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With this hint given, who can help thinking of Sidney's Arcadia, when he finds Sir Calidore mispending his time among the Shepherds ? Aud when this Knight of Courtesy meets in his paftoral retirement with Colin Clout, and by his abrupt appearance drives away the rural Nymphs and Graces, which makes the shepherd,

" for fell defpight Of that displeasure, break bis bag-pipe quite :"Do not all these circumstances, agreeably to the tenor of this Poem, allude to our poet's leaving the country, and the rural mufe, at Sir Philip Sidney's request? I make no doubt myself, but the Country Lufs described in C. x. ft. 25, 26, 27, is the same as described in his Sonnets, Ixi. &c. Her name was Elizabeth, as he tells us in Sonnet lxxiv. And he was married to her after his unsuccessful love of the fair Rosalind, who seems imaged in that Wondrous Fair (as her name imports) who is fo justly punished for love's disdain in Canto vii. I have mentioned in the notes that Belgurd Castle, in Canto xii, seems from its very name to point out Belvoir Castle : If this is granted, Sir Bellamoure must be the noble Lord of the Caitle, who married into the royal house of York : and this seems hinted at in Canto xii. ft. 4. Another of this noble family likewise married the daughter of Sir Philip Sidney: but how far the story told of Paftorella, who found her parents in Belvoir Castle, may allude to this alliance, I neither affirm nor deny. In these kind of historical allufions Spenser usually perplexes the subject; he leads you on, and then designedly misleads you: for he is writing a Fairy Poem, not giving you the detail of an historian. It seems to me that our poet makes use of the same perplexing manner in hinting at the calumnious tale, then in every good woman's mouth, told of a certain Lady at Court, no less than a maid of honour to queen Elizabeth, and a daughter of Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, who had been too free of her favours before marriage to Sir Walter Raleigh : This Lady he married afterwards, and she made him the most quiet, the most serene, and best of wives. But the reader will not fail to apply this story, when he finds Serena and Timias (in whom all along, and almost in every circum, stance is imaged Sir Walter Raleigh,) both carried to the Hermit's cell, to be cured of their fore maladies that they had contracted by the bite of Calumny and Scandal. This story too he will apply, when he finds Timias under the discipline of Disdain and Scorn, in Canto vii, and viii. The Salvage Man characterised in Canto iv. st. 2, and in Canto v. ft. 2, and 41, was intended to be thewn in a new light in some other part of this Poem, now lest unfinished; and this Salvage perhaps represents, by way of type, the heir of Lord Savage mentioned by Spenfer in his View of Ireland; “now (he says) a poor gentleman of very mean condition, yet dwelling in the Ardes. And the episode of the Infant saved from a bear, and delivered to the wife of Sir Bruin to be brought up as their fon, might allude to the noble Irish family of the Macmahons, descended from the Fitz-ursulas. Thele kind of types and symbols, and historical allusions, the English reader will not fail to apply to many parts of this Poem, when he confiders what Spenser himself tells us, in bis Introduction to B. ii. ft. 4, that there are “ certain Signs by which FAIRY · LOND may be found.Hence the Poem itself, by this pleasing mask, partakes of the nature of fable, mystery, and allegory; not only in its moral representations of virtues and vices, and in what relates to nature and natural philosophy, but likewise in its biftory. Upton.

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Proud Change (not pleafd in mortall things

Beneath the moone to raigne)
Pretends, as well of gods as men,

To be the foveraine


WHAT man that sees the ever-whirling wheele Of Change, the which all mortall things doth

sway, But that thereby doth find, and plainly feele, How Mutability in them doth play Her cruell sports to many mens decay ? Which that to all may better yet appeare, I will rehearse, that whylome I heard say,

How she at first herselfe began to reare Gainst all the gods, and th' empire fought from

them to beare.

1. 9.

to beare.] See the note, F. Q. iii. iii. 45. But I now think beure, in both places, is used for gain, win. See it. 4. · CHURCH.


But first, here falleth fittest to unfold

Her antique race and linage ancient,
As I have found it registred of old
In Faery Land mongst records permanent.
She was, to weet, a daughter by defcent
Of those old Titans that did whylome strive
With Saturnes fonne for heavens regiment;
Whom though high Iove of kingdome did


of their stemme long after did survive:

Yet many


And many of them afterwards obtain'd

Great power of love, and high authority:
As Hecatè, in whose almighty hand
He plac't all rule and principality,
To be by her disposed diversly
To gods and men, as she them lift divide;
And drad Bellona, that doth found on hie

II. 5. She was, &c.] Spenfer here makes Hecate the daughter of the Titans. Authors differ about the parentage of Hecate. Onomacritus calls her, Argon. v. 975. Taplaponais Exain. The Titans were indeed thrown into Tartarus; but it could not be concluded from thence that the Titans were Hecate's parents ; although this, I presume, is the best argu. ment our author could have offered for his genealogy. In this ftanza Bellona is likewise feigned to be the offspring of the Titans; but Bellona was the fifter of Mars, who was son of Jupiter and Juno; or, as Ovid reports, of Juno alone.

T. WARTON. III. 3. As Hecate, &c.] Hefiod, Theog. 411.

Εκάτην τέκε, την σερί σάλων
Ζεύς Κροκίδης τίμησε σόρεν δέ οι αγλαά δώρα,
Μοίραν έχεις γαίης κ. τ. λ. Jo RTIN,

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