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out of the house of bondmen, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Ægypt."
Compare Num. xx. 15, 16. The author here makes the same use of the history as is made in the book of Wisdom, (xii. 19, sq., and xvi.—xix.)
The book of Numbers (xxxvi. 13) expressly includes all of the later enactments of Moses, from the time of the residence on the plains of Moab. It also brings the history down to the last point, (xxvii. 12–23;) so that the Elohistic author, at least, knew of nothing beyond the death of Moses, (Deut. xxxiv.) The book of Deuteronomy leaves us at the same point, (i. 1-5, though it is stated indistinctly, iv. 46;) consequently the speeches of Moses — which it has contributed — have since been appended to the Mosaic history.
The laws in this book are new, not only in respect to the time in which they are alleged to have been given, but in respect to their more modern character. Some of them refer to more modern affairs.
1. Some refer to the temple at Jerusalem, as in chap. xii. xvi. 1–7.4
2. Some relate to the condition of the Levites, while they dwelt in the cities of the rest of the nation, without possessing the cities allotted them in Num. xxxv., and while they had not the tithes allowed them in Num. xviii. 20, sqq.; but had a place at the tithe-feasts, (xii. 12, 18, 19, xiv. 22—29, xvi. 11, 14, xxvi. 12.)' The priests, however, exercised some judicial authority, (xvii. 8—13, 18, xix. 17, xxi. 5, xxxi. 9.)
3. A reference is made to the office of kings and prophets, in the following passage:
Deut. xvii. 14—20. “When thou art come unto the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein, and shalt say, 'I will set a king over me, like as all the nations that are about me;' thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee whom Jehovah thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy brother. But he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Ægypt, to the end that he should multiply horses: forasmuch as Jehovah hath said unto you, “Ye shall henceforth return no more that way." Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites : and it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life ; that he may learn to fear Jehovah his God, to keep all the words of this law, and these statutes, to do them : that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he, and his children, in the midst of Israel."
Reference is made to the same thing in chap. xiii. 1 -5, xvii. 9–22. The expression the priests the Levites,a or priests the children of Levites, deserves notice, (xxi. 10.)
4. Some refer to a later constitution, and later laws of war.
Deut. xvi. 18—20. “ Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which Jehovah thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes : and they shall judge the people with just judgment. Thou shalt not wrest judgment; thou shalt not respect persons, neither take a gift: for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous. That which is altogether just shalt thou follow, that thou mayest live, and inherit the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee.”
Chap. xvii. 8—13. “If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and
a Chap. xvii. 9, 18, xviii. 1, xxiv. 8, xxvii. 9. Compare Ezek. xliii. 19, xliv. 15.
between stroke and stroke, being matters of controversy within thy gates; then shalt thou arise, and get thee up into the place which Jehovah thy God shall choose; and thou shalt come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days, and inquire; and they shall show thee the sentence of judgment; and thou shalt do according to the sentence, which they of that place, which Jehovah shall choose, shall show thee; and thou shalt observe to do according to all that they inform thee: according to the sentence of the law which they shall teach thee, and according to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou shalt do : thou shalt not decline from the sentence which they shall show thee, to the right hand, nor to the left.
“And the man that will do presumptuously, and will not hearken unto the priest that standeth to minister there before Jehovah thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die : and thou shalt put away the evil from Israel. And all the people shall hear, and fear, and do no more presumptuously.”
In xix. 17, and xxi. 2–6, 19, xxv. 8—20, the judges and aldermen are spoken of. Besides, other later peculiarities may be observed, such as the prohibition of worshipping the sun and moon, (iv. 19, xvii. 3,) the punishment of stoning, (xiii. 11, xvii. 5, xxii. 21, 24, xxi. 21,4) which, in the Jehovistic passages, Ex. xxi.- xxiii., is only inflicted on beasts, (xxi. 28, 32,) and in the Elohistic, Levit. xx. 2, 27, is only inflicted on men. However, it occurs in the doubtful passages, Levit. xxiv. 16, 23, Num. xv. 35. The name feast of tabernacles (xvi. 16) belongs to the same class.
Now, since these things are so, it remains the most probable that these laws — contained in Deut. i.-xxxii. 47 — were brought into their present form after the
o Vatke's view, (Bib. Theol. vol. i.,) and George's, (Die Altern Jüd. Feste,) and Von Bohlen's, (I. c.,) — that Deuteronomy contains the most ancient laws, - has been sufficiently answered by the results of the previous criticisms of the language. See Theol. Stud. und Krit. for 1837, p. 933, sqq.
other books of the Pentateuch were finished, and were then inserted between Numbers and Deuteronomy, xxxii. 48.
4. DATE OF THESE FRAGMENTS, AND OF THE WHOLE
Attempts have been made to prove, from the archaisms and other peculiarities of the language, that Moses composed the Pentateuch. All that can be proved from that argument is, that some of the fragments of which it
• See Jahn, in Bengel, Archiv. vol. ii. p. 578, sqq., vol. iii. p. 168, sqq. Fritzsche, Prüfung, &c., p. 104, sq. Jahn, without examining and sifting, has huddled all together, even åras heyoueva, which could prove little or nothing, (comp. Pustkuchen, Hist. Krit. Untersuch, p. 21, sq.,) especially things which do not elsewhere occur, (e. g. 27793;) technical terms; words which occur in other places, but not often, as 970s, the favorite word of the document “ Elohim:" he likewise assumes arbitrarily that, if a Mosaic word occurs in a later book, it was used from a preference for archaisms, (e. g. 777737, Deut. xxxii. 15, xxxiii. 4, 26, Isa. xliv. 2;) finally, he considers the book of Job Mosaic. Comp. Hartmann, l. c. p. 651.
The following examples have by far the most weight as proof-texts : 876 is used in the feminine, and 7, the proper feminine, only occurs eleven times in the whole Pentateuch; [but 877 occurs as a feminine in 1 Kings xvii. 15, Job xxxi. 11, and Isa. xxx. 33.] 702 [a boy) is also used in the feminine, and 1773 only occurs once, Deut. xxii. 19; but perhaps the same form is used also in Ruth ii. 21, [and Job i. 19.] non occurs, Gen. xxiv. 65, xxxvii. 19. The suffix no occurs, Gen. xlix. 11, Ex. xxii. 4, 26, et al., (and later in poetry, and in Kings and Ezekiel.) and 37, instead of rbx and 7x7; (but comp. 1 Ch. x. 8, Ezra v. 15.) 1755, instead of 721. pns instead of prip; (but comp. Judg. xvi. 25, Ezek. xxiii. 32.) 973, which appears in no other place. 793 904), (only found in 2 Ch. xxxiv. 28, and somewhat altered, 2 Kings xxii. 20,) instead of the usual form. 230 7"Din by, also in Deut. xxxi. 16. 6737?, a non, 79, bem, nga
79. Unusual forms: 1778); Num. xxxii. 30, (Josh. xxii. 9.) 76; Gen. xxxviii. 9, Num. xx. 21. 1177; Gen. vi. 3. 97995; Deut. iii. 7, 16.
is composed, are earlier than others. And, since the book
The real or pretended Ægyptian words," and others,
Besides, the subject matter, the whole character of the
This document was written after the death of Moses,
• Such as non, 28, and others.
m2); Num. xvii. 28. m, for 377"; xxx. 3. The canon laid down by Mo-
d$ 147, 148.