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7. Because co-existence of ideas in few cases is to be known.

8, 9. Instance in gold.

10. As far as any such co-existence can be known, so far

universal propositions may be certain. But this will go

but a little way, because,

11, 12. The qualities, which make our complex ideas of substances,

depend mostly on external, remote, and unperceived

causes.

13. Judgment may reach farther, but that is not knowledge.

14. What is requisite for our knowledge of substances.

15. Whilst our ideas of substances contain not their real con-

stitutions, we can make but few general, certain pro-

positions concerning them.

16. Wherein lies the general certainty of propositions.

CHAPTER VII.

OF MAXIMS.

SECT.

. They are self-evident.

2. Wherein that self-evidence consists.

3. Self-evidence not peculiar to received axioms.

4. First, as to identity and diversity, all propositions are

equally self-evident.

5. Secondly, in co-existence, we have few self-evident pro-

positions.

6. Thirdly, in other relations we may have.

7. Fourthly, concerning real existence, we have none.

8. These axioms do not much influence our other knowledge.

9. Because they are not the truths the first known.

10. Because on them the other parts of our knowledge do not

depend.

11. What use these general maxims have.

12. Maxims, if care be not taken in the use of words, may

prove contradictions.

13. Instance in vacuum.

14. They prove not the existence of things without us.

15. Their application dangerous about complex ideas.

16—18. Instance in man.

19. Little use of these maxims, in proofs, where we have clear

and distinct ideas.

20. Their use dangerous, where our ideas are confused.

CHAPTER VIII.

OF TRIFLING PROPOSITIONS.

SECT.

1. Some propositions bring no increase to onr knowledge.
2, 3. As, first, identical propositions.

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