .928 Stralsund

1066 Helsingfors

1249
Libau
938 Stockholm

1408 Wyborg 1363 Windau

.968 Hernösand

.1600 Cronstadt 1383 Riga 1088 Karlscrona

1148 Gefle .1242' Dagerort

1038 Norkaping, 1368 Vasa ..1374 1 Port Baltic

III Bornholm N. end

.... 1093 Uleaborg 1550 Revel 1139 Swinemunde.

1122 Haparanda ..1544 Narva

1244 Dantzic

1270 LEITH to

Helsingfors
1155 Pillau

1272 Naze of Norway ...360 Wyborg

1269 Memel

1 303 Christiansand. -395 Cronstadt 1289 Libau

1313 Arendahl

1148 Windau

1343 Christiania * **********.550 Vasa 1280 Riga

1463

555 Gefle

1903

719 Skaw

*****---..430 Gefle

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