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this difference, that in one passage Abraham, but in both the others Sarah, laughs.

Genesis. Chap. xxi. 22–32. “And Chap. xxvi. 26–33. “Then it came to pass at that time, Abimelech went to him from that Abimelech, and Phichol the Gerar, and Ahuzzath one of his chief captain of his host, spake friends, and Phichol the chief unto Abraham, saying, “God is captain of his army. And Isaac with thee in all that thou doest. said unto them, Wherefore come Now, therefore, swear unto me ye to me, seeing ye hate me, here by God, that thou wilt not and have sent me away from deal falsely with me, nor with my you?' And they said, “We saw son, nor with my son's son: but certainly that the Lord was with according to the kindness that I thee: and we said, “Let there be have done unto thee thou shalt do now an oath betwixt us, even beunto me, and to the land wherein twixt us and thee, and let us make thou hast sojourned.' And Abra- a covenant with thee; that thou ham said, I will swear. And wilt do us no hurt, as we have not Abraham reproved Abimelech be- touched thee, and as we have done cause of a well of water, which unto thee nothing but good, and Abimelech's servants had violent- have sent thee away in peace: ly taken away. And Abimelech thou art now the blessed of the said, I wot not who hath done Lord.'” And he made them a feast, this thing : neither didst thou tell and they did eat and drink. And me, neither yet heard I of it but they rose up betimes in the mornto-day.' And Abraham took sheep ing, and sware one to another: and oxen, and gave them unto and Isaac sent them away, and Abimelech : and both of them they departed from him in peace. made a covenant. And Abra- And it came to pass the same hain set seven ewe-lambs of the day, .that Isaac's servants came flock by themselves. And Abim- and told him concerning the well elech said unto Abraham, What which they had digged, and said mean these seven ewe-lambs which unto him, “We have found water.' thou hast set by themselves ?' And And he called it Shebah; therehe said, “For these seven ewe- fore the name of the city is Beerlambs shalt thou take of my hand, sheba unto this day.” that they may be a witness unto me that I have digged this well.' Wherefore he called that place

Beer-sheba, because there they sware both of them. Thus they made a covenant at Beer-sheba : then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol the chief captain of his host, and they returned into the land of the Philistines.”

Genesis. Chap. xxviii. 1041 Chap. xxxv. 1–8. Chap. xxxv. 9—15. 19. “ And Jacob went |“ And God said un- | “And God appeared out from Beer-sheba, to Jacob, • Arise, go unto Jacob again, and went toward Ha- up to Beth-el, and when he came out ran. And he light-dwell there; and make of Padan-aram, and ed upon a certain there an altar unto blessed him. And place, and tarried | God, that appeared God said unto him, there all night, be- unto thee when thou • Thy name is Jacob : cause the sun was fleddest from the face thy name shall not be set: and he took of of Esau thy brother.' called any more Jathe stones of that Then Jacob said unto cob, but Israel shall place, and put them his household, and to be thy name. And he for his pillows, and all that were with called his name Israel. lay down in that place him, "Put away the And God said unto to sleep. And he strange gods that are him, 'I am God Aldreamed, and behold, among you, and be mighty ; be fruitful, a ladder set upon the clean, and change and multiply: a naearth, and the top of your garments and tion, and a company it reached to heaven: let us arise, and go of nations, shall be of and behold, the an- up to Beth-el: and I thee; and kings shall gels of God ascends will make there an come out of thy loins : ing and descending | altar unto God, who and the land which on it. And behold, answered me in the I gave Abraham and the Lord stood above | day of my distress, and Isaac, to thee I will it, and said, 'I am the was with me in the give it, and to thy seed Lord God of Abra- way which I went.' | after thee will I give ham thy father, and And they gave unto the land.' And God the God of Isaac: the Jacob all the strange went up from him in land whereon thou gods which were in the place where he liest, to thee will I their hand, and all talked with him. And give it, and to thy their ear-rings which Jacob set up a pillar seed. And thy seed were in their ears: in the place where shall be as the dust and Jacob hid them he talked with him, of the earth; and thou under the oak which even a pillar of stone; shalt spread abroad / was by Shechem. / and he poured a drink

to the west, and to | And they journeyed : | offering thereon, and the east, and to the and the terror of God | he poured oil therenorth, and to the was upon the cities on. And Jacob called south : and in thee that were round about the name of the place and in thy seed shall them, and they did where God spake with all the families of the not pursue after the him, Beth-el.” earth be blessed. And sons of Jacob. behold, I am with So Jacob came to thee, and will keep Luz, which is in the thee in all places land of Canaan, (that whither thou goest, is, Beth-el,) he, and all and will bring thee the people that were again into this land: | with him. And he for I will not leave built there an altar, thee, until I have done and called the place that which I have El-beth-el; because spoken to thee of.' there God appeared

“And Jacob awaked unto him, when he out of his sleep, and he fled from the face said, 'Surely the Lord of his brother. But is in this place; and Deborah, Rebekah's I knew it not.' And nurse, died, and she he was afraid, and was buried beneath said, 'How dreadful is Beth-el under an oak: this place ! this is and the name of it none other but the was called Allon-bahouse of God, and ) chuth.” this is the gate of heaven.' And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. And he called the name of that place Beth-el: but the name of that city was called Luz at the first.”

Exodus ii. 18. I Exodus ii. 1. . [" And when they came to Re- “Now Moses kept the flock uel their father, he said, 'How is of Jethro his father-in-law, the it that ye are come so soon to | priest of Midian: and he led the

flock to the back side of the desert, and came to the moun

I tain of God, even to Horeb.” Ex. iv. 18, and xviii. 1, sqq.]

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Compare, also, Ex. vi. 2–8 with all the corresponding Jehovistic passages in Genesis; but especially compare the following: Exodus vi. 28.

Genesis iv. 26. " And Elohim spake unto “Then men began to call upon Moses, and said unto him, I am the name of Jehovah.” Jehovah. And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, as Elshaddai ; but by my name Jehovah was I not known to them. And I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers. And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Ægyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered my covenant. Wherefore say unto the children of Israel, “I am Jehovah, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Ægyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage; and I will redeem you with a stretched-out arm, and with great judgments. And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be

Ps. xxxiv. cxlv. Prov. xxxi. 10, sqq. Lam. i.

Sometimes two or more verses are connected in greater
strophes; for example, Ps. xxxvii. cxix.

2. Strophes occur distinguished by the refain, (or
6 burden,”) or something similar.

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to you Elohim, and ye shall know that I am Jehovah, your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Ægyptians. And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning the which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, and I will give it you for a heritage; I am Jehovah." !"

Compare, also, Ex. iv. 21—23, with Gen. V.—xi.; Num. xxii.- xxiv., where Elohim and Jehovah are both used, with Gen. xxxi. 9, 16, and others, where the latter is used exclusively."

$ 149.

THE ACCOUNTS PRETENDED TO BE CONTEMPORARY WITH

THE EVENTS, OR VERY ANCIENT.

Some historical marks, which betray a certain acquaintance with Ægypt, have been looked upon as proofs that Moses was the author of the Pentateuch ; 6 as if the Hebrews could not, at a later time, have ac

a See below, $ 154, 156. See Ewald, Genesis, p. 176, sqq., 191, sqq.

6 The following are some of the passages: In Gen. xiii. 10, Ægypt is said to be well watered. Deut. xi. 10, it is implied that Ægypt is a level country, its fields are watered artificially, and that it never is refreshed by rain. Num. xiii. 22, Hebron was built seven years before Zoar in Ægypt. In Gen. xl. 11, 16, an acquaintance with the customs of the Ægyptian court is apparent. Gen. xlii. 9, the unprotected state of Ægypt is alluded to. Gen. xliii. 32, mention is made that the Ægyptians would not sit at table with the Hebrews. Gen. xlvii. 20—26, “ And Joseph bought all the land of Ægypt for Pharaoh; for the Ægyptians sold every man his field, because the famine prevailed over them: so the land became Pharaoh's. And as for the people, he removed them to cities from one end of the borders of Ægypt even to the other end thereof. Only the land of the priests bought he not; for the priests had a portion assigned them of Pharaoh, and did eat their portion which Pharaoh gave them; wherefore they sold not their lands. Then Joseph said unto the people, · Behold, I have bought you this day and your land for Pharaoh : lo, here is seed for you, and ye shall sow the land. And it shall come to pass in the increase, that ye shall give the fifth part unto Pharaoh, and four parts shall be your own, for seed of the field, and for your food, and for them of your households, and for food for your little ones.' And they said, “Thou

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