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morning, then they journeyed: whether it was by day or by night that the cloud was taken up, they journeyed. Or whether it were two days, or a month, or a year, that the cloud tarried upon the tabernacle, remaining thereon, the children of Israel abode in their tents, and journeyed not: but when it was taken up, they journeyed. At the commandment of the Lord they rested in their tents, and at the commandment of the Lord they journeyed: they kept the charge of the Lord, at the commandment of the Lord by the hand of Moses."

The history of Isaac, contained in Gen. ix. 20—29 xii. 1, xix. 30–38, xxi. 9–21, xxiv. xxv. 19—34, xxvii. ; Gen. ii. 3, which mentions the Sabbath; Gen. ix. 4–6, where blood is forbidden; Gen. xvii. 10–14, where the rite of circumcision is enjoined; Gen. xii., containing the alleged trial of Abraham's faith ; Gen. xlviii. 13—22, Jacob's blessing on the sons of Joseph; Gen. xlix., his final blessing of all his sons; Ex. xii. 1-28, xul. 1—16, the institution of the Passover.

II. Since the chief design of the theocratical epic poem was to inspire the people with reverence for their sacred laws and institutions, therefore the author of the document Elohim not only, in conformity with the actual tradition, showed how they proceeded from Moses, the lawgiver, who received divine influence, but he also ascribed to him, and in a manner not historical, many later developments of his laws, and additions which seemed necessary to the writer. Thus he sanctioned many laws and customs by assigning them an origin still more ancient than the time of Moses. Where laws are thus referred back to a more remote antiquity, I have called them juridical or legal myths. Such a one is found in Gen. ï. 3—" And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it, because that in it God had

rested from all his work which God created and made ;' and Ex. xvi. is certainly of this same character. The mythical origin of the Passover, (Ex. xii.,) and some others, may be contested. But two things are certain — 1. That the author of Deuteronomy ascribes to Moses a body of laws which were obviously modified after his time. 2. That the author of the document Jehovah has referred certain customs and laws to an origin more ancient than their real date. Perhaps the progressive formation of the Mosaic law is acknowledged in

Numbers xv. 23. And if ye have erred, and not observed all these commandments which the Lord hath spoken unto Moses, even all that the Lord hath commanded you by the hand of Moses, from the day that the Lord commanded Moses, and henceforward among your generations.”

III. In connection with this, a sort of spirit of investigation and combination was also at work. We are indebted to this for the genealogical and ethnographical accounts contained in the Pentateuch. They are designed in sober earnest, and are not without some historical foundation, but are rather the result of fancy and conjecture than of genuine historical investigation. To test the accuracy of the table Gen. X., compare the following passages :Genesis.

Genesis. Chap. x. 23. “And the children Chap. xxii. 21. Huz, his first of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and born, and Buz, his brother, and Gether, and Mash.

Kemuel, the father of Aram.

Chap. xxxvi. 28. “The children of Dishan ...... Uz and Aran.

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7 “The sons of Cush, Seba,l Chap. xxv. 2. “ Abraham took . and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raa- a wife ...... Keturah; and she mah, and Sabtecha, and the sons bare him Zimran and Jokshan, of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak,

25 And unto Eber were born and Shuah; and Jokshan begat two sons ...... Peleg ...... and Sheba and Dedan....... his brother's name was Joktan.

28 Sheba is the son of Joktan.”

The derivation from Cush, Canaan, Elam, and Ashur, is opposed by the history of the language."

To test the accuracy of the other table, compare the following passages:Genesis.

Genesis. Chap. xxxvi. 2,3. “Esau took Chap. xxvi. 34, 35. “And his wives of the daughters of Ca- Esau was forty years old when naan; Adah the daughter of Elon he took to wife Judith the daughthe Hittite, and Aholibamah the ter of Beeri the Hittite, and Badaughter of Anah the daughter shemath the daughter of Elon of Zibeon the Hivite; and Bashe- the Hittite, which were a grief math, Ishmael's daughter, sister of mind unto Isaac and to Reof Nebajoth."

bekah.” Chap. xxxvi. 15–30. “These Chap. xxxvi. 40–43. « And were dukes of the sons of Esau: these are the names of the dukes the sons of Eliphaz, the first-born that came of Esau, according to son of Esau; duke Teman, duke their families, after their places, Omar, duke Zepho, duke Kenaz, by their names; duke Timnah, duke Korah, duke Gatam, and duke Alvah, duke Jetheth, duke duke Amalek : these are the dukes Aholibamah, duke Elah, duke that came of Eliphaz, in the land Pinon, duke Kenaz, duke Teman, of Edom : these were the sons duke Mibzar, duke Magdiel, duke of Adah. And these are the sons Iram: these be the dukes of of Reuel, Esau's son ; duke Na- Edom, according to their habitahath, duke Zerah, duke Sham- tions, in the land of their possesmah, duke Mizzah: these are sion; he is Esau the father of the the dukes that came of Reuel, in Edomites.”

• But see Rosenmüller, Alt. vol. iii. p. 33, 160, 174.

the land of Eaom : these are the sons of Bashemath, Esau's wife.

“And these are the sons of Aholibamah, Esau's wife; duke Jeush, duke Jaalam, duke Korah : these were the dukes that came of Aholibamah the daughter of Anah, Esau's wife. These are the sons of Esau, (who is Edom,) and these are their dukes.

“ These are the sons of Seir, Chap. xiv. 6. “And the Horites the Horite, who inhabited the in their Mount Seir." land; Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah, and Dishon,

Deuteronomy. and Ezer, and Dishan; these are Chap. ij. 12—22. “The Hothe dukes of the Horites, the chil- rims also dwelt in Seir beforedren of Seir in the land of Edom. time, but the children of Esau And the children of Lotan were succeeded them, when they had Hori, and Heman; and Lotan's destroyed them from before them, sister was Timna. And the chil- and dwelt in their stead; as Isdren of Shobal were these; Al- rael did unto the land of his van, and Manahath, and Ebal, possession, which the Lord gave Shepho, and Onam. And these unto them. The children of are the children of Zibeon; both Esau, which dwelt in Seir, when Ajah, and Anah; this was that he destroyed the Horims from Anah that found the mules in the before them; and they succeeded wilderness, as he fed the asses them, and dwelt in their stead of Zibeon his father. And the even unto this day.” children of Anah were these; Dishon, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah. And these are the children of Dishon ; Hemdan, and Eshban, and Ithran, and Cheran. The children of Ezer are these; Bilhan, and Zaavan, and Akan. The children of Dishan are these; Uz and Aran. These are the dukes that came of the Horites ; duke Lotan, duke Shobal, duke Zibeon, duke Anah.


duke Dishon, duke Ezer, duke Dishan, these are the dukes that came of Hori, among their dukes in the land of Seir."

We find less seriousness, and more of a religious and poetical spirit of fancy in the etymological myths, where an account is given of the origin of the names of persons and places. Some of these are conformable to tradition; but others, by their artificial character, betray themselves as the productions of later reflection ; for example, Gen. xi. 9, “ Therefore is the name of it called Babel, because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth." Gen. xix. 22, “ Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar,"6

IV. The religious and didactic design of the writer appears in the didactic myths in their general form, or in the setting forth of religious truths which belong out of the circle of the national and theocratical history; for example, in Gen. i.-iii., and Ex. xxxiii. 12—23.

V. Since the authors of the Pentateuch— who, perhaps, were prophets — found the laws and institutions of the Israelitish nation in the most ancient history, and likewise their rules and forms in the divine plan of the world, they were therefore led, by custom and the necessity of prophetic vision, to throw back into ancient history the prophecy of later events and circumstances, by means of fictitious predictions, and thus to establish a closer connection between the present and the past, and at the same time lay a foundation for actual prophecies of the future. Examples of this are as follows:

« See Vater and Tuch, in loc. Comp. Gen. xxxvi. 15, 18, 22, with xxvi. 18, 40, 41.

6 [Smallness, because Lot said, “ It is a little one."]

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