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M.

-4130 | Arica

...

.8845

LONDON LO M.|. LIVERPOOL to

CARDIFF to

M. Hobart Town.... 11280 St. Vincent (Atlan.) 2450 Bonny Honolulu..

..4040 .13330 Sydney, N.S.W. ...10765 Boston, U.S.A. 2900 Jamaica

4210 Valparaiso... 8795 Buenos Ayres .........6100 Melbourne 11250 Wellington, N.Z. ...11795

Caldera .. Monte Video

..9030 .........6170

Callao Natal

9790 .6810 GLASGOW to

Cape of Good Hope 5885 New Orleans ...... 4690 Acapulco

..12105 Cape Horn New York......

7220 -3245 Adelaide ..8780 Coquimbo

.8860 Otago..... 12170 Algoa Bay

.6375 Demerara Panama

3850 ..11350 | Antigua

3865 Halifax, N.S.

..2505 Pernambuco

..9770 Havana

4010 Quebec

2930 Ascension Rio Janeiro

· 3940 Jamaica

4030 5200 Auckland, N.Z.

...12155 Melbourne Rio Grande

.11070 5870 Azores

1495 Monte Video San Francisco .......

5990 13670 | Bahia

-4540 Natal Sierra Leone

..6630 -3000 : Barbadoes. 3040 New Orleans

-4510 St. John's, N.F. ..2205 Belize

4605 New York, ...... St. Vincent (Atlan.) 2525

-3065 Bermuda 3090 | Panama

.....I1170 Sydney, .10840 | Bonny

4205 Pernambuco

......*.36 50 Valparaiso ......8870 Boston, U.S.A.

..... 3065 Quebec

......2750 Wellington, N.Z. ...11870 Buenos Ayres .6315 Rio Janeiro

........1020 Caldera LIVERPOOL to

..9245 San Francisco ......13190 Callao 10005 St. John's, N.F.

...2075 Acapulco.. 11995 Cape Coast Castle ...3905 St. Vincent (Atlan.) 2345 Adelaide

.8670 Cape of Good Hope 6900 Sydney, N.S.W. ...10660 Algoa Bay 6265 Cape Horn -7435 Valparaiso

8690 Antigua 3755 Chagres..

5025 Wellington, N.Z. ... 11660 Arica 5660 Cobija

9525 Ascension 3830 Coquimbo.

ANTWERP to

......9075 Auckland, N.Z.. 12045 Demerara

4065 Acapulco

12170 Azores 1385 Fiji Islands

11755 Adelaide Bahia. 4430 | Guayaquil.. 10705 Algoa Bay

6440 Barbadoes. -3730 Halifax, N.S. ..2720 Antigua

3930 Belize

.4225 Arica

9835 Bermuda .2980 | Hobart Town..... 11315 Ascension

.-4005 Bonny

.4095
Honolulu.

.13365 Auckland, N.Z.
Boston, U.S.A
..2955 Jamaica..
4245 Azores

.1560 Buenos Ayres ...... .6205 Melbourne 11285 | Bahia...

4605 Caldera 9135 Monte Video

6205 Barbadoes

...3905 Callao .9895 Natal .6845 Bermuda

3155 Cape Coast Castle

3795
New Orleans
-4725 Bonny....

4270 Cape of Good Hope 5995 New York

-3280 Boston, U.S.A.

-31 30 Cape Horn -7325 Otago

12205 Buenos Ayres 6330 Chagres 4915 Panama 11385 Caldera

.9260 Cobija 9415 Pernambuco. 4165 Callao

..10020 Coquimbo .8965 Quebec

2965 Cape of Good Hope 6115 Demerara 3955 Rio Janeiro

5235 Cape Horn

- 7450 Fiji Islands .11645 Rio Grande

-5905 Coquimbo.

gogo Guayaquil

10595
San Francisco

......13705
Demerara

4080 Halifax, N.S.... 2010 Sierra Leone

-3035 Halifax, N.S.

..2735 Havana 4115 St. John's, N.F. 2240 Havana

4240 Hobart Town 11205 St. Vincent (Atlan.) 2560 Jamaica. Honolulu .13255 Sydney, N.S.W. 10875 Melbourne

11300 Jamaica 4135 Valparaiso... .8905 Monte Video

6220 Melbourne 11175 Wellington, N.Z.

...11905
Natal.

..6860 Monte Video .6095

New Orleans ....... Natal

4740 6735 CARDIFF to

New York

3295 New Orleans 4615 Acapulco...

11940
Panama

11400 New York -3170 Adelaide .8615 | Pernambuco

-4180 Otago .12095 Algoa Bay.

6210 Quebec

.2989 Panama 11275 | Antigua 3700 Rio Janeiro

5250 Pemambuco..

.9605 San Francisco

.13720 Quebec .2855 Ascension 3775 St. John's, N.F.

.2255 Rio Janeir)

-5125 Auckland, N.Z. .1190 St. Vincent (Atlan.) 2575 Rio Grande 5795 Azores

1330 Sydney..

...10895 San Francisco

......13595
Bahia
4375 Valparaiso..

...8920 Sierra Leone 2925 Barbadoes

3675 Wellington, N.Z. ...11920 St. John's, N.F.......2130

Bermuda

2925

4495 Havana

....12220

4160

4055 | Arica

THE SUEZ CANAL. The Suez Canal was projected by Mons. Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1852. It was opposed by Lord Palmerston, but approved of by the French, Austrian, Russian, Turkish, and Egyptian Governments. The cutting was commenced in 1858, and the first vessel passed from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea on August 15, 1865, and though the first ship of any considerable tonnage which passed through the canal was the Primo (on February 17, 1867), French and English vessels entered in November, 1868; and in 1869 the course was declared suitable for the mail steamers. The official opening took place in November, 1869.

In July, 1872, the Canal Company levied their dues on the gross tonnage of ships, and the British Government demanded an International Conference, which met at Constantinople in November and December, 1873, and accepted certain proposals of the Porte, against which M. de Lesseps in vain protested, and after attempting the closing of the Canal for four days in April, 1874, he gave way.

There are 400,000 shares in this undertaking, and in 1875 the British Government bought from the then Khedive of Egypt 176,602, or nearly one half of the whole. A premium of 124 per cent. was paid for these, the price being £3,976,000, though the actual cost was £4,076,565, a large commission having been paid to Messrs. Rothschild. The present capital of the Suez Canal Company is £ 16,867,000, £8,000,000 in shares and the rest in deben

Dividends, which were only 5 per cent. in 1874, 517 per cent. in 1876, and 6 per cent. in 1879, have advanced up to 17 per cent. in 1883.

The proportions of Canal against Cape voyages are about as 104 to 60. An average of 76 per cent. of the tolls are from British vessels, 9% per cent. sroın French, 4 per cent. from Dutch, and 10 per cent. of all other nations.

One-seventh of our foreign commerce now passes through the Canal, which was 13 years in construction, is 87 miles long and 26 feet deep, and has shortened by one-third all voyages to the East. The British Government, in May and June, 1877, claimed for the Canal international neutrality. In October, 1887, a Convention agreeing to the neutralisation of the Canal was signed at Paris by the representatives of Great Britain and France. The Canal was opened to night traffic (over part of its length only) in the year 1886 to steamers equipped with the electric light, by which the duration of transit was considerably lessened, vessels making the passage in about 20 hours as compared with the average ordinary passage of 36 hours. On March 1, 1887, the entire length of the Canal was thrown open to night traffic, and ships availing themselves of this permission now pass through the Canal with comparative case in 16 hours.

tures.

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The vessels passing through the Canal for the years 1888 and 1889 were as follow

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3,440

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3,425

SHIPPING ACTS.

DIGEST OF LAWS RELATING TO THE CARRIAGE OF

PASSENGERS BY SEA, WITH APPENDIX,

AS EMBRACED IN

"THE PAS NGERS ACTS, 1855 AND 1863."
VOYAGES FROM UNITED KINGDOM.

Title and Scope of Acts.
Section 1, Act 1855. Repeals Act of 1852.
Section 2, Act 1863. Commencement of Act 1863.
Section 13, Act 1863. Both Acts to be construed as one.
Section 2, Acts 1855 and 1863. Short title of Acts and reference.
Section 3, Act 1855. Definition and number and gender clause.
Section 3, Act 1863. Definition of passenger ship.”

Section 4, Act 1855. Ships and voyages to which Acts extend and exemptions.

Section 4, Act 1863. Mail steamers not exempt.

Section 5, Act 1855. Penalty on fraudulently using certificate of exemption, or using fraudulent certificates.

Machinery for executing Act. Section 6, Act 1855. Board of Trade to carry Act into execution.

Section 7, Act 1855. Board of Trade may sue and be sued in the name of their Secretary or one of themselves, and to be exempt from personal liability.

Section 8, Act 1855. Board of Trade to appoint Emigration Officers and Assistants in the United Kingdom for purposes of Act. Governors to appoint in the Colonies.

Section 9, Act 1855. Duties of Emigration Officers to be performed by Officers of Customs in certain cases.

Section 10, Act 1855. Facilities to Emigration Officers to inspect any ship, whether passenger ship or not.

Sections 11 and 17, Acts 1855 and 1863. No passenger ship to be cleared without Emigration Officer's certificate that the requirements of the Act have been fulfilled, or without bond being given to the Crown.

Section 13, Acts 1853 and 1863. Passenger ship clearing out or sailing without obtaining Emigration Officer's certificate or giving bond to the Crown to be forfeited. Matters relating to Ship to be attended to before sailing, Number of

Passengers, Fittings, Stores, Surgeon, &c. Section 13, Act 1855. Passengers to be carried only on two decks. Cabin passengers may be carried in poop or deck house in addition, if their number does not exceed one to every 100 tons of the ship's reg. tonnage.

Section 14, Act 1855. Rules for determining number of passengers to be carried.

Section 5, Act 1863. Number of passengers to be limited only by space, and not by lonnage check.

Section 15, Act 1855. Acts of 16 and 17 Vic., cap. 84, not to be repealed.

Section 16, Act 1855. Two lists of passengers to be delivered by master of every ship before clearance. Returns of deaths and births at sea to be sent to the Registrar-General by Custom House Officers and Consuls abroad.

Section 6, Act 1863. Cabin passengers to be included in lists.

Section 17, Act 1855. Lists of additional passengers embarked after clearance also to be delivered.

Section 18, Act 1855, and Section 7, Act 1863. Penalty on stowaways and those aiding them.

Section 19, Act 1855. All passenger ships to be surveyed. Appeal from Surveyor's report.

Section 20, Act 1855. Regulations as to beams and decks. Section 21, Act 1855. Regulations as to arrangement and size of berths,

Section 22, Act 1855. Berthing of passengers. Single men to be in a separate compartment. Sexes to be berthed separately, except husband and wife, or children under 12 years.

Section 23, Act 1855. Berths not to be removed until passengers landed,

Section 24, Act 1855. Hospitals.
Section 25, Act 1855. Privies.
Section 26, Act 1855. Light and ventilation.

Section 27, Act 1855. Anchors, night signals, fire-engines, compasses, buoys, chronometers to be carried. Provisions regarding boats from beginning of Section to words “ immediate use at sea, repealed by Merchant Shipping (life saving and appliances) Act, 1888.

Section 28, Act 1855. Manning.- Appeal against Emigration Officer's judgment as to efficiency of crew.

Section 29, Act 1855. Articles dangerous or injurious to health prohibited as cargo or ballast. Stowage of cargo and stores.

Section 8, Act 1863. Cattle in limited numbers and under certain conditions may be carried.

Section 30, Act 1855. Computation of voyages for sailing and steam vesels. Board of Trade may declare length of voyage in certain cases.

Section 31, Act 1855. Provisions and water for passengers and crew to be surveyed by Emigration Officer. Like articles of both to be of equal quality. Additional water for cooking.

Section 32, Act 1855. Emigration Officer may mark and direct bad provisions to be landed.

Section 33, Act 1855. Water casks and tanks.

Section 34, Act 1855. Proviso for touching at intermediate ports to fill up water.

Section 35, Act 1855. Dietary scale.

Section 9, Act 1863. Full issue of lime juice imperative only in tropics.

Section 10, Act 1863. Sost bread may be substituted for other bread-stuffs.

Section 36, Act 1855. Size of messes. Provisions to be issued daily before two o'clock, and such as require cooking in a cooked state.

Section 37, Act 1855. Board of Trade may authorise use of alternate dietary scale.

Section 38, Act 1855. Passengers' steivards,

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