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European ports or Mediterranean, and those bound to eastern coast of North America, north of 35th deg. of N. latitude. Lime and lemon juice and sugar to be served out daily at the rate of an ounce per day to each member of crew Penalty provided against seamen for refusal to take same. Medicines and medical stores to be kept on board all ships being navigated between the United Kingdom and places outside it, according to Board of Trade published scale. Lime or lemon juice to be obtained from bonded warehouse, and to be of due strength, and properly inspected. Penalty provided for selling medicines of bad quality, &c. Seamen's expenses in case of illness through neglect of owner or master to be paid by them. Seaman forfeits his wages when illness is caused by his own default.

Accommodation of Seamen on Board British Ships.-Seventy-two cubic feet to be allowed for each man, and not less than twelve superficial feet of measurement on deck or floor, and to be properly constructed and clear.

Rules for Medical Inspection of Seamen.- Board of Trade or Local Marine Board may appoint medical inspector at any port who may examine seamen seeking employment on the application of master or owner. Jurisdiction over offences committed by British subjects on board foreign ships.


Section 5. Ship's draught of water to be recorded by master in official log book on leaving docks, ports, or harbours.

Rules to be Observed in Naming Ships.-Ship's name to be described according to that which she is registered. Penalties provided for breach of Act (£100).

Change of Name.-Application to change name must be made to Board of Trade.

Masters and Seamen.-(See Part III. of Merchant Shipping Act, 1854.) Sections 7 and 8. Survey of a ship alleged to be unseaworthy -in proceedings against seamen or apprentices for desertion or refusing to join-may be demanded by one-fourth of the men belonging thereto, if unseaworthiness, overloading, &c., is alleged. If the number of seamen exceed 20 this survey may be demanded by not less than 5 such seamen. Board of Trade or other surveyor may act at discretion of Court hearing case. Naval Courts may direct a survey of any ship which is the subject of proceedings before them.

Safety. (See Part IV. Merchant Shipping Act, 1854.) In collisions, masters of vessels to give name and port of registry of each vessel to each other.


Measurement.-Sections 3 and 4. Transfer to Board of Trade of duties of Custom Officers with respect to measurement of ships; and to Registrar-General of Seamen of duties with respect to registry of ships.

Passenger Ships.-Sections 5 to 8. Transfer to Board of Trade of powers of Emigration Commissioners. Annual survey of passenger steamers provided.

Pilotage. Powers of Trinity House in connection with pilotage laws and rates in certain districts.

Chain Cables.-Fees and expenses in relation to testing by Trinity House to be charged on Mercantile Marine Fund, &c., &c.


Registry Marks.-Sections 1 to 6. (See Part II. Merchant Shipping Act, 1854.) British ships for future to be marked with name on each of her bows, and name and port of registry on stern; scale of feet indicating draught of water to be marked on each side of stem and stern posts. Board of Trade have power to exempt certain classes of ships. Penalty against owner or master provided for non-compliance. Particulars of clear side to be recorded as well as draught of water. (See Merchant Shipping Act, 1871, section 5.) Foreign ships not to be placed on British register without consent of Board of Trade. Reductions on re-registration of abandoned ships.

Masters and Seamen.-(See Part III. Merchant Shipping Act, 1854.)

Agreements with Seamen.-Sections 7 to 10. Instead of stating nature and duration of voyage as required by section 249 of Act of 1854, may state maximum period and places where voyage not to extend. Compensation to seamen for unnecessary detention on charge of desertion provided. Power of Board of Trade to establish mercantile marine offices, and to hold examinations at ports where no local marine Board exists. Power of Board of

Trade to vary requirements as to boats. Duties of masters in collision, and failure to render assistance or give names of vessels rendered a misdemeanour, &c. Signals of distress, and signals for pilots-penalty for not displaying or improperly using. Right to use private signals on registering same. Notice of apprehended loss to be given to Board of Trade under penalty. Restrictions on carriage of dangerous goods, and forfeiture of same. Section 15, repealed by Merchant Shipping (Life Saving and Appliances) Act, 1888. Miscellaneous.-Sections 29 to 33. Fees in respect of surveys payable to Board of Trade. Board of Trade in legal proceedings may sue in name of any of their officers, &c.


Unseaworthy Ships.-Sections 4 to 12. Sending an unseaworthy ship to sea a misdemeanour. Obligation of shipowner to crew to secure seaworthiness. Power of Board of Trade to detain unsafe ships, and procedure for such detention. Constitution of Court of Survey for appeals. Procedure and powers of Courts of Survey. Liability of Board of Trade and shipowner for costs and damages. Power to require from complainant security for costs. Powers of detaining officers, and supplemental provisions as to detention of ships.

Foreign Ships Overloading.—Section 13. Application to foreign ships of provisions as to detention when loading at ports in United Kingdom. Modifications.

Appeal on Refusal of certain Certificates to Ships.-Section 14. Appeals by shipowners feeling aggrieved provided, or refusal of certificates as to equipment, &c., under Merchant Shipping and Passengers' Acts.

Passenger Steamers and Emigrant Ships.-Sections 16 to 21. Twelve passengers may be carried in any steamer without passenger certificate. Colonial passenger certificates to be deemed valid. Tower of Board of Trade to dispense with survey of foreign ships holding foreign certificates of survey as passenger ships, attested by British Consul. Certain signals, lights, and buoys necessary in all passenger ships.


Deck Cargoes.-Section 23. Space occupied by deck cargo made liable to dues. Tonnage thereof to be ascertained and entered in official log by an officer of Board of Trade or Customs. Penalties for carrying deck loads of timber in winter (arriving between October 31, and April 16) provided.

Deck and Load-Lines.-Sections 25 to 28. Deck lines to be marked on British ships (except under 80 tons register employed solely in coasting trade, ships employed solely in fishing and pleasure yachts). Description of lines. British vessels (with similar exceptions) to be marked with load-line circular discs as defined, the centre of which indicates the maximum load-line in salt water. Disc to be recorded on clearing outwards at Custom House, and in articles of agreement and in official leg. Load-line to be marked on coasting vessels of over 80 tons register. Penalty of 100 provided for offences in relation to marks on ships (see also Merchant Shipping Act, 1890, re Construction of 26th and 27th Section).

Investigations into Shipping Casualties.-Sections 29 to 33. Appointment of Wreck Commissioner by Lord Chancellor provided. Assistance of assessors provided when cancellation or suspension of officers' certificates involved. Power of Wreck Commissioner to investigate cases of distress, stranding and missing ships. Board of Trade fix places of investigation.

Detention.-Section 34. Enforcement of detention and penalty for illegally proceeding to sea with detaining officers on board.

Managing Owner.-Section 36. Name of managing owner or ships' husband to be duly registered at Custom House of port of registry who is under all obligations and liabilities of Merchant Shipping Acts.

Foreign Ships.-Section 37. With consent of foreign States provisions of any portion of Merchant Shipping Acts may be applied by Order in Council to ships of those States when out of their own jurisdiction.

SHIPPING CASUALTIES INVESTIGATION ACT, 1879. Section 2. Rehearing of and appeal against investigation into shipping casualty or misconduct of officers provided.

Section 3. Kules as to investigations into shipping casualties and misconduct of officers. List of assessors to be in force for three years only, and to be appointed under Section 30 Merchant Shipping Act, 1876. Certificates of Officers.-Where cancellation or suspension likely to be involved, two assessors to assist in hearing. Investigations into casualties. Where to be held.

MERCHANT SHIPPING (CARRIAGE OF GRAIN) ACT, 1880. Section 3. General obligation to prevent cargo shifting. Section 4. Precautions against shifting of grain laden in Mediterranean or Black Sea or North America. Carriage between decks prevented except for quantity for feeding cargo in hold. Exemption where feeders are provided. Where grain carried in bulk without feeders one-fourth to be in bags laid upon grain in bulk. Oats or cotton seed not included in this provision, nor ships of less than 400 reg. tons not engaged in Atlantic trade; nor ships laden in Mediterranean or Black Seas provided with compartments in holds and with longitudinal bulkheads or shifting boards; nor to ships in which grain does not exceed one-half of whole cargo, and the rest wool, flax, or flour, or other suitable cargo properly stowed. General provisions for proper bulkheads or shifting boards and safe stowage.

Section 5. Ships laden in accordance with regulations of Board of Trade are exempted from penalties provided by Act.

Section 6. Notice by master of kind and quantity of grain cargo to be given to British Consular Officer or Officer of Customs abroad. Sections 8 and 9. Board of Trade has power to enforce Act. Mode of prosecution and recovery of penalties, &c.


Advance Notes.-Section 2. Advance notes made illegal when beyond one month's wages. (See Merchant Shipping Act, 1889, Chapter 46, Section 2.)

Allotments.-Section 3. Seamen may leave half their wages under allotments to relatives mentioned in Section 169 of M.S. Act, 1854, or may leave allotment payable to Seamen's Saving Bank.

Payment of Wages.-Section 4. Seaman entitled on leaving ship at end of engagement to £2, or one-fourth of balance due himwhichever is least; remainder to be paid within two clear days (exclusive of any Sunday or Bank Holiday) after leaving ship. Delivery of wages account at Mercantile Marine Office instead of to seaman himself at master's option (see Section 171, M.S. Act, 1854). Final settlement of wages may be left to superintendent if seaman consents. Wages in case of non-payment within required period run on until final settlement. In cases of dispute where sum does not exceed £5 superintendent may arbitrate.

Section 5. Penalty provided against persons being on board without permission before seamen leave, 20 (see Section 237, M.S. Act, 1854). This provision may be applied to foreign-going ships by order in Council.

Rating of Seamen.-Section 7. Seamen entitled to be rated A.B.s on proof of certain sea-service.

Section 8. Power of Court to rescind contracts between master or owner and seaman or apprentice.

Seamen's Lodging-houses.-Section 9. Board of Trade may license and approve of bye-laws and regulations made by Sanitary Authority at ports.

Desertion.-Section 10. Imprisonment for desertion abolished, but power of arrest and conveyance on board provided. (See also Merchant Shipping Act, 1889, Section 3.)

Section II. Benefits of Employers' and Workmen's Act, 1875, extended to seamen.

MERCHANT SHIPPING (FISHING BOATS) ACT, 1883. Sections 3 to 12. Application of Act. Apprenticeship to the sea-fishing service, and agreements with boys under sixteen. Sections 13 to 23. Articles of agreement to be made with seamen in fishing service. Sections 24 to 27. and the duties of skippers. Sections 28 to 35.

Deals with the wages and discharge of seamen,

Provisions as to discipline, amenities, and penalties in the sea-fishing service.

Sections 36 to 42. Issue of certificates of competency to skippers and second hands by Board of Trade.

Sections 43 to 47. Enactments relating to deaths, injuries, punishments, ill-treatment, and casualties. Disputes between skippers or owners and seamen.

Sections 48 to 55. Miscellaneous.

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The provisions of this Act, passed in the 1886 session of Parliament, amending in certain minor particulars some of the enactments relating to merchant shipping and seamen, may be learned in the following summary :

Section I gives the title of the Act as above, and recites that it may be construed as one with the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854, and amending Acts, and that this Act and those Acts may be cited collectively as the Merchant Shipping Acts, 1854 to 1887.

Fees on Examinations of Engineers.-Section 2 recites that by Section 7 of the Merchant Shipping Act Amendment Act, 1862, it is provided that fees payable by applicants for certificates of competency as engineers shall be carried to the account of the Mercantile Marine Fund, and that at the time of the passing of that Act the salaries of the surveyors who conduct the examinations were paid out of that fund.

And, further, that by Section 39 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1876, it was provided that the salaries of the said surveyors should be paid out of moneys provided by Parliament; and by Section 4 of the Merchant Shipping (Fees and Expenses) Act, 1880, it was provided that the fees paid by the applicants for engineers' certificates of competency should be paid into the exchequer.

And it further recites that under Section 3 of the Merchant Shipping (Expenses) Act, 1882, the salaries of the said surveyors are charged on and paid out of the Mercantile Marine Fund, and it is expedient that the fees paid by the applicants for examination should be carried to the account of the Mercantile Marine Fund. It is, therefore, enacted that the fees payable in pursuance of Section 7 of the Merchant Shipping Act Amendment Act, 1862, shall cease to be payable into the exchequer ; and all such of those fees as have been levied since April 1, 1883, or are hereafter levied, shall be carried to the account of the Mercantile Marine Fund.

Powers of Colonial Governors re Measurement and Registry of Ships.-Section 3 recites that doubts have been expressed as to the extent of the powers conferred on certain Colonial authorities by Section 31 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854, and it is therefore enacted that the powers conferred by that section on the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or other person administering the Government in a British possession, shall be deemed to include the following powers:

(a) Power to approve a port or place within the possession for the registry of ships; and (b) power to appoint surveyors within the limits of the possession to survey and measure ships for registry or re-registry as British ships, in accordance with the provisions of the Merchant Shipping Acts, 1854 to 1887.

Public Records in Custody of Registrar-General of Seamen.— Section 4 enacts that all documents which, under Section 277 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854, or enactments amending same, are required to be recorded and preserved by the Registrar-General of Seamen, shall be deemed to be public records and documents within the meaning of the Public Record Offices Acts, 1838 to 1887, and those Acts shall, where applicable, apply to such documents in all respects as if they had been specifically referred to in the said Acts. Explanation of Meaning of Lighthouses.-Section 5 enacts that in the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854, and amending Acts, the expres

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